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The Lives of the Presidents, with Portraits and Autographs, 

Sketches of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, with 

Portraits and Autographs, 

Sketches of Cabinet Officers and other Statesmen, 

Tables of the Popular and Electoral Votes, 1788-189*. 

Full, Authentic and Profusely Illustrated History ok the Wak of stkk Rebellion, 

incluihm; the Story or thk Southern Prisox Pens. Chronological T.\b;.k 

of the Battles of the Wak, Shetchks of the Officers an;> 

of the Rank and File thai Fought ami Won the 

Batters of the Wak, Ere, Etc., Etc. 




H. H. HARDESTY, Publisher, 




;/ W 

UVM " <H»..WMAN 

Copyright, 1890. 
By H. H. Haruesty. 



The Navy in the War of the Rebellion, with a record of Military 

Events in the Coast States 9 to 76 

The United States — Reviewing Leading Events of each Adminis- 
tration 77 to 144 

The Declaration of Independence and its Signers . 145 to 258 

The Presidents of the United States 1 259 to 35S 

Tables of Popular and Electoral Votes 359 to 3>0 

Sketches of Wives of the Presidents 383 to 482 

Cabinets of the Presidents, with Sketches of Members of Cabinets - 4;j;J to 50U 

Sketch of Patrick Henry 510 to 512 

Sketch of Charles Sunnier 512 t;> 514 

A Group of War Governors 514 to 517 

John Brown 517 to 525 

History of the Grand Army of the Republic, with Auxiliary and 

Kindred Societies 52i> to 54(> 

Lincoln's Oration at Gettysburg 546 

Women of the War , 548 to 552 

Sketches of Eminent Soldiers 553 and following pages to close of book. 

War Scenes — 

Shell Explosion near Port Royal 13 

Assault at Roanoke Island 1 17 

Merrimac Ratniniiig the Cumberland 21 

Monitor and Merriinae — Wreck of the Monitor 25 

Night Picket Patrolling River 33 

The Mississippi at Port Hudson 53 

A Gunboat Fight , 57 

Loading a 15-lnch Gun 61 

Gen. Terry's Headquarters, near Fort Fisher 65 

View in Front of Fort Fisher C9 

Shell Explosion on Ram 73 

Revolutionary Soldiers' Camp 387 

"In the Hospital" 475 

Army Corns Chapel 527 

Chaplain Ministering to the Sick 531 

Contributions from the Country fur Soldiers Yo't 

Writing Home for a Crippled Soldier SSd 


Portraits — 

Gen.W. T. Sherman— Frontispiece. 

Gen. Geo. G. Meade - Bach of Index. 

Admirals. F. Dupont 29 

Admiral David G. Farragut 37 

Gen. Q. A. Gillmore 45 

Admiral John A. Dahlgren 49 

Capt. John Smith 79 

Pocahontas 99 

Meriwether Lewis 103 

Grand Master Randolph, A. F. 
& A. M 123 

Grand Master Brooke, A. F. & 
A. M 131 

Robert Boiling 135 

John Hancock, Elbridge Geny, 
Josiah Bartlett 159 

Robert Morris, Thos. M. Kean, 
Geo. Read 163 

Thos. Hopkinson, Benj. Harri- 
son, James Wilson 167 

Samuel Chase, # Abram Clark, 
Francis Lewie 171 

George Wythe, Win. Floyd, Benj. 
Rush 175 

John Withers poon, Thos. Lynch, 
Thos. Hey ward 179 

('has. Cam dt, Geo. Walton, Geo. 
Taylor. 183 

Stephen Hopkins, Win. F.llery, 
Geo. Clymer 187 

John Adams, Lyman Hall, Wm. 
Paca 191 

Benj. Franklin, Richard Stock- 
ton, Robert Treat P.ine 195 

Phil. Livingston, Wm. Whipple, 
Jas. Smith 199 

Samuel Huntington, Lewis Mor- 
ris, Thos. Kelson 203 

John II. Peyton 207 

Oliver Wolcott, Wm. Hooper, 

Roger Hierman 211 

Arthur Middleton, Button Gwin- 
nett, Wm. Williams 215 

Thos. Jefferson 221 

Jos. Hewes, Richard Henry Lee, 

Francis Light foot Lee 2-7 

John Lewis Peyton 233 

MlMCKLLA S K.( »C8— 

Samuel Adams 239 

Carter Braxton 245 

Geo. Ross, Thos. Stone, Edward 

Rutledge 251 

R. A. Brock 257 

Geo. Washington 261 

John Adams 267 

Thos. Jefferson 271 

James Madison 275 

James Monroe- 278 

John Quincy Adams 2S3 

Andrew Jackson 287 

Martin Van Buren 293 

Wm. Henry Harrison 297 

John Tvler 301 

James K. Polk -- 305 

Zacharv Tavlor 309 

Millard Fillmore 313 

Franklin Pierce—*. 317 

James Buchanan 221 

Abraham Lincoln 327 

Andrew Johnson 331 

Clysses S. Giant 335 

Rutherford B. Hayes 339 

James A. Garfield 343 

Chester A. Arthur 349 

G rover Cleveland 353 

Benjamin Harrison 357 

Commodore. Matt lie w Fontaine 

Maury 431 

Chief Justice John Marshall 463 

Hon. Stephen A. Douglas 479 

Hon. E. M. Stanton 483 

Hon. Gideon Welles 487 

Hon. S. P. Chase 491 

Hon. W. H. Seward 495 

Hon. Oliver P. Morton 4<»9 

Hon. John A. Andrew 503 

Hon. Charles Sumner 507 

Patrick Henry- 511 

Hon. A. G. Curtin 515 

John Brown of Oawatomie -52:5 

John Burns of Gettysburg-— 543 

Major Pauline Cushmau 5.")! 

Gen. A. H.Terry 555 

| Admiral David 1). Porter 501 

Col. E. E. Ellsworth 505 

Clay Statue, N'ew Orleans 
The Kaatskill Mountain 



Old Colonial Cemetery 87 


Miscellaneous — 


Crawford's Statue of Washington 91 

Tomb of Mother of Washington ; Grave of Gen. Daniel Morgan 9c 

In the Boulder Canon 107 

Locoa Falls, Georgia 11 1 

Autograph Bill of Patrick Henry ]15 

Falls Au Sable, New York 119 

Crystal Falls, Yellowstone Valley 127 

Lower Canon, Yellowstone Valley 139 

House in which Declaration of Independence was written 147 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia 151 

Meeting Place of the First Congress 155 

Scene of Mrs. Madison's Night Journey , 395 

Mrs. Adams' Resting Plnce on Journey to France 399 

Jackson Square, New Orleans 403 

North Point of Gardiner's Island 407 

The Yosemite 2- 411 

Point where President Pierce's Son was Killed 415 

Mrs. Johnson's Journey through Tennessee 419 

Scene on the Pacific Slope 423 

Lower Falls, Yellowstone Valley 427 

View of the Grotto, National Park 435 

View in West Virginia 439 

Statue of Henry Clay 451 

The Alamo, San Antonio, Texas 455 

Scene on St. John's River. Florida 459 

Entrance to Hollywood Cemetery 467 

A Group of Free Pollers 519 

Houdon Statue of Washington 547 


. Born in Cadiz, Spain, December 31, I81o'; died in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, November (i, 1S7L'. 




At the beginning of the war the Atlantic and Gulf waters of the 
United States were the cruising ground of one division of vessels, known 
as the Home Squadron. Iu this squadron was also included the vessels 
cruising along the coasts of the West Indies, Mexico and Central America, 
The first commander of the squadron after the war began was Flag-Officer 
G. J. Pendergrast. As the war progressed, and other vessels were fitted 
out, three squadrons were formed. The West India squadron, having 
charge of United States interests in the West Indies, Mexico and Cen- 
tral America, Pendergrast remaining in command: the Atlantic squadron, 
under command first of Flag-Officer Stringham, iu charge along the At- 
lantic coast to Cape Florida; and the Gulf squadron, first commanded 
by Flag-Officer Wm. Mervine, in charge from Cape Florida along the 
Gulf of Mexico to the Rio Grande. 


The navy yard at Norfolk was one of the oldest and perhaps the mo=t 
valuable and important naval establishment the United States Govern- 
ment possessed. It had a magnificent granite dry dock, foundry and 
machine shops; two complete shipliouses and one unfinished; officers' 
houses and naval barracks; tools and machinery of all kinds; material, 
ammunition and provisions of every description. From its stock had been 
launched two sloops-oi-the-line, one frigate, four sloops-of-\var, one brig, 
four screw steamers, and one side-wheel steamer. A vast amount of re- 
building and refitting was done there every year. 

On the night of April 20, 1861, tins stronghold was laid waste and 
abandoned by the United States troops stationed there, eight hundred 
marines and seamen with officers, under command of Commodore C. S. 
McCauley. Shiphouses, storehouses and offices were fired, guna in the 
parks were spiked, machinery brokon up. The sloop-of-war Cumberland, 
•flagship of the Home squadron, United States navy, was lying off in the 


Elizabeth river. To this were carried such stores as could be transferred, 
and the remainder destroyed. .Ships at the docks were set oa tiro and 
scuttled; the most of them burned. The ships were : Line-of-battle ships 
Pennsylvania and Delaware, the tirst in commission as a receiving ship, 
the second carrying seventy-four guns; line-of-battle ship Columbus, 
eighty guns; frigates Karitan and Columbia, fifty guns each; sailing 
sloops Plymouth and Germantown, twenty-two guns each; brig Dolphin. 
four guns, and the steam frigate Merrimac, which alone was valued at 
$1,200,000. The line-of-battle ship New York was in shiphouse A, and 
was also burned. The old frigate United States escaped destruction, and 
soon after the evacuation was taken down the river and sunk at its mouth 
by Virginia troops. 

The Pawnee, United States navy, had left Washington the day pre- 
vious, under command of Commodore Hiram Pauldinti, whose orders were 
to brills off the vessels lying at the Norfolk yard. He was two hours too 
late. The work of destruction had begun, and the Pawnee was put in 
use to tow the Cumberland down the river with the departing Federal 
troops on board. The loss to our government in the destruction was incal- 
culable. The direct value of the property destroyed was estimated by the 
United States Naval Department as §9,760,181; but a greater loss re- 
sulted from allowing such valuable and much needed stores to fall indi- 
rectly iuto the hands of the Confederates. 


In the navv, as in the army, commissioned offices were largely held by 
Southern men before the war. Within a few days after the firing on 
Fort Sumter, of the seventy-eight naval captains on the active list, 
twelve resigned or were dismissed; of the 112 commanders, thirty-nine; 
of the 321 lieutenants, !'■). The traitors had been perfecting their plans 
for months, bided and abetted by those in high places at Washington, 
and they menaced at once Washington, Fortress Monroe and the. Norfolk 
navy yard. On March 4th the Home squadron consisted of twelve ves- 
sels, only four of which were in Northern ports, and of these two were 
small steamers, a third a sailing vessel. Seven vessels wen- safely out of 
the way on tin- coast of Africa, beyond the reach of orders, so that the 
first of these did not reach the coast of the United States until Septem- 
ber !8th, though all were ordered home as soon as possible after March 
4th. Other vessels' were at South American ports and in the Mediterra- 
nean waters. Altogether there were not more than 5,000 nun afloat, and 
these thus widely scattered, when the exigencies of the war we were so 
slow to prepare for demanded a blockading cordon of vessels from Cape 
Hatteras, North Carolina, to the Rio Grande in far off Mexico. On 
April 19, 1861, President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of the ports of 
the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Texas; and by a sihpplemeutary proclamation on the 27 th 


of the same month he included the port* of North Carolina and Virginia 
in the blockade. 

In May, 1861, the Potomac flotilla was organized, and placed under 
Commander James H. Ward, forming for a time a part of the Atlantic 
squadron. On May 31st he attacked the Confederate shore batteries at 
Acquia creek, where it flows into the Potomac, and silenced them, the 
first naval engagement of the war, his boats the Resolute, Freeborn and 
Anacostia. The Pawnee joined his fleet the next day and several attacks 
were made on shore batteries on the Virginia bank of the Potomac. On 
June 27th Ward lauded with a small party of men at Matthias Point. 
He was attacked by a force of several hundred men, retreated to his boat, 
and was killed while sighting his bow gun to return the fire. Commander 
Craven succeeded him, and kept the Potomac open for the passage of 
vessels until October, when the heavy batteries thrown up on the Virginia 
shore virtually made this impossible. The command^ of the only water 
approach to tli3 National capital remained in the hands of the enemy 
until, in 1862, McClellau's advance on his Peninsular campaign forced 
the Confederates to abandon their line of defence along the Potomac and 
fall back on the York, Rappahannock ami Rapidan rivers. 

On August 26, 1861, Gen. Benj. F. Butler sailed from Fortress Mon- 
roe in command of a naval and military force whose destination was se- 
cret. The military force consisted of 800 soldiers conveyed in two trans- 
ports. The naval force was the fifty-gun frigates Minnesota, Wabash and 
Cumberland, Commodore Stringham commanding. Their destination was 
Cape Hatteras, which was found well defended by two new forts, Hat- 
teras and Clark. Bombardment "was begun at ten o'clock on the morning 
of the 2'Sth, and kept "up until the forts surrendered on the 29th. There 
were captured 71") prisoners, 25 cannon. 1,000 stand of arms, and several 
blockade runners in shelter there. A force under Colonel Hawkins was 
left in possession at Hatteras when Butler and most of the vessels were 
sent elsewhere. Late in September Colonel Hawkins sent the Thirtieth 
Indiana Infantry to protect some Union residents of Chicamicomico, a 
small settlement about twenty miles distant. The regiment was attacked 
on October 5th, and only saved by a rapid march back to the main force, 
with a loss of about fifty captured. The Susquehanna and Monticello, 
sent by Hawkins to cover Brown's retreat, shelled the rebels and put them 
to flight. 


The South Atlantic blockading squadron had in charge the inlets, 
sounds and harbors of the coast from the Northern limits of South Caro- 
lina to the Southern coast of Florida. To maintain this blockade the gov- 
ernment saw it was necessary to have and hold some harbor easy of access 
for all vessels in all weathers, to serve us a depot for coal and other neces- 
sary supplies. To reach Hampton Road?, oft' the Virginia coast, for such 


purpose, necessitated the rounding of Cape Hatteras, an ugly affair iu had 
weather, aud in the best of weather a great loss of time. To take posses- 
session of such a harbor a naval aud military expedition set forth from 
Hampton Roads on October 29, 1861. The naval force was under com- 
mand of Flag-Officer Samuel Francis Dupont, and consisted of the flag- 
ship Wabash, which was a steam frigate commanded by Commander C. 
R. P. Rodgers, fourteen gunboats, twenty-two first-class and twelve smaller 
steamers, and twenty-six sailing vessels. Four of the gunboats had been 
built on contract in ninety days, most of the vessels had been hastily 
purchased, and almost every vessel in the fleet was ill adapted to carrying 
batteries, or to withstanding rough seas. The land force consisted of 
12,000 infantry, Gen. Thos.-W. Sherman commanding. There was also, 
on the steamer Governor, (500 marines commanded by Major Johu G. 
Reynolds, U. S. A. 

The commanders of the vessels sailed under sealed orders, not to be 
opened unless the vessels became separated in storms. The exact point 
of attack had been left to the discretion of Dupont and Sherman, the 
" confidential " order of October 12th to Dupont reading: "In examin- 
ing the various points upon the coast,, it ha? been ascertained that Bulls 
bay, St. Helena, Port Royal and Fernandinaare each and all desirable for 
the purposes indicated, aud the novernment has decided to take possession 
of at least two of them. Which ot the two shall thus be occupied will 
be committed to your discretion." And to Sherman, in an order dated 
August 2d, instructions were: "You will proceed to New York imme- 
diately, and organize, in connection with Captain Dupont, of the navy, 
an expedition of 12.000 men. Its destination you and the naval com- 
mander will determine after you have sailed." 

After a stormy voyage the fleet began to concentrate at the entrance of 
Port Royal harbor on the afternoon of November 3d. The Governor was 
lost, but by the exertion of the sail frigate Sabine all the men on her ex- 
cept seven were taken off before she sunk. The Sabine was only saved 
from foundering by throwing overboard her broadside guns. The Peer- 
less, an army transport, laden with stores. Mink, and her crew were res- 
cued by the steam sloop Mohican.. The Belvidere, Union and Osceola 
were also disabled and did not join the met. There were transporting 
equipments and supplies, but uot soldiers. With the exception of these, 
the fleet was gathered at Port Royal before, aud on, the 7th, on which day 
Dupont opened the attack at niue in the morning, himself leading omhis 
flag-ship, the Wabash. The vessels taking part in this action were the 
Wabash, Susquehanna, Mohican, Seminole, Pocahontas, Pawnee. Fna- 
dilla, Ottawa, Pembina. Seneca, Vandalia. Isaac Smith, Bienville, Au- 
gusta, Penquin, Curlew and R. B. Forbes. The last six were purchased 
vessels, the others built for war purposes. The weather had cleared, and 
it was possible to maneuver the vessels at will, and all were kept in mo- 
tion during the engagement, so that the enemy at no time secured a per- 


feet aim, while the guns on the boats were so trained upon the rebel ibrta 
that a rain of shells fell within them for the rive hour* of the engage- 
ment. At the eml of that time the forts were abandoned, and the battle 
ended in victory for our forces. There were some 1,700 South Carolina 
troops in the forts under command of Gen. T. F. Drayton, whose brother, 
Pereival Drayton, was commander of one of our vessels, the Pocahontas. 
The Confederate vessels were under command of Commodore Josiah Tat- 
nal, formerly of the U. S. Navy. There was also an additional land force 
of 500 men, with a held battery not far from the forts. The first of the 
Confederate works abandoued were those at Hilton Head, at 1:15 p. m. 
An hour later the Union Hag was hoisted over Fort Walker by Captain 
Rodgers. The flag-ship auchored soon after, and before night this fort 
was occupied by a brigade of our infantry under Gen. H. G. Wright. 
The last Confederate gun in this engagement was fired from Fort Beaure- 
gard at 3:35 p. m. The rebels escaped by boats to Savannah, but all 
their guns, some forty, most of them new and large, were captured at 
Hilton Head and adjacent islands. / 

As soon as the enemv were £one, the negroes came flocking; to the 
ihores, with their little possessions in bundles, begging to be taken off. 
The residents of the other Sea Islands, burning their cotton and other 
crops, took their slaves and other movable possessions aud fled to Charles- 
ton and other points in the interior. On December 6th Sherman's troops 
occupied Beaufort, finding, Greeley says, " only one white man there, 
aud he drunk." On December 20th they occupied Tybee Island, com- 
manding the approach to Savannah. The following up of this victory, 
which caused the utmost consternation in the South, by an advance on 
Savannah, was rendered impossible by the loss of the army stores and 
munition on her four transport- disabled by the stormy voyage, and by the 
unfit condition of the rest of the fleet. "The naval force was occupied in 
sinking obstructions in the harbor to prevent blockade-running, and the 
laud force in entrenching the various camps they had established. On 
January 1, 18(52, an engagement occurred at Port Royal, resulting from 
an attempt on the part of the enemv to plant batteries that would enable 
them to land troops on Port Royal Island. Our troops engaged were 
the Third Michigan, Forty-Eighth and Seventy-Ninth New York and 
and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Infantry. The enemy were driven and made 
no further attempt to dispute with our army the possession of this import- 
ant point. 


On the night of October 12, 1861, the steamship Theodora ran out of 
Charleston Harbor, having on board James M. Mason, of Virginia, aud 
John Slide! 1, of Louisiana. Mr. Mason was a Confederate envoy to Great 

Britain, and Mr. Slidell was bound for F ranee in tlie same capacity. The 
Theodora went into port at Cardenas, Cuba, ami on November 7th Messrs. 





hour. The rebel gunboats first retreated up the sound, then returned 
and took part in the battle until their Hag-ship, the Curlew, was struck 
by a shell from the Sduthfield, and set on tire, when the rest of them re- 
treated beyond Wier point. Toward the middle of the afternoon our 
troops were embarked on light draft steamers and boats to effect a land- 
ing at Ashby's Harbor. Tins point was guarded by a strong force with 
afield battery, but the Delaware turned her guns on these Confederates 
and drove them with IX-ineh shrapnel. Before midnight 7,500 of our 
infantry were bivouacing on the shore. Seven of our vessels removed the 
obstructions sunk iu the channel during the afternoon, and in the earlv 
part of the evening the Curlew and the rebel works on Redstone were 
blown up. 

Early ou the morning of the 8th our infantry that had landed moved 
out to attack the enemy. The latter were well protected by a good abatis 
in front and impenetrable swamps on either hand, and it was onlv by a 
direct and splendidly executed charge over the causeway directly in front 
that their position was carried. Their loss in killed*and wounded, owing 
to their protected position, was only fifty-five, but 2,700 of them were 
taken prisoners. Our loss in the bombardment and assault was about fifty 
killed, '250 wounded. The naval casualties were six killed, seventeen 
wounded, two missing. In a very few hours Roanoke island was occupied 
by Federal troops only. 

On the 9th Commander Rowan was sent with fourteen gunboats in pur- 
suit of the rebel gunboats. He followed them through Albemarle sound, 
up Pasijuotauk river, to Elizabeth City, finding seven of them there. 
The Confederates abandoned their boats after setting them on fire. One 
was captured, but the rest burned. Various other movements along the 
coast by our vessels resulted in the destruction of rebel property, or irs 
capture. Commodore Goldsborough was relieved and Commander Rowan 
remained in charge of the fleet, which again moved with Burnside in his 
advance on New Berne. 

For this advance General Burnside concentrated his troops at Hatteras 
Inlet, whence the expedition moved on March 12th. No resistance was 
encountered by laud, except from the heavy clay of the roads over which 
the guns had to be dragged. The boats found their passage up Neuse 
river obstructed by vessels sunk in the channel which had to be removed. 
Forts Ellis, Thompson and Lane were evacuated at our approach, and the 
fleet was able to steam directly up to the wharves at New Berne. This? 
city, the most important seaport of North Carolina, lies near Pamlico 
round, at the junction of the Neuse and Trent rivers. It was well sup- 
plied with batterv defences and had a garrison of 5,000 men. General 
Branch commanding. Although it bad not been possible to bring up many 
guns, on account of the roads, the town was carried bv assault on .March 
14th. The same regiments were engaged here as already enumerated as 
constituting the land force. Toward the close of the battle, Gederal R<-no, 


commanding cm the right, found himself losing heavily from a iwbvi bat- 
tery, and ordered it taken by his reserve regiments. In the successful 
charge which followed the Fifty-First Pennsylvania, Colonel Hartrauft, 
particularly distinguished itself. Our loss was GOO killed and wounded, 
and the enemy's lo-s much less, but New Berne was ours. 

Burnside made headquarters here for the time. Various expeditions 
in different directions resulted as follows: In March Parke's brigade 3,500 
strong, occupie 1 Morehead City and Beaufort without resistance. On 
April 10th he invested Fort Macon, a strong fortress on an island, difficult 
to approach from the laud, but of importance as commanding the en- 
trance to Newport river. On April 25th he opened tire on the fort from 
a breaching battery, 1,100 feet distant, with flanking mortars behind sand 
banks at 1.401) yards. The gunboats Daylight, State of Georgia and 
Chippawa, and the bark Gem>bok assisted in the bombardment. The tort 
was surrendered the next morning with 500 prisoners. Washington, Ply- 
mouth and other coast towns were occupied by other infantry troops. 
Reno took his brigade back to Roanoke island, thence ivp Albemarle sound, 
to within a few miles of Elizabeth City, intending to intercept a rebel 
force going thence to Norfolk. By mistake the wrong road was taken, 
and his men, after twenty-four hours hard marching, fought the engage- 
ment known as C.uudeu, or South Mills, April 25th, losing fifteen killed 
and ninety-eight wounded, then returning to his boats. 

Burnside's troops, at no time numbering over 15,000 men, were now so 
scattered guarding the towns taken that he could no longer take the ag- 
gressive. Yet on July Oth he was ordered to report to Fortress Monroe 
with all the troops he could collect, and three days later was there. (Jen. 
John A. Foster remained in command of the troops in North Carolina 
until July, 1863. No important movements were made in the State dur- 
ing the rest of 1862, except an expedition "planned by Foster and led by 
him, to Goldsboro, December 12th to 18th, with engagements at South- 
west creek, Kinstou, Whitehall, and Goldsboro. His loss was 577 killed, 
wounded and captured, and he took and paroled 470 prisoners. 

eno.v<;kmknts in iia.mptox roads. 

The station for the flag-ship of the North Atlantic blockading squadron 
was Hampton Roads, an estuary of the Atlantic in the Virginia shore. 
The blockade began lure, and was most efficiently maintained here, through 
the war. It was a large and safe harbor; vessels anchoring in its waters 
were under the protection of the guns of Fortress Monroe; it was near 
to Washington, so that its vessels could be sent up the Potomac quickly, 
in case of need; and, most important of all, vessels in its- waters com- 
manded the .lames river upon which lay the < !on federate capital, and com- 
manded the Elizabeth river, upon which was the Norfolk yards, the depot 
of naval supplies in the east for the Confederacy. Only one attempt was 
made to raise this blockade during the war. and that was in March, 1>02, 


culminating in the battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac, the 
most unique naval atihir of modern history. 

When the Norfolk navy yard was lost to the government in April, 1861, 
the Merrimac was one of our vessels sunk oil' the yard. After the Con- 
federates took possession of the yard, their earliest efforts were directed to 
raising and refitting the vessel. Her upper works were found to be de- 
stroyed, but her hull and boilers were uninjured, aud her engine could be 
again made serviceable. The Confederates converted her into an ironclad, 
Lieutenant John M. Brooke of the Confederate navy superintending the 
work. He thus describes the reconstructed vessel: "She was cut down 
to the old berth-deck. Both ends for seventy feet were covered over, and 
when the ship was in lighting trim were just awash. On the midship sec- 
tion, one hundred and seventy feet in length, was built, at an angle of 
forty-five degrees, a roof of pitch-pine and oak twenty-four inches thick, 
extending from the water line to a height over the gun deck of seven 
feet. Both ends of the shield were rounded so that the pivot guns could 
be used as bow and stern chasers or quartering. Over the gun deck 
was a light grating, making a promenade about twenty feet wide. The 
wood backing was covered with iron plates, rolled at the Tredegar 
works at Richmond, two inches thick and eight wide. The first tier was 
put on horizontal, the second up and down — in all four inches, bolted 
through the woodwork and clinched inside. The prow was of cast iron, 
projecting four feet, and badly secured, as events proved. The rudder 
and propeller were entirely unprotected. The pilot house was forward of 
the smoke stack, and covered with the same thickness of iron on the sides. 
Her motive power was. the same that had always been in the ship. * * * 
Her armament consisted of two seven-inch rifles, heavily reinforced around 
the breech with three-inch steel bands, shrunk on; these were the first 
heavy guns so made [their construction was under Lieutenant Brooke's 
direct supervision, and every gun was tested by him] and were the bow 
and stern pivots; there were also two six-inch rifles of the same make, 
and six nine-inch smooth bore broadside — ten trims in all." The Confed- 
erates renamed the vessel, calling her the Virginia, but she is generally 
spoken of as the Merrimac. 

While the Confederates were getting this craft ready for the aggressive, 
our government was having a suitable antagonist constructed. This was 
Ericsson'?, now famous Monitor, a rakish little craft consisting of a small 
iron hull which rested on a large raft, and was surmounted by a revolving 
turret. The hull was 124 feet long, and the raft, projecting at bow and 
stern, was fifty feet longer. The depth of the raft was five feet and 
it was protected by side armor of five one-inch iron plates backed by 
oak. The turret was similarly armored and protected, and in it were two 
Xl-inch Dahlgren guns. The pilothouse was on the deck, in front of/ 
the turret, and built of iron. < hving to much red-tape at Washington the 
delay in the construction of this boat, after the plans had been accepted, 

'V-, ■■ 


was very great. It was not until March 0, 1S62, she started for Hamp- 
ton Roads, Lieutenant John Wordeu iu command, reporting there alter 
the attack on our fleet had begun, and we had lost two vessels. 

The Confederate fleet was: The Virginia, or Merrimac, dag-ship, Captain 
Franklin Buchanan, ten guns ; the Patrick Henry, twelve guns, the James- 
town, two guns, the Teaser, one gun ; the Beaufort, one gun ; the Raleigh, one 
gun. Total armament, twenty-seven guns. The Federal fleet off Fortress 
Monroe was: The Minnesota, forty guns: the Roanoke, furtv guns; the>St. 
Lawrence, fifty guns; the gun-boats Dragon, Mystic, Whitehall, Oregon, 
Zouave and Cambridge. Behind these frowned the heavy guns of the tort. 
Off Newport Xews, seven miles above, the point itself strongly fortified 
and held by a large Federal garrison, were two steam frigates : The Con- 
gress, fifty guns; the Cumberland, forty guns. At the Rip Raps was Fort 
Wool, with its heavy gun. Flag-Officer Goldeborough was absent with 
the expedition against Roanoke Island, and Captain John Marston of the 
Roanoke as senior officer was in command. At noon on Saturday, March 8, 
1862, the Confederate fleet moved down the Elizabeth river from Norfolk, 
to attack our vessels in Hampton Roads. When the Merrimac came within 
three-quarter mile range, ,the guns of the Cumberland and Congress and 
the shore batteries opened on her. Answering fire was reserved until the 
range was shortened, then her forward pivot gun was fired. The effect 
showed what^ terrible work the ironclad could be counted on to do with 
her guns. Nearly every one of the crew of the Cumberland's after pivot 
gun .were killed or wounded. The next test was of her ability to disable 
an antagonist by a blow. The Merrimac steered straight for the Cumber- 
land, giving the Congress a broadside tire in passing, which was returned. 
The Cumberland was struck under the forerigginar, nearlv at right angles, 
and her side went in like an egg shell. -The blow was hardly felt on the 
Merrimac, though her ram was left in the Cumberland as she backed off, 
and the side of the Cumberland "was opened wide enough to drive in a 
horse and cart." 

As the Merrimac backed dear of her, the Cumberland began to list to 
port, and fill rapidly. Her guns were manfully served as long as they 
were above water, and when her crew were driven to the spar deck thev 
cou tinned to Hre her pivot guns until she went down with colors flying. 
She sunk in three-quarters of an hour from the time she was struck^ and 
when her hull rested en the sands fifty-four feet below the water, her pen- 
nant was still above water, flying from her topmast. 

The Merrimac was headed so as to give her space to turn in. As she 
swung round, the Congress came in range again, and was raked with 
three shots from the Merrimac's after pivot <_ r uns. In trying to get out of 
range site grounded, but in water where the draft of the Merrimac would 
not permit her to follow. The latter headed for her, and took position two 
hundred yards off, where every shot told. For an hour the guns of the 
Congress answered bravely, but her loss was terrible and her position 


hopeless. At about half past three she ran up the white flag and lowered 
her colors. Most of her guns were then disabled, more than half her 
crew killed or wounded, and her hull had been several times on fire. 
Among the killed on the Congress was her commanding officer, Lieuten- 
ant Joseph B. Smith, and the surrender was made by Lieutenan 4 : Peuder- 
grast. The Merrimac opened fire again ou the Congress soon after the 
surrender, disregarding the white flag flying in token of the surrender, 
taking the action, the Confederates claimed, on account of the continued 
fire of our shore batteries. About dark hot shot was poured upon the 
Congress until she was set on fire. She burned until midnight, when the 
fire reached her magazine, which contained five tons of powder- Then she 
blew up with a terrible explosion. Of her crew of 434 only 218 answered 
roll-call the next morning. 


At seven o'clock on the evening of the 8th the Merrimac steamed back 
to Sewells Point on the Elizabeth. She had sunk pue of her opponents 
and burned another — a good day's work for the Confederacy. The hearts 
of her officers and crew beat high in anticipation of her work on the 
morrow, when she would surely capture or destroy all of the United States 
fleet riding in Hampton Roads. They did not know that a strange craft, 
"a cheese tub on a plank," had rounded Cape Henry at four o'clock that 
afternoon, and that the officers of this strange craft, hearing firing in the 
direction of Fortress Monroe, were hurrying to the scene of action, the 
light of the burning Congress beckoning them on in their last miles oi 
progress. At nine that night the little Monitor anchored near the Roan- 
oke. At daybreak on the morning of Sunday, March 9th, preparations 
began on the Merrimac to resume hostilities. At 7:30 she .-teamed down 
into the Roads, directing her course to bring up opposite the Minnesota, 
disabled the day before. While still a mile away she opened lire on the 
helpless craft, when, suddenly, the Monitor darted between her and her 
victim, aud the battle of "the sword-fish and the whale" began. 

The two great advantages of the Monitor over the Merrimac were mani- 
fested almost from the moment the engagement between them began. The 
Monitor's draft was only ten feet, enabling her at any time to run into 
shoal water, out of reach of the Merrimac, and she could turn anywhere, 
without appreciable loss of time. James Russell Haley, of the United 
States navy, in Scribner'a "The Blockade and the Cruisers," thus describes 
the engagement of March 9th. 

" VVordeu reserved his fire until he was close upon the enemy, then, 
altering his course, he gave orders to commence firing, and, stopping the 
engine, passed slowly by. The Merrimac returned the fire, but with little 
effect; the turret was a small target, and the projectiles passed over the 
low deck. Shell, grape, canister and musket halls Hew about in every 
direction, but did no injury. * * * After passing the Merrimac Worden 


turned, and crossing her stern attempted to disable her screw, which he 
missed by a few feet. Returning, he passed up aloug her port side, tiring 
deliberately. The vessels were so close that several times they nearly came 
in contact. Presently they separated, and the Merrimac attacked the 
Minnesota. In shifting her position she grounded, but got off' in a moment. 
The frigate received her with a discharge from her full broadside and a 
X-inch pivot. * * * The Merrimac replied with a shell from her rifled 
bow-guns, which entered the berth-deck and ship, tore four rooms into one, 
and set the ship on fire. The flames were .soon extinguished. A second 
shell [from the Merrimac] exploded the boiler of the tugboat Dragon. 
* * * By the time the Merrimac had tired her third shell the Monitor in- 
terposed again; and the Merrimac, running down at full speed, attempted 
to repeat her successful attack on the Cumberland. Worden saw the 
movement, and suddenly putting his helm hard-a-port, he gave his vessel 
a broad sheer, receiving the blow of the ram on his starboard quarter, 
whence it glanced off without doing injury. *■ * * After fighting two 
hours, the Monitor hauled ofl' to hoist shell into the tarret. At 11:30 the 
engagement was renewed. The enemy now concentrated his fire on the 
pilot-house, which was the weakest part of the ship." 

The firing did not long continue after this. Commander Worden, while 
making observations through one of the openings, was disabled by some 
cement, which, knocked ofl by a shell, struck him in the eyes. He was 
blinded for several days, in consequence, and the sight of his left eye was 
permanently lost. The prow of the Merrimac had been twisted when she 
struck the Monitor and she was leaking. Her anchor and flag-staff had 
been shot away, her commander Buchanan was disabled by a wound, and 
her smoke stack and' steam pipe were riddled. As soon as the Monitor 
ceased her aggressive movements the Merrimac returned to Sewells Point, 
and thence up the Elizabeth. Our loss in the two (lays engagements was 
about 400 men in all, the frigates Congress and Cumberland with all their 
armament, and the tug Dragon ; serious damage had also been inflicted 
on the Minnesota. Practically this was all done by the Merrimac, which 
thus proved a very powerful antagonist. Singularly enough, considering 
the service of these two days- on the part of the Merrimac, and of the 
Monitor on the one day, neither of them were to be of further real utility 
to the South or the North, notwithstanding the high hopes that rested on 
them in the two sections to which they belonged. The Merrimac was 
taken back to the Norfolk yards for repairs, and when that yard was aban- 
doned by the Confederates, she was, after an unsuccessful attempt to take 
her upJames river, fired on the morniu<_r of May 10th. After burningan 
hour, she blew up. The Monitor, after rendering some not important 
service on James river in the summer of 1862, was taken to Washington 
for repairs in September. Two months later she returned to Hampton 
Roads and on December 20th she set out for Beaufort, North Carolina, in 
tow of the Rhode Island. Her fault had always been unmanageableneee 




in a heavy sea, and two days after leaving the Roads she sunk off the coast 

of North Carolina during a heavy gale. 



Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa island, commanding the main entrance 
into Pensacola harbor, remained in our hands when the Norfolk navy 
yard was lost. The garrison there was strengthened, while at Pensacola 
a strong Confederate force was gathered under General Braxton Bragg. 
The Judah was fitted out for privateering at the Pensacola yard under 
protection of Bragg's force. On the night of September 14, 1861, Com- 
mander Mervine of the Gulf squadron sent four boats from his flag-ship, 
the Colorado, to board her. This was accomplished after a spirited re- 
sistance by her crew; her gun, a 10-iuch columbiad, was spiked, she was- 
set on fire, burned to the water edge, and sunk. On the night of October 
9th, detachments of the Second and Third U. S. Infantry, and the Sixth 
New York Volunteers (Wilson's Zouaves) were attacked on Santa Rosa 
island by a force of Confederates who had crossed from Pensacola under 
cover of the darkness. With daylight the enemy were obliged to retreat, 
with heavy loss for the number engaged. On November 23d the garri- 
son was again attacked, but suffered no serious loss. This little garrison, 
not much over 1,000 men, was able to hold the much larger force at Pen- 
sacola inactive through the year, and when, finally, these Confederates 
took the field they were obliged to burn and destroy the military and 
naval property at Pensacola to keep it from tailing into our hands. 

From Key West, the low coral island stretching southwest into the gulf 
of Mexico from the southern point of the Florida peninsula, to the mouth 
of the Rio Grande, that river forming the boundary between the State of 
Texas and Mexico, the distance on a straight line is about 840 miles, but 
the shore line is over 1,600 miles. Five States, seceded, lay along the 
waters of the gulf, in the order named: Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Texas. On all the coast there was not one port that was; 
not inhabited by the violently disloyal. The greatest river of the conti- 
nent, the Mississippi, emptied into the gulf and its myriad-headed mouth 
was; the most difficult of waters to watch and guard. The principal porta 
were New Orleans up the Mississippi, Mobile in Alabama, and Galveston 
in Texas. The best harbor was Pensacola bay. In endeavoring to control 
this large expanse of waters the United States government had two pur- 
poses. The first was to enter the rebellious states by water, passing up the 
Mississippi, and with the co-operation of a land force sever the seceded ter- 
ritory, east and west of that river. The second was to blockade the entire 
territory, and thus prevent the Confederacy from running cotton out and 
supplies in. 

On the 4th of July, 18(51, the gulf squadron consisted of 21 vessels, 
carrying 282 guns, and manned by •*},">()() men. In September following 
Flacr-Ofticer W. W. McKean succee'ded Merviue in command of tht- 


squadron. The events of the year iu the gulf and inland waters were not 
of great importance, although very active work on the part of the squad- 
ron was necessary to maintain anything like an effective blockade over so 
much territory. The ouly aggressive movement of the year was an attack 
on Fort McRea, on the western side of the entrance to Pensacola bay, ex- 
ecuted by MeKean with two gunboats. Richmond and Niagara, on Novem- 
ber 22d and 23d. Though supported by the guns of Fort Pickens, on the 
east side of the entrance, the affair did not result in anything decisive, the 
attack being dropped without victory or defeat ou account of bad weather. 
The squadron was divided into the West Gulf and East Gulf Squadron, 
and Captain David G. Farragut was placed in command of the Western 
Gulf squadron on January 9, 1862, Bailing from Hampton Roads on 
February 2d, in the flag-ship, the Hartford, of 24 guns. On February 
20th he arrived at Ship island, in Mississippi sound, where he was met by 
McKean, and the necessary transfers made. The next day Farragut took 
command of a fleet that was henceforth to win by daring deeds a repu- 
tation differing from that so far achieved. -? 


The State of Illinois is on the southeast separated from Kentucky by 
the Ohio river; ou the south and west from Missouri bv the Mississ- 
ippi river. While the slaveholding States of Missouri aud Kentucky ren- 
dered only doubtful allegience to the National cause at the outbreak of 
the war of the Rebellion, Illinois was devoted to the Union. The southern 
part of Illinois, where the Ohio enters the Mississippi, projects like a wedge 
between the two other States. On the point of tiiis wedge stands Cairo, 
which was made, during the war, the naval arsenal and depot of the 
Union flotilla operating in the Mississippi valley. The distance from Cairo 
to the mouth of the Mississippi in a straight line is 4*0 miles, but so winding 
is the course of the " Father of Waters" that a boat traversing the stream 
between these points passes over 1097 miles. The Mississippi mid its trib- 
utaries are subject to great variations as to the depth of water, which is 
greatest in the late winter and early spring months, least in August, Sep- 
tember and October, and this variation in the facility with which water 
transportation could be utilized had great influence on the movements of 
the armies and navies of both the contending forces. The banks of the 
Mississippi are for the most part low. The onlv highland on the right, or 
western bank, is that on which Helena Stands, in Arkansas. On the left 
or eastern bank the high lands arc more numerous. The most important 
of these are at Columbus and Hickman, in Kentucky; the four Chicka- 
saw bluffs in Tennessee, on the most southern of which Memphis stands, 
aud a series of bluffs extending 250 miles south from Vieksburg, Missis- 
sippi, past Grand Gulf and Port Hudson, to Baton Rouge, I.oui-i-ma. 
From the earliest days of the war it was the determination of the Federal 
government to obtain control of this river and cut the Confederacy, so far 


as its Western territory was concerned, in two. . Admiral Farragut, in tak- 
ing possession of the Western Gulf squadron, was impressed with the neces- 
sity of entering this river from its mouth, while co-operative laud and 
naval movements were begun from northern points. In the military 
annals of the first volume of this work, many of these movements have 
been given iu detail, so far as the military forces are concerned. 

In Slav, 1861, Commander John Rodgers was put in command of the 
flotilla on the Upper Mississippi. Three river steamers, the Tyler,Lexington 
and Conestoga, were purchased in Cincinnati, and altered into gunboats, the 
Tyler mounting six 04-pounders iu broadside and one 32-pounder stern 
gun; the Lexington four (Us and two 32s ; the Conestoga two broadside 
32s and one light stern. Their burden was 512 pounds. During the 
summer, fall and winter seven boats were built for the government by 
James B. Eadsof St. Louis, partially armored, each carrying thirteen guns. 
As received into service these boats were named after cities standing along 
the banks of the river they were to defend — the Cairo, Carondelet, Cin- 
cinnati, Louisville, Mound City, Pittsburg, St. Louis. , Another boat pur- 
chased by the government for these waters was the Benton. Originally a 
snag-boat, and constructed with a view to strength, the Benton was ot 
1,000 tons burden. After she was armored and had her guns and stores on 
board she drew nine feet of water. Her first armament was two LX-inch 
shell-guns, seven rifled 42-pounders, and seven 32-pounders. Her speed 
was only five knots an hour, but owing to her size and strength when she 
was brought into action she was the most efficient boat in the upper squad- 
ron, and earned the soubriquet of "the old war-horse." The Essex, of 
equal size, was in the engagement at Fort Henry, but afterwards separated 
from this squadron. 

On September 0, 1861, Captain A. H. Foote succeeded Commander 
Rodgers in command of this flotilla. There* were then three wooden gun- 
boats in commission, but the iron-dads and mortar-boats were still build- 
ing, the work delayed by lack of funds. The first of Fads' boats was 
not launched until October 12th, the last not until January, 1862. When 
the boats were ready Flag-Officer Foote reported not having one-third 
crews for them. In November 500 men were sent to him from the sea- 
board, some of them men-of-war's men, but the most recruits. On Decem- 
ber 23d 1,100 enlisted men were ordered from "Washington to make up the 
deficiencies in crews. But Halleck deciding their own officers should 
go with them, and retain command of them, Foote refused their service, 
for the reason that two sets of officers would be ruinous to discipline, and 
more than he had room for, anyhow. Altogether the crews of the Missis- 
sippi flotilla were made up of very heterogeneous material, but being true 
•sons of America soon adapted themselves to their situation and rendered 
good service. Some of the best of the crews were the steamboat nun and 
sailors picked up from service on mercantile boats on the rivers and lakes. 
The greatest weakness in connection with this flotilla was that its com- 


Born at Bergen Point, New Jersey, September 

27, 18i)3; died in Philadelphia, June 

23, 186."). 


manding officer was subordinated to whatever land officer he was operating 
with. It was not until July, 18B2, the Meet was transferred to the Navy 
Department. The Tyler, Lexington and Conestoga saw a good deal of 
service in the summer and fall of 18*51, on the Ohio, Cumberland, Tenn- 
essee and Mississippi rivers, in connection with the advance of our military 
forces to take possession»of points on these rivers. The most serious of 
these was in connection with MeCleruand's movement to Belmont, on 
November 7th, in which the Tyler lost one man killed and two wounded. 
In the taking of Fort Henry on the Tennessee, February 6, 18H2, the 
Essex, Carondelet, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Tyler, Lexington and Conestoga 
were engaged, Captain Foote commanding, the Cincinnati, the flag-ship. 
This engagement was fought entirely by the boats, heavy rains having pre- 
vented the laud force from coming up. But floods the same raius had caused 
swept from their moorings many torpedoes the Confederates had planted to 
keep the boats at a distance. Early in the action a shot from the fort 
pierced the casement of the Essex, and passed through her middle boiler. 
One man was killed by the shot, and several were scalded, while others 
had to throw themselves overboard, to escape the rush of the high-pressure 
steam. The Essex was disabled and drifted out of the action, leaving only 
three armored vessels to carry ou the right. It was vigorously continued 
until the Confederate flag was lowered. The battle began at 1-2:30 and 
was over at 1:45 p. M. General Tilghmau, commanding the fort, came on 
board to make the surrender. The most of the garrison had previously 
withdrawn to Fort Donelson, twelve miles distant on the Cumberland. 
Our loss, maiuly on the Essex, was two killed, nine wounded, and twenty- 
eight scalded, many of whom died. The Cincinnati was .-truck thirty-one 
times without serious injury, and altogether the boats in their first gen- 
eral engagement showed themselves well fitted for their purpose. IT:t«r- 
Officer Foote, leaving the Carondelet at Fort Henry, returned to Cairo 
with the other armored boats, while the three wooden gunboats proceeded 
up the river, destroyed a railroad bridge and several miles of track twenty- 
five miles above the fort, anil captured or destroyed a number of Confed- 
erate vessels. On the 11th they reported at Cairo, bringing in as one of 
their prizes the Eastport, a steamer captured at Cerro Gordo, where she 
was being converted into a gunboat. , This' work was continued at Cairo, 
and when ready for service she became a part of the Union fleet, and was 
two years in service until sunk by torpedoes in Red River. 

In the engagement at Fort Donelson, February 14-U>, the armored gun- 
boats St. Louis, Louisville ami Pittsburg, and the wooden gunboats Con- 
estoga and Tyler took part. The Conestoga, indeed, opened the battle 
the flay before the general engagement, firing the first shot, at General 
(i ran fa request, at 10 a. m., on the 13th, sheltering herself partlybehind 
a point of land running into the river, ami continuing the cannonade for 
six hours, then withdrawing. In that time the threw 1*0 shell-, all from 
. her bow guns, and was twice struck bv the enemy. In the general t-u- 


gagemeut ou the 14th the same order of action was observed by the boat* 
as at Fort Henry, the armored boats steaming ahead, and the wooden 
boats sheltered behind these and throwing their shells over them. The 
boats opened fire at a mile's distance, advanced to within six hundred 
yards of the enemy's works, then went two hundred yards nearer. The 
persistent firing from the boats had already driven the enemy from their 
guns, when, at 4:o0 p. M., the wheel of the Hag-ship St. Louis, and the 
tiller of the Louisville were shot away. Both boats became unmanageable, 
and drifted down the river, and their consorts were obliged to follow. 
The St. Louis had been struck fifty-nine times and none of the boats less 
than twenty times. The position of the guns on the high fortifications of 
the fort gave the gunners an aim that enabled them to strike the sloping 
armor of the boats at nearly right angles. As the boats withdrew a rifled 
gun on the Carondelet burst and three of her four pilots were killed. The 
total naval loss was fifty-four killed and wounded. Fla^-Officer Foote was 
on the Carondelet at the time of the accident, and was wounded in the 
foot and arm by splinters, it was then thought not seriouslv. But subse- 
quent exposure prevented his wounds healing, so that,three months later 
he was compelled to resign. Before that time, however, he led his fleet in 
its important part in the siege and capture of Island No. 10. 

It was on March loth the fleet arrived in the vicinity of Island Xo. 10, 
six iron-clads, the Benton the flag-ship, and two mortar boats. On the 
17th an attack was made by the boats at long range, the Confederate bat- 
teries being so formidable as to preclude a nearer approach, ami the bom- 
bardment was kept up for a month, during which time Pope's army, hav- 
ing reduced Xew Madrid, was occupied in cutting a canal through the 
swamps on the Missouri side of the river. When the cauial was completed, 
April 4th, light transports could pass through it, and out of reach of the 
batteries on Island No. 10. Pope had said to Foote, in asking him to al- 
low some of his fleet to run the blockade of the batteries: "The lives of 
thousands of men and the success of our operations hang upon vour de- 
cision; with two <runboats all is safe, with one it is doubtful." And Foote 
had earlier reported: " When the object of running the blockades becomes 
adequate to the risk, I shall not hesitate to do it." The time had come. 
Pope had his canal, by which troops could be crossed to the Island on light 
transports if properly protected. 

On the night of April 4th the Carondelet, under Commander Henry 
Walke, left her anchorage and started to run the batteries. Her decks 
were covered with extra planking; lumber aud cordwood were piled up as 
extra protection around her boilers; a barge loaded with hay was fastened 
on her port quarter to protect her magazine; her steam was sent out 
through the wheel-houses to avoid the puffing noise of the pipes. The 
moon set at ten o'clock and the first breath of a thunder storm was felt as 
she started from her moorings and dropped dowu the stream. Her guns 
were run in, her port-hole:; closed, not a light glimmered on her decks. 


Under cover all her men stood to arms, ready to repel boarders if that 
were attempted, all save two. Ou deck, exposed to storm and shot, were 
Seaman Charles Wilson, heaving the lead, and Lieutenant Theodore Gil- 
more, on her upper deck forward, repeating to the pilot the leadman's 
soundings. She was hardly under full way down the stream before the 
storm burst in great fury, and the lightning Hashes revealed her to the 
Confederates. So close was she to the shore that the commands issued as 
the Confederates manned their guns could be heard. As she passed close 
under their guns a lightning sheet seemed to blaze all about her, but the 
next moment she had slipped into impenetrable darkness. Firing was 
begun immediately, but not a shot struck her, and at one o'clock on the 
morning of the 5th she anchored off New Madrid. It has been well called 
"one of the most daring and dramatic feats of the war.'' 

Safe below the island the Carondelet made a reconnoissance down the 
river as far as Tiptonville, her crew lauding and spiking the guns of one 
Confederate battery. On the night of the 6th the Pittsburg ran past 
the island batteries, and on the 7th the two boats engaged and silenced the 
enemy's batteries below the island. Our army then' crossed to the island 
undercover of the gunboats' guns, and the enemy surrendered, 7,000 men 
laying down their arms. Pope's success at Island No. 10 was thus largely 
due to the co-operating movements of Foote's gunboats. JBy the action of 
the waters of the 'Mississippi the Island No. 10 of 1862 has disappeared in 
the years since then, though now another island bears the name. Over 
that on which stood the six forts with their fifty guns on the night of the 
Carondelet's adventure the deep current of the mighty river now rolls 
without a ripple to mark the spot. 

In the battle of Sh.iloh the Tyler and Lexington, off Pittsburg Land- 
ing, rendered good service, receiving special commendatory mention from 
General Grant for their service, when, "At a late hour in the afternoon 
[of April 6th] a desperate effort was made to turn our left, ami get pos- 
session of the landing, transports, etc." Again, " Much is due to the 
presence of the gunboats." The Confederate commander in that battle 
also spoke of the falling back of our infantry " under the guns of the 
gunboats, which opened a tierce and annoying tire with shot and shell of 
the heaviest description." 

After the fall of Island No. 10 Foote's flotilla passed down beyond New 
Madrid. On the loth of April he encountered five Confederate gun- 
boats, which retreated before him after exchaugim_ r a few shots. Hal- 
leek's withdrawal of all of Pope's forces except some 1,500 men put an 
end for the time to aggressive work for the fleet. On May !)th Foote left 
the boats in temporary command of Capt. Chas. II. Davis, and went 
North, hoping to recover from his wounds received at Fort Donelson. 
But his honorable career of tbrtv years afloat was ended with the excel- 
lent service rendered from Donelson to island No. 10. He was not again 
able to resume dutv, and lived onlv a year longer. 


The Confederates had gathered together eight gunboats which they 
stvled the River Defence Fleet, and which, at the time Foote left our 
squadron, were lying under the guns of Fort Pillow. The boats of our 
squadron were hugging the banks of the river above, four on the Arkan- 
sas shore — the Mound City, Cincinnati, St Louis and Cairo, and three 
on the Tennessee shore, the Benton, Caroudelet and Pittsburg. Fort 
Pillow was not far below, and it was the daily custom for one of our gun- 
boats to tow a mortar boat down where it could throw its shells into Fort 
Pillow, and remain on guard Over it for twenty-four hours. On the 
iuornhi"- of May 10th the Cincinnati took mortar boat No. 16 down for 
this daily exercise, and the usual routine was somewhat varied. The boats 
of the Defence Fleet came out and attacked the Cincinnati, the General 
Brawo 1 leading. She came up the Arkansas shore and, rounding, struck 
the "Cincinnati at full speed on the starboard quarter, a powerful blow. 
As the boats came together the Cincinnati fired her broadside, and the 
Bra"-g fell back down stream. Two other Confederate boats came up, the 
General Price and General Sumter, and one of them succeeded in ram- 
ming the Cincinnati in the same place where the Bnfgg had struck her. 
Commander St-mbel of the Cincinnati was severely wounded in the throat, 
as he gathered his men to board the enemy. The other vessels of our 
fleet had come to the rescue and the entrairenient became general. The 
Cincinnati, aided by a tug and the Pittsburg, steamed over to the Tenn- 
essee shore, and there sank on a bar in ten feet of water. The Mound 
City was disabled by a glancing blow in the starboard bow, and was run 
on the Arkansas shore to avoid sinking. Three of our rams were dis- 
abled. The Confederate boats, which had attacked with great vigor, did 
not, however, pursue .their advantage, but fell back under the guns of 
the fort. The disaster to our boats was not as serious as it might have 
been, while the enemv perhaps showed wisdom in not pursuing their tem- 
porary advantage long enough for all our boats to come up. _ The Cin- 
cinnati was raised without much trouble, and both the Cincinnati and 
Mound City were in service again in a month's time. A fleet of rams 
under command of Col. Charles Filet, jr., was added to our boats and the 
bombardment of Fort Pillow kept up. On the night of June 4th the 
Confederates evacuated the fort, which our fleet took possession of the 
next morning. 

Beauregard had evacuated Corinth, and Memphis and its defences were 
no longer tenable for the Confederates. On June f>th an engagement 
came oft' between our fleet and the River Defence Fleet off Memphis. 
The enemy's boats were the tla'_ r -~hip Van Dorn, and seven others, mount- 
in^ two to four guns each, the General Price, General Lovell, General 
Beauregard, General Thompson, General Bragg, General Sumter and 
Little Rebel. Our gunboats engaged were the Benton, Louisville, Car- 
oudelet, St. Louis ami Cairo, and two of the ram Meet, the Queen of the 
West and Monarch. The result was a great victory for our flotilla. 



Four of the Confederate boats were lost, and the remaining four put to 
flight. Two of these were captured in a running tight, and one destroyed. 
The Van Doru alone made her escape. The City of Memphis surren- 
dered the same day, and the greater part of our fleet remained at that 
city until June 2i»th. 

On June 10th Halleck ordered Davis to send some part of the fleet to 
open communication by way of the White river with General Curtis, 
who was coming down through Missouri and Arkansas to Helena. The 
Mound City, St. Louis, Conestoga and Lexington were sent on the expe- 
dition, the Forty-Third and Forty-Sixth Indiana regiments accompanying 
the squadron. On June 17th the boats were attacked by two batteries 
mounting six guus, at St. Charles. The Mound City was leading, and 
when six hundred yards from the works she was struck by a 42-pouud 
shell which entered her casement, killed three men and exploded her 
steam-drum. Of her crew of 175 only three officers and twenty-two men 
escaped injury. Of the rest 82 died from scalding or wounds, and 42 in the 
water, the enemy continuing to Are upon the wounded and the injured 
men struggling for their lives. The Conestoga towed the Mound City 
out of action, and the infantry landed and stormed and carried the works. 
The post was found to be iu command of one Capt. Joseph Fry, who had 
formerly been a lieutenant in the U. S. navy. For his barbarity in 
ordering the fire by which wounded and drowning men were murdered, 
he in later years met just recompense. In 1874 while commanding a fili- 
bustering expedition to Cuba he was captured by Spanish authorities and 
executed. The low state of the water above St.- Charles prevented the 
expedition from taking full advantage of its capture. So frequently did 
the interruption to naval expeditions from this cause occur that the light- 
draught gunboats were the next season put in service, called, from the 
thinness of their armor, the "tin-clads." Late in June Davis was made 
flag-officer of the flotilla, and on June 20th he moved down the river with 
the Benton, Carondelet, Louisville and St. Louis, and six mortar boats. 
On July 1st he joined Farragut's fleet, and the naval forces of the Gulf 
and of the Upper Mississippi were anchored together above Vicksburg. 


When Farragut assumed command of the Western Gulf squadron the 
task before him was the opening of the Mississippi from its mouth, the 
first step toward which must necessarily be the reduction of New Orleans. 
The n-ndr/A-ous of the vessels was at Southwest Pass in Mississippi 
Souud. When the full fleet was assembled it consisted of four screw 
sloops — the Hartford (flag-ship), 2o guns; the Pensacola, 23 guns; the 
Brooklyn, 22 guns; the Richmond, 24 guns; one side-wheel steamer, the 
Mississippi, 17 guns; three screw corvettes — the Oneida, 9 guns;, the 
Varuna, lOguns; the Iroquois, 7 guns; and nine screw gunboats, each 
of two guns — the Cayuga, [taska, Ivatahdin, Kennebec, Kineo, Piuola, 


Scioto, Winona and "Wissahickon. In all .seventeen vessels carrying, ex- 
clusive of brass howitzers, 154 guns. All these were built for ships of 
war except the Varuna, which had been bought from the merchant ser- 
vice. Six gunboats more were attached for the New Orleans expedition. 
The Owasco, Westheld, Miami, Clifton, Jackson and Harriet Lane, car- 
rying in all thirty guns. An attempt was made to get the 40-gun frigate 
Colorado into the river also, but her draught would not permit it. Many 
of the other vessels grounded in the shallow waters of the Mississippi 
mouths and were fairly dragged through the mud into the channel he- 
vond. Capt. Theodorus Bailey, commanding the Colorado, accompanied 
the expedition in the Cayuga as a divi>ional officer, with the promise of 
leading the fleet into action. Twenty-one bomb schooners were under 
command of Captain (afterwards admiral) D. D. Porter. At the mouth 
of the Mississippi, while the gunboats gathered at the head of its passes, 
lay the Federal transports carrying 8,000 infantry regiments under Gen. 
Benj. F. Butler, formed in three brigades, Generals Phelps and Williams 
and Colonel Shepley brigade commanders. 

New Orleans lay* on the left bank of the river, 120 miles above its 
mouths. Gen. Mansfield Lovell was in command of the Confederate 
forces gathered for its defense. Thirty miles from the head of the passes, 
and ninety miles* below New Orleans, at the Plaqueinine Bend of the river, 
the advancing fleet met its first opposition. There permanent and formid- 
able fortifications had been erected, Fort St. Philip, on the left'bank of 
the stream, and Fort Jackson on the right. A line of obstructions had 
been placed across the river just below the forts, but these, owing to the 
high water prevailing at the time of the ascent, did not hinder the 
progress of our fleet-as they had been counted on to do. The rebel fleet 
was under command of Commodore Whittle, the iron-clad Louisiana, 16 
guns, the iron-clad McRae, the ram Manassas and 13 small gunboats. 

On April 18, 1862, the bombardment of Fort Jackson began, at ten 
o'clock in the morning, and an incessant firing was kept up until six in 
the evening. The entire mortar fleet was engaged, and the shells were 
sent at the rate of one a minute. Before night many of the outbuildiugs 
of the fort were in flames, and the danger to the magazine was so great 
that the enemy ceased tiring, and turned their entire attention to subduing 
the flames. The same routine was continued until the 24th with vigor. 
The enemy's fire in return was very good and several ugly hits were received 
by different ships. They also sent down fire-rafts every night.but these did 
no great damage. It early became evident that mortar-firing would not re- 
duce the fort, and that the fleet must pass above it, and cutoff communi- 
cation between the two forts and the city, to do which it was necessary to 
remove the obstructions from the river. This was done by the Pinolaand 
Itaska, on the night of th > 20th-21st, a very gallant and daring feat. On 
the night following the 23.1 the break in the obstructions was again ex- 
amined, and the channel found clear, and before morning the fleet had 


Born near Knoxville, Tennessee, July 5, 1801 , died in Portsmouth,' ' 
New Hampshire, August 14, 1870. 


passed through the obstructions and was ready to attack the forts from 
above. The batteries of the two forts poured shot and shell into the 
boats as their movements brought them into close range of one or the 
other, and for the first time the Confederate boats were brought into action, 
the Louisiana, McRae and Manassas rendering the forts all aid possible, 
although the Louisiana was in a partially disabled condition. The Manas- 
sas was run ashore and deserted by her crew during the night and blown 
up. The rest of the Confederate boats were badly officered and ineffective, 
and before morning nine of them were destroyed. At daybreak most of 
our fleet was anchored five miles above the fort. 

The Varuua, after successfully passing the batteries, had "run into a 
nest of rebel boats," and tiring right and left with great effect was rammed 
by two boats in^uccession, the Governor Moore and Stonewall Jackson, 
and stove in. Her commander ran her to the shore, where she sunk af- 
ter her officers and crew had been taken off' by the Oneida. The Winona, 
Itaska and Kennebec had not got above the forts. At one time during 
the night the flag-ship Hartford was in great danger. ~?A fire-raft had been 
brought against her by the tug Mosher, and in attempting to avoid it she 
ran aground on a shoal, and was set on fire. At one time the flames were 
half way to her tops, and she seemed lost. But the good discipline on 
board saved her. When the fire rushed through her ports, and the men 
shrank from their guns, Farragut, walking up and down the poop as coolly 
as though on dress parade, shouted: " Don't flinch from that tire, boys! 
There'sliotter fire than that for those who don't do their duty!" The fire 
department on board succeeded in putting out the flames, the seamen 
backed her off the shoals, and though she had been struck thirty-two times 
in hull ami rigging while passing the fort, the Hartford rode at anchor on 
the 24th looking little the worse for shot and sjiell and tire. Our total loss 
in men for this desperate engagement was less than 200, killed and wounded. 
Leaving that portion of the fleet under Captain Porter to finish the 
work at the forts, Farra<rut passed on up the river toward New Orleans. 
At Chalmette, famed as the place of General Jackson's victory on Janu- 
ary 8, 1815, he found batteries on both sides of the river, mounting twenty 
heavy guns. These he soon silenced, and passed on, anchoring before the 
Queen City of the South, a city incorrigibly disloyal until the close of the 
war, and even after, but now at the merry of the conqueror, for Lovell, 
learning of the passage of the Meet above the forts, had hastily sent what 
guns and munitions coul I be transported up to Yieksbnrg, and was in 
retreat with his troops, leaving the city to the civil authorities. At noon 
on the 25th Porter sent a Hug, of truce to Fort Jackson, demanding its 
unconditional surrender. Its commander, General Duncan, refusing to 
surrender, Porter reopened lire with all the mortars. On the 27th I nion 
troops were landed near Fort St. Philip. On the 29th Fort Jackson was 
surrendered. While the terms of capitulation were being signed, the 
'Loui.-iana was set on lire and blown up. Fort St. Philip surrendered the 


game day, as did the Confederate boats left in the vicinity of the forts, 
and the river was clear to New Orleans. 

Porter, iu his admirable paper on this great victory, says: "Our total 
loss in the Meet was: Killed 35, wounded \'1$. * * * When the suu rose 
on the Federal fleet the morning after the tight, it shone on smiling faces, 
even among those who were suffering from their wounds. Farragut re- 
ceived the congratulations of his officers with the same imperturbability 
that he had exhibited all through the eventful battle ; and while he showed 
great feeling for those of his men who had been killed or wounded he did 
not waste time in vain regrets, but made the signal, 'Push on to New 
Orleans.' The fact that he had won imperishable fame did not seem to 
occur to him, so intent were his thoughts on following up his great victo- 
ry to the end." It is fitting to add that a like modesty attaches to Admi- 
ral Porter's account of this great victory in that he seems to have ignored 
his own signal ami very glorious service, which contributed so much to 
the achievement of the victory. 

On his passage up the river to New Orleans Farragut met one after 
another buruiug'vessels floating down the stream, la'len with cotton and 
other valuable cargoes, showing the despair and the hatred in the hearts 
of the inhabitants of the city which had been abandoned to fall into his 
hands. Anchored in front of the city in a lowering thuuder-storm, the 
levee for miles was seen in flames, burning cotton, sugar and the staples 
of commerce that had been the pride of the Southwest. The anarchy that 
reigned within the city has been vividly portrayed by that charming 
writer George \V. Cable, who was then a lad of fourteen, employed in one 
of the city warehouses : "The day was a day of terrors. Whoever could 
go, was going. The great mass who had no place to go or means to go 
with, was beside itself. 'Betrayed ! betrayed !' it cried, and ran in throng- 
through the street.-. The Yankee ships — I see them now as they rounded 
Slaughterhouse Point into full view, silent, so grim and terrible. Black 
with men, heavy with deadly portent ; the long-banished Stars and Stripes 
flying against the frowning sky." Farragut sent on shore to demand the 
city's surrender Captain Bailey and Lieutenant Geo. II. Perkins. Their 
reception is thus portrayed by Cable: "There came a roar of shoutings 
and imprecations and crowding feet down Common street. ' Hurrah for 
Jeff Davis! Hurrah for Jeff Davis!' 'Shoot them! Kill them! Hang 
them!' I ran to the front of the mob shouting with the rest, 'Hurrah for 
Jeff Davis!' About every third man there had a weapon out. Two offi- 
cers of the United States navy were walking abreast, unguarded and alone, 
looking not to the right nor left, never frowning, never Hinchiug, while 
the mob screamed in their ears, shook cocked pistols in their faces, cursed- 
and crowded and gnashed upon them. So through the gates of death 
walked these two men to demand the town's surrender. It was one of the 
bravest deeds I ever saw done." 

The mayor of the city refused to order the Confederate flair hauled 


down, claiming to have no authority. But the city was ours and remained 
ours, and the puerile conduct of the New Orleans people was passed over 
in magnanimous disdain. The Confederate flag was lowered by Captain 
Bell of our navy and the Federal flag raised over the New Orleans Mint. 
The military was landed, and General Butler took command in the city. 
He was the right man in the right place. When the True Delta, a New 
Orleans newspaper, refused to print his proclamation, he detailed printers 
from his ranks to take possession of the office and print not only the proc- 
lamation but the entire newspaper to suithim ; when the mob veiled for Jeff 
Davis, aud hissed against "old cock-eye," he had the bands strike up "Yan- 
kee Doodle;" when the St. Charles Hotel suddenly closed its doors rather 
than to admit him as a guest, he reopened it, aud took possession as pro- 
prietor; when the " ladies" spat in the faces of his officers, who were going 
quietly and appropriately about their duties, he issued his now famous 
order No. 28, dated " Headquarters Department of the Gulf, New Or- 
leans, May 15, 1862/' and declaring that " hereafter, when any female 
shall, by word, gesture, or movement, insult or show" contempt for anv 
officer or soldier of the United States, she shall be regarded and held liable 
to be treated as a woman of the town plying her vocation ;" and when he 
had hanged Wm. B. Mumford, a New Orleans gambler who led a party 
that tore down our rlag the first time it was raised over the Mint, the peo- 
ple of the city learned that they could not trifle with him, and could not 
openly insult the country whose representative he was, and whose subjects 
they were, however unwilling. 


After the army occupied New Orleans Farragut sent seven vessels un- 
der command of Captain Craven of the Brooklyn on up the river. Baton 
Rouge and Natchez surrendered to him ; Vicksburg, when summoned to 
do the same, refused. The Hartford came up with Farragut on board, 
the steamers and seventeen schooners of the mortar flotilla, Porter com- 
manding, accompanying him. Word was received of the victories of the 
flotilla above Vicksburg, with the fall of Memphis. Farragut did not 
deem it possible to take Vicksburg without the co-operation of a land 
force, and he was besides seriously concerned over the condition of his 
fleet which hail not passed through so much heavy service unharmed, 
most of the vessels needing all kinds of repairs and refittings. The terms 
of enlistments of many crews had expired, and ill from the unhealthy 
climate they were clamoring for discharge. The water of the river was 
falling rapidly, and he had to consider the question of coaling a lar^e 
squadron 500 miles up a crooked river in an enemy's country. But the 
orders from Washington were imperative — the Mississippi must be cleared, 
and only Vicksburg was to be taken. "Only" Vicksburg. But Farra- 
gut could see better than those at Washington what taking Vicksburg 
meant. They also knew the next year. 




Vicksburg lies half way between New Orleans and Memphis, four hun- 
dred miles from each. The Vicksburg blurts rise to a height of H'30 
feet just below where the river touches them, and two miles below this 
highest point lies the town, tiie blurts continuing beyond, but receding 
from the river and decreasing in height. The height of the banks made 
it easy to place batteries beyond the reach of guns on .shipboard, while 
the narrow and winding channel placed vessels almost at the mercy of 
guns so mounted. At the time of Farragut's approach these mile* of 
this shore was well fortified, and it took not less than three-quarters of an 
hour for the fleetest boat of the squadron to pass three batteries. Farra- 
gut determined to gain position above the town if he must attack, and 
Porter stationed his schooners so as to protect the movements of the gun-, 
boats. The movement was successfully executed on the morning of June 
28th by all the boats but the Brooklyn, Iroquois and Oneida, and Farra- 
gut, as the result of his observations on this movement, reported that the 
forts had been passed and could be passed again, but that "it will not be 
possible to do more than silence the batteries for a time." On July ]-t 
the flotilla from above, under command of Davis, joined forces "with Far- 
ragut. On the 9th Porter was ordered to proceed to Hampton Roads with 
twelve of his mortar schooners, and at once moved down the Mississippi 
with the vessels. 

On July loth Farragut ordered a reconnoissance up the Yazoo river, 
where he learned the rebel ram Arkansas was ready for action. The boats 
detailed were the Carondelet, the Tyler, and the ram Queen of the West. 
Some sharpshooters from the army accompanied the expedition. The 
Arkansas was met six miles up the stream, and proving a more formid- 
able antagonist than was expected, our boats turned down stream airain, 
the rebel ram following. A running fight ensued, and the A rkansas get- 
ting into the Mississippi, boldly fought her way through our fleet and 
transports, and anchored under the guns of the Vicksburg batteries. The 
night following Farragut's fleet moved down past the batteries, the Sum- 
ter from Davis' fleet accompanying him. It was his intention to draw out 
and attack the Arkansas, but she remained undercover. '1 he fleets were 
now again separated as Farragut's fleet did not again run the batteries, 
but, on account of the falling water, moved on down the river to New 
Orleans. The land force which had accompanied him was Geu. Thos. 
Williams' brigade, and this returned to Baton Rouge. Davis made an 
unsuccessful attempt to take the Arkansas on July 22d, after which he 
■4% moved his boats to the mouth of the Yazoo, and later to Helena. 

On August 5th Williams was attacked at Baton Rouge by a consider- 
able ibrce under Breckinridge. The naval force engaged was the Arkan- 
sas on the Confederate side, and the Essex, Cayuga. Sumter. Kineo and 
•.*' Katahdin on the Federal side. The Confederates were repulsed, but 

Williams was killed. The Arkansas was disabled, ami on the approach 
of the Essex to board her, she was run to the shore, deserted by her crew. 


and blown up. On August 16th, the garrison was withdrawu from Baton 
Rouge. The other movements of naval forces along the Mississippi and 
its Tributaries iu 1862 were not of great moment. The reduction of 
Vicksburg, as Farragut had seeu, was impossible to a naval force unsup- 
ported by a large army, and the Confederates remained in possession of 
the river from Vicksburg to Port Hudson. An expedition of Curtis' 
laud and Davis' naval force along the Mississippi as far as Vicksburg 
destroyed in eleven days nearly half a million dollars worth of Confed- 
erate property. Farragut's attention the rest of the summer and during 
the fall mouths was directed toward seaboard ports, and Galveston, Cor- 
pus Christi and Sabine Pass fell into his hands almost without the firing 
of a shot. Butler was relieved from command of the Gulf Department 
bv Banks on December 17th, and under Banks' orders Baton Rouge was 
reoccupied. On January 1, 1863, the fleet in Galveston Bay was at- 
tacked bv Confederates, the land garrison was captured, and the Harriet 
Lane; and the Westfield only escaped surrender because destroyed by her 
officers. The blockade of the bay was then for a time abandoned, Sabine 
Pass and Galveston remaining in the enemy's hands. 


The Savannah river and its tributary the Tugaloo form the northern 
boundary between South Carolina and Georgia. Near the mouth of the 
Savannah is its namesake citv, before the war the principal commercial city 
of Georgia. Beyond the citv the river winds sluggishly through a cluster 
of sea islands to the Atlantic. On Cockspur island, one of these, stood 
Fort Pulaski, a strongly-built brick fortress 25 feet high by 7 J thick, 
commanding the main" channel of the Savannah and of all the inlets of 
the river on"' which vessels could ride, and held by the enemy. After 
Port Roval and the adjacent islands were in Our po>session, attention was 
turned to the mouth of the Savannah. The Big Tybee and other islands 
in the vicinity were quietly taken possession of by troops under Brig.- 
Geu. H. \V. Beuham, and with great difficulty, owing to tli- character 
of the .-oil, fortifications were prepared in February and March, 1862, 
and the guns brought to bear on the fort. Early in April there were 36 
mortar and heavy rifled guns planted in eiev< n batteries bearing on the 
fort, the farthest two miles' distant, the nearest less than half a mile. On 
April 10th Major-Gen. David Hunter, then department commander, 
summoned the fort to surrender, and a refusal being returned, bombard- 
ment was begun. An almost bloodless victory followed, only one of our 
men having been killed, ami no gun hit or damaged, when the white flag 
was raised in the fort. A great deal of damage had been done the fort, 
but the surrender was hastened by the fear that their magaziue would be 
Ktruek and exploded, our guns being purposely trained against it. Much 
of the credit of this success belongs to Gen. Q. A. Gillmore, who first 
.conceived the plan of occupying and fortifying these islands. Several of 


Commander Rodger's boats were engaged in transferring the troops and 
and munitions to the islands, but only the Wabash took part iu the bom- 
bardment. The regiments sent on this expedition were the Sixth aDd 
Seventh Connecticut, Third Rhode Island, Forty-Sixth and Forty-Eighth 
New York, and Eighth Maine Volunteers and the Fifteenth TJ. S. Infantry. 

By a series of successful movements possession was gained of points 
along the Florida coast in the spring of 1862, including Pensacola and 
Jacksonville. In the fall of the same year a second expedition was sent 
from Port Royal along the Florida coast. Both of these expeditions were 
comparatively bloodless, there being an insufficient Confederate garrison 
at any point to give serious battle, and in consequence the troops there 
withdrawing at our approach. Our troops and boats returned to Port 
Royal, not attempting to hold the towns they had taken. In March, 
1863, Col. Thos. W. Higginson took two colored regiment to Jackson- 
ville, and occupied it as a recruiting station for colored volunteers. Two 
white regiments joined him there, but he was soon after recalled bv Gen- 
eral Hunter. This time, most of the town was destroyed by tire. It was 
not until 1804 that permanent garrisons were established in this State. 

In June, 1862, an attempt was made to advance on Charleston, South 
Carolina, by taking possession of James Island, which lies between Stono 
and Folly rivers, as they empty into the Atlantic. Commander Dupont 
sent the Unadilla, Pembina and Ottawa up Stono river, until they were 
at its junction with Wappoo creek, within three miles of Charleston, and 
a co-operative movement of laud troops was made, the brigades of Wright, 
•Williams and Stevens landing on James Island. On June 16th the mili- 
tary force attacked Secessionville, a small village on the island which had 
been turned into a fortified camp known as Fort Johnson. The attack 
was unsuccessful, our loss being f>r> killed, 472 wounded, 128 missing, and 
the Confederates losing only 200 in all. Their position was one of great 
natural advantage, and their guns so planted that they swept the narrow 
roadway along which our troops had to advance. General Lamar was iu 
command of the place. In this affair the Eighth Michigan lost 1< S 5 men 
out of 534 engaged, and 12 of its 22 officers. The Forty-Fifth, Ninety- 
Seventh and One Hundredth Pennsylvania were among the troops en- 
gaged here. Our entire force was 0,000 men, of whom about 4,500 were 
in action. 

In October, 1862, Gen. O. M. Mitchel being then in command of this 
department, an expedition was planned by him to move northward from 
Beaufort, and break the railroad connection between Charleston and 
Savannah. He was stricken down with small pox, from which he died, 
and the movement was carried out by Gen J. M. Brennan with some 
4,500 men. This expedition included an engagement at PocotaligO on 
October 22(1, and about 300 men were lost in the entire movement. A 
great number of the enemy's bridges were burned, miles of track d^6- 
' troved, and other damage inflicted. 


Horn in Lorain County, Ohio, 
February 28, IS 25. 


A few miles up the Ogeechee river, which in its lower course runs nearly 
parallel with the Savannah, and very near it, the Confederates had con- 
structed a strong earthwork on a bend of the river known as Genesis 
Point, and named it Fort McAllister. This was destined to be the scene 
of more than one conflict before it passed into our hands. On February 
27, 1863, Commander Worden, in charge of the iron-clad Montauk dis- 
covered that the rebel war vessel, the Nashville, was aground just .above 
this fort. He ran his boat up within firing distance of her, disregarding 
torpedoes and the fire of the fort, and opened on her with 11-inch and 
lo-inch shells. His consorts, uuahle to get so near her on account of the 
narrowness of the channels fired on her from positions further down the 
stream. She was set on fire in twenty minutes, and exploded soon after. 
The Montauk was uninjured, and not a man was lost in the afiair. On 
March 3d Commodore Pupont attacked the fort itself, the iron-clads Pas- 
saic, Patapsco, Montauk, Ericsson and 2sahant, and three mortar-boats 
opening fire on the fort simultaneously. The obstructions sunk in the 
channel before the fort necessitated long-range firing^and though he suc- 
ceeded in dismounting nine of the heavy guns in the fort, no other dam- 
age was done. Fort McAllister was not to be so taken. 

One of the liveliest naval engagements of the war occurred off Charles- 
ton Bar on January 31, 1863. It must he understood that from the tak- 
ing of Port Royal Charleston was effectually blockaded. To raise this 
blockade was the ambition "of the Confederate naval force shut up in the 
inland waters of the State. On January 30th the Federal boat, Isaac 
Smith was sent up the Stono on a reconuoi^sauce, and was crippled and 
captured. (Some months later an attempt was made to run her out as a 
rebel vessel, when she was sunk by her former consort, the Wissahickon. j 
The dav following her capture, at four o'clock in the morning, favored by 
a thick haze, the iron-clads Palmetto State and Chicora stole down upon 
our fleet, three steamboats accompanying. The Powhatan and Canan- 
daigua, two of the most powerful of our blockading fleet, were at Port 
Royal, coaling. The nearest boat as the Confederate vessels approached 
was the Mercedita, and before her commander, Captain Stillwagen, knew 
of his danger, the Palmetto State ran into her amidship with full force, 
and fired a 7-inch shell into her side at close range. A hole was blown 
through her steam-drum, scalding several of the crew and disabling her. 
Unable to fight or fly, Stillwagen surrendered. The Keystone State was 
next attacked, set on tire and struck with ten rifled shells, two of them 
bursting on her quarter-deck. One-fourth of her crew were disabled, 
mainly by scalding, hut the Memphis took her in tow and drew her out 
' of the enemy's fire. By this time our other boats were ready to sail in, 
the Augusta, Quaker City ami Housatonkr. As they eame up for action. 
the Confederate boats put about and ran back up the river behind the 
shoals of the Swash channel, thence back to Charleston. A bombastic 
'proclamation was issued in Charleston, that day, signed by"G. T. 


Beauregard, General Commanding, and D. N. Ingraham, Flag-Officer 
commanding Naval Forces in South Carolina," declaring "the United States 
blockading Beet off the harbor of the city of Charleston sunk, dispersed, or 
drove off," and formally announcing that the blockade was raised. The 
British cousul at Charleston, and the commander of Her Majesty's ship 
Petrel, contirmed the statement. Confederate Secretary of State Benjamin 
officially notified the foreign consuls in the Confederate States of the 
event, "for the information of such vessels of your nation as may choose 
to carry on commerce with the now open port of Charleston." Fortunately 
for them no such vessels sought the "open port;" if they had, they would 
have found our blockading squadron still in possession. 

In the early months of I860 preparations were made for an attack on . 
Charleston. Some 12,000 land troops, which had been serving in North 
Carolina under General Foster, were placed at the disposal of General 
Hunter. With these reinforcements he had quite a formidable army to 
command. The co-operation of the naval force was of course necessary, 
and, indeed, that the naval force should take the initiative, since the ap- 
proaches to the city were lined with heavy rifled guns which must be taken 
or silenced before the military could land. On the morning of April 
7th Dupont'a fleet had crossed the bar and was in line off the east shore 
of Morris Island, nine iron-clads, mounting 30 guns — the New Ironsides, 
flag-ship for this expedition, the Weehawken, Passaic, Mont auk, Patap- 
sco, Catskill, Nantucket, Nahaut and Keokuk. Below the bar in reserve 
•were the Canandaigua, Unadilla, Housatonic, Wissahieken and Huron. 
Shortly after noon the boats moved up the" river, passing Fort Wagner on 
Morris Island without receiving a shot, and made for the entrance of the 
harbor between Fort Sumter and Sullivan's Island. It was Dupont's in- 
tention, as evidenced in Ids orders for the battle, to take position to the 
north and west of Sumter, and engage its northwest face. Could he have 
reached position for this Sumter must have fallen, for on the northwest it 
had never been completed, being designed to guard the harbor only. The 
Confederate engineers, however, knew the weak point of the fort quite 
as well asDupont, and had arranged such obstructions that it was impos- 
sible for the Federal fleet to reach the position outlined in the plan of at- 
tack. Our boats must face and fl:_ r ht the front or east of Fort Sumter, 
receiving the full shock of the fire of her barbette pins. Unable to find a 
channel to the westward, and unwilling to forego battle, Pupont attempted 
the impossible. Obeying his signal the Keokuk ran within 500 yards of 
the fort and poured upon it all the fire her guns could give until, and it 
took less than a half hour, she was riddled and sunk. She was struck 90 
times, and had 19 holes through her hull when, at 8 P. M., the last of her 
wounded was taken off just as she went to the bottom. The expedition 
was. an utter failure. The next day the gunboat George Washington, 
reconnoiteriug up Broad river, !_ r ot aground and was shelled by the enemy 
until she blew up. The loss of these two boats was quite made up by 


the capture of the rebel iron-clad Atlanta by the Weehawken, in War- 
saw Sound, on June 17th. 

' On June 12, 18G3, Gen. Q. A. Gillmore relieved General Hunter in- 
commaud of the laud forces of this department, and on July (5th Admi- 
ral John A. Dahlgreu relieved Dupont. Admiral Foote was intended 
for this position, but he died in New York on .Tune 26th, while prepar- 
ing to return to service. Gillmore found in his Department of the South 
a Total force of 17,4(53 officers and men. The naval force that could be 
counted on to co-operate with him swelled this number to over 20,000 
men, but so manv men Avere on garrison duty holding posts in this 
hostile country that not more than 11,000 could be counted on for 
a^ressive work. It is estimated that the picket line in this department 
would have extended, in a straight line, 250 miles. The Sea island? 
west of the Stono, and Seabrook and Folly islands east of that stream, 
were in our possession. 

From July 10th to September 6th the army under Gillmore and the 
navy under" Dahlgren besieged Morris Island. Fort Wagner was the 
rebel stronghold guarding this island, and an assault was made on this 
fort by eastern troops, the Seventh Connecticut, Seventy-Sixth Pennsyl- 
vania, Ninth Maine, Third New Hampshire, Forty-Eighth and One 
Hundredth New York infantry, on July 10th and 11th. A second 
assault was made on July 18th, which was also unsuccessful, and in which 
we lost 1,500 men. Our loss previous to this was about 800. We 
gained possession of three-fourths of the island, but could not carry the 
fort by assault, and a regular siege was. entered on. Batteries were 
erected on the west side of the island, and among the guns mounted wu* 
the one named by the soldiers "The Swamp Angel," an 8-inch rid- ■ 
Parrot gun on the "Marsh battery." The shots from this entded 
Charleston, as described already in our prison histories. \\ hen the 
preparation for the siege were completed, twelve batteries of heavy guns 
opened on Sumter, Wagner, Charleston and the rebel fortification on 
Cummings Point. On August 26th our troops carried Vinegar Hill by 
bayonet assault, and our fifth line of attack was established only 250 
yards from Fort Wagner. On the 27th our line was pushed within 100 
yards of the fort. On September 5th, at daybreak, our land batteries 
reopened on Fort Wagner, and the New Ironsides from the navy co-ope- 
rated, pouring 11-inch shells agaiust the parapet, many of which explod- 
ed within the fort. This drove the rebels from their guns, and our 
miners and sappers pushed their work up to the very walls of the fort. 
On September 7th the works were carried by Terry's division of infantry. 
Most of the garrison escaped, but eighteen pjuns were captured with Fort 
Wagner and seven with Battery Gregg, winch fell into our hands at the 
same time. On the night of the Xth Dahlgren's fleet attempted to carry 
Fort Sumter by storm, but were driven off with a loss of about 200 killed 
and captured. " On October 20th Gillmore's guns from their new positions 


Born in Philadelphia, November, 1809; 

died in Washington, July 12, 1870. 


in Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg opened on .Sumter. The bombard- 
ment was kept up at intervals through 1863, and a heavier tire directed 
against Charleston, but neither fell into our hands. On the night of 
October 5th the Weehawken foundered off Morris Island, and went down 
carrying thirty of her crew with her. 

Along the North Carolina coast little of moment occurred in 1863. 
On March 14th Gen. D. II. Plill attempted to retake New Berne, but 
was driven oft' by Foster's garrison there aided by the gunboats. On 
March 30th he attacked Washington and was defeated by its garrison and 
driven off. He established a battery on Rodman Point and shelled the 
town. An attempt to take his battery April 4th was unsuccessful. Our 
garrison in New Berne ran out of ammunition, the steamer Escort run 
Hill's blockade on the niixht of April 12th and brought in a new supply 
on April 14th, and Hill was forced to abandon his position which he did 
without an engagement. On October 2<sth Foster was relieved from com- 
mand of this department, General Butler succeeding him. 


Of the sieire and capture of Vicksburg by the army under Grant in 
1863 an account has been given in previous pages of this work. In 
this connection it is only necessary to speak of the work performed by 
the navy in the achievement of this great victory. In the taking of Fort 
Hindmau, or Arkansas Post, January 11, 1863, the gunboats of the Mis- 
sissippi Squadron, Porter commanding, rendered effective assistance. 
From March 13th to April 5th the gunboats Chillieothe ami DeKalb 
were in action with the Thirteenth and Seventeenth army corps in the 
attempted reduction of Fort Pembertou, an effort to flank the Vicksburg 
defences" on the east side of the Mississippi by way of Yazoo Pass. On 
March 26th the Chillieothe was disabled by an Impound -hot from a 
rifled gun, which entered one of her port holes, and exploded a shell, kill- 
ing or wounding fourteen men. From March 16th to 22d other of the 
gunboats, under Porter's direct command, made an uneventful expedi- 
tion up Steele's bayou. The ram Queen of the West, having run the 
Vicksburg batteries unharmed, in February, with the gunboat DeSoto in 
tow, went up Bed river. Her commander, Ellet, captured the rebel 
steamer Era, laden with 4,500 bushels of corn, which he left in charge of 
the DeSoto, while he took the Queen of the West farther up the river. 
By the treachery of the pilot he had taken on board, the ram was run 
ashore at Gordons Landing February 14th, where a rebel batterv opened 
on her, and riddled her. llw crew abandoned her and escaped on cot- 
ton bales, floating down to the DeSoto. Going back down the river the 
DeSoto was run into the bank and lost her rudder. The crews of the 
DeSoto and Queen of the West then took refuge on the Era, throwing 
the corn overboard, and the DeSoto was sunk. Just after entering the 
Mississippi again the series of disasters was completed by the Era running 


ashore. It was not until then that Ellet became aware his pilot — Garvey 
— was playing him false. Four boats loaded with armed rebels were hurry- 
ing down the Red river to attack Ellet when the iron-clad Indiauola came 
to his rescue. The Queen of the West was repaired by the Confederates 
and came down Red river with the rebel ram Webb, and two other 
small gunboats, mounting in all ten heavy guns, and manned by several 
hundred men. They found the Indiauola alone in the Mississippi, nearly 
opposite Grand Gulf, on February 24tb, and attacked her iu concert. 
She was rammed seven times by the Webb, the last blow staving in her 
stern. Beiug then in a sinking condition she was surrendered, when her 
captors ran her ashore. The same day, alarmed by the appearance in 
the river of a decoy ram, which Porter had let loose above Vicksburg, 
and which had drifted, unmanned, down the stream, the Confederates- 
having the Indiauola in charge blew her up. By request of Farragut, 
commanding in the river below Vicksburg, Porter attempted to seud him 
some rams and iron-clads to assist in destroying the rebel fleet gathering 
in Red river. In attempting to run the Vicksbur* batteries the ram 
Lancaster was sunk, and the ram Switzerland disabled. Other smaller 
vessels from time to time attempted the same feat, some of which were 
lost, others successful in passing the batteries. In these costly and futile 
efforts to aid Grant in reaching Vicksburg, the time was passed until that 
general changed his base and his plan of operation. From that time the 
movements of the navy, as of the army, were more successful. 

On the night of April 16th Porter, at Grant's request, ran past Vicks- 
burg with most of his fleet, the gunboats Benton, Lafayette, Louisville, 
Carondelct, Price, Pittsburg, Tuscumbia and Mound City. Floating 
with the current in the darkest hours of the night they were fairly oppo- 
site the city before they were discovered. Then they had to fight for it,. 
land and shore battrries opening on them with every possible gun. The 
passage of the gunboats was, however, effected without serious loss or 
damage, one man killed and two wounded on the Benton being the only 
casualties. The transports Forest Queen, Silver Wave and Henry Clay 
attempted to follow under cover of the smoke. The last-named got 
through unharmed. The Forest Queeu was disabled, but takeu in tow 
by a gunboat and carried through. The Henry Clay was struck by a 
shell which set on tire her protecting cotton bales and she burned to the 
water edge and sunk. Her crew were saved. On the night of the 22d 
six more transports attempted to come down, partially protected by 
forage-laden barges. Five got through, and the sixth, the Tigress, was 
Mink, receiving a shot below her water line. On April 29th Porter's 
full fleet opened on the batteries of Grand Gulf, bombarding them for 
five hours. At nightfall the boats opened again 011 the batteries, engag- 
ing them while the transports with Grant's troops on hoard ran past them. 
The next day both the gunboats and transports were busy ferrying the 
•Thirteenth aud Seventeenth corps to a point in the rear of Grand Gulf, 


whence they could march on Port Gibson. When Grant had completed 
the investment of Vicksburg, Porter prepared to attack the fortifications 
on Haines Bluff, but the enemy evacuated, on May 17th, and Porter 
took possession, blew up the magazine and destroyed the works. The 
fall of Haines Bluff had left Yazoo City unprotected, and Porter sent 
five boats under Captain Walker up the" river to take possession there 
They found the rebel navy yard and vessels in flames, and the citv 
. abandoned by troops. There were some 1,500 sick and wounded soldiers 
left in the town, whom Captain Walker paroled, and then returned to 
the Mississippi. 


When Farragut learned of the loss of the DeSoto and Queen of the 
VV est below Vicksburg, he decided to regain control of that portion of 
the Mississippi. The only formidable obstruction was the batteries at 
Port Hudson. Banks sent a co-operating laud force to move upon Port 
Hudson March 13th and 14th, but the V did not atfack, simply driving 
in the rebel pickets, then waiting to see what the boats could do" In the 
night following March 14th the attempt was made. The flagship Hart- 
ford with Farragut on board was lashed to the Albatross, and these 
moved up the stream, followed by the Mississippi, Monon^ahela Pvicli- 
mond, Genesee, Kineo, Essex and Sachem. As they came within ran^e 
of the nearest rebel guns, signal lights flashed up from both shores a cruu 
from the west bank sent a shot toward the Hartford, which responded 
and the rebel batteries opened a heavy fire upon all the boats The 
Hartford and Albatross succeeded in getting by, but none of the others 
lhe Mississippi was set on lire and burned until the tire reached the mag- 
azine, when she exploded, and her splendid 'armament of 21 Iaro-e guns 
and two howitzers went to the bottom or drifted away in fragments 
The Kineo and Richmond were disabled. From May 27th to July 9th 
Banks's army besieged Port Hudson. An attempt Was made to carry 
the works by assault on May 27th, which resulted disastrously. On that 
day Farragut's fleet rendered great assistance, their shot and shell forcing 
the enemy to abandon their most southern battery. The siege was more 
successful, and the garrison was well-nigh brought to submission when 
word came down the river, on July (5th, of Vicksburg's surrender. Then 
the hemmed-in garrison heard, from our html batteries and our gunboats 
a salute that seemed to shake the heavens, while cheer on cheer from 
loyal throat- rolled over their head. That evening the commandant of 
the 1 ort, General Gardner, held a council of war, and three days later 
the place was surrendered. 




One further movement of the navy on inland waters remains to be 
told and may be fittingly chronicled here, the part taken by Porter's 
fleet in Banks' unfortunate Red River campaign in 1864. The strength 
of the fleet was eighteen vessels, many of which had been in constant 
service on the Mississippi and its tributaries for two years, from the taking 
of Fort Henry to the full of Port Hudson. These vessels were the Essex, 
Eastport, Black Hawk, Lafayette, Benton, Louisville, Caroudelet, Usage, 
Ouchita, Lexington, Chillicothe, Pittsburg, Mound City, Xeosho, Ozark, 
Fort Hindman, Cricket and Gazelle. On the morning of March 12th 
these left the mouth of Red river where they had been at anchorage for 
ten days and moved up the river, followed by transports having on board 
the troops sent to Banks' assistance by Sherman, commanded by Gen. A. 
J. Smith. Half of the fleet, the Benton, Pittsburg, Louisville, Mound City, 
Carondelet, Chillicothe, Ouchita, Lexingtou and Gazelle turned off into the 
Atehafalaya river with the transports, the remainder continuing up the 
Red. Admiral Porter accompanied that part of the squadron passing into 
the Atchafalva, and the other vessels were under Lieutenant Commander 
S. L. Phelps. 

From the first it was evident that the vessels would be delayed and 
render inefficient aid to the land mo'" jient on account of the natural 
and artificial barriers to their progicss. The rivers were narrow and 
winding, and the enemy had planted artificial obstructions in the waters. 
The last of the vessels reached Alexandria on Red river on March 16th, 
and Shreveport, the objective point of the expedition, was .S40 miles 
further up the river. Just above Alexandria are two small rapids, 
called the Falls of Alexandria, which interrupt navigation when the 
water is low. The expedition had been planned to take advantage of the 
reason of high water, the annual rise beginning as a rule in early winter, 
and the river being navigable for ordinary boats from December to June. 
It was calculated that the spring rise in March would give a depth suffi- 
cient for the passage of the gunboats and transports above the falls. For 
twenty years before 1864 the river had only failed to rise one spring, that 
of 1855, but it again failed in this year. It is, indeed, the opinion of 
some authorities that the shallowness of the waters was from artificial 
cause, and that the enemy diverted from their natural channel many of 
the small streams that naturally flow into the Red river. 

When the fleet reached Alexandria the depth of water would have 
permitted the passage of the lighter draught vessels above the falls, but 
Admiral Porter, having information that the enemy had some ironclads 
farther up the river, would not allow his smaller vessels to pass on unpro- 
tected. The Eastport was the first of the larger vessels sent over the falls, 
and she, after remaining in danger among the rocks of the rapids two or 
three days, was ultimately hauled over by main force. The river began 


to rise slowly and teu gunboats and thirty transports were at last got 
above the falls. On April 3d the boats that had passed up the river 
were at Grand Eeore, beyond which Admiral Porter did not deem it safe 
to take his heavy boats. These were left there under command of Phelps, 
and on April 7th the Admiral continued the passage towards Shreveport 
with onlv six of the smaller boats, the Cricket, Hindman, Lexington, 
Osage, Neosho, and Chillicothc, some transports following. Navigation 
was as bad as it could be, the crooked, narrow river making progress 
very slow, while to Porter's alarm the water began to fall, showing a bot- 
tom covered with snags and stumps. He reached Springfield Landing 
on the 10th, and there found a large steamer sunk across the channel 
which was at this place so narrow that the bow of the sunken boat rested 
on one shore and her stern on the other. Here Gen. Kilby Smith, in 
* command of the troops on the transports, received notice of Banks' 
retreat on Grand Ecore, with instructions to turn back with his troops. 
On the following day both transports and gunboats were on their way 
back to Alexandria. -> 

The enemv now made their presence in the vicinity felt, occupying 
both banks of the river, and from its high bluffs firing down on the decks 
of the boats almost without danger to themselves. All the way to Alex- 
andria, and even below, these guerrilla bands harassed the fleet and inflicted 
great loss, while occasionally engagements quite serious occurred. Th<* 
first of these was at Blairs Lauding, also called Pleasant Hill, on April 12th. 
At four in the afternoon three vessels were aground off this point, the 
transport Hastings, having Gen. Kilby Smith on board, which had run 
to the right hank, with her wheel disabled; the heavy transport Vivian, 
with 300 cavalry horses on board, aground in the middle of the stream, 
and the gunboat Osage, also in the middle of the river. Three transports 
were tugging away at the Vivian and Osage, when a sudden attack was 
opened on the confused mass of boats from the south hank by 2,000 
rebel infantry with four field pieces. The boats got into position as best 
thev could, and a right was kept up for two hours, the enemy riling from 
shelter behind trees, and the soldiers on the transports protecting them- 
selves behind bales of hay. A reinforcement of 5,000 men came up to 
assist the enemy, but they were finally driven with a loss of 700 men, 
among whom was Gen. Thomas Green, a Texan, killed. The next day 
an attack was made from the north hank, and all the way to Grand 
Ecore the boats ran a gauntlet of fire. 

The position of Admiral Porter, when he reached Grand Ee<»re again, 
was one of extreme perplexity. By all that was known of the naviga- 
tion of this river it ought to be rising, but it was falling. To delay the 
return of the boats to Alexandria might be to imprison his squadron in 
shoal water; to send them down might be to endanger the safety of the 
army, and the river might yet ri.;e as in former years. Most of the boats 
were started down stream, however, the Admiral remaining with four 


light draught boats at Grand Ecore until notified that the Eastport had 
been sunk by a torpedo eight miles below, on the loth. Hastening to 
the spot he found her sunk in shoal water, which reached to her gun- 
deck. She was lightened, and got afloat on the 21st, making twenty 
miles that day, and grounding on a bar toward night. Between that 
and the 26th she made thirty miles more, getting aground several times, 
the last time in a hopeless position. On the 22d the army evacuated 
Grand Ecore, marching for Alexandria, and there was no further reason 
for keeping anv part of the squadron above the last-named city. The 
Eastport was blown up to keep her from falling into the enemy's hands, 
and the boats that had remained behind to protect and assist her began 
a retreat already perilously delayed, for our army was sixty miles away, 
and the enemy lined the banks of the river. These boats were the 
Cricket, with Porter on board, the Juliet and the Hiudman, and two* 
pump boats that had come up the river to work on the Eastport. 

On April 26th, when five miles above the mouth of Cane river, these 
boats were opened on by a large Confederate force having eighteen pieces 
of artillery drawn up on the right bank of the river. The Cricket, lead- 
ing, was swept by shot and shell, the crews of her two broadside guns 
were swept away, the chief engineer was killed, all but one of the men in 
the fire-room wounded, and one gun disabled. The pilot also was wound- 
ed, and Porter himself took charge of the vessel until she was run past 
the battery under what he has recorded as the heaviest fire he ever expe- 
rienced. In this desperate fight against odds the Cricket was struck 
thirty-eight times in five minutes and lost twenty-five killed and wound- 
ed, half her crew, for she was only a " tin-clad," of 156 tons burden. 
When she was below the range of the batteries Porter found the Juliet 
and Hindman had not been able to pass them. The Juliet had been dis- 
abled by a shot in her machinery, and the Hindman remained to protect 
her. The boiler of one of the pump-boats had been struck and exploded, 
killing her captain and nearly all on board, some two hundred, mostly 
escaped slaves, who were scalded to death. About noon next day the 
two boats left above the batteries started down, the Juliet, only partially 
repaired, taken alongside by the Hindman, the remaining pump-boat 
following. First the Juliet struck a snag, and sprung a leak. When 
this was repaired, and the boats again in motion, a shot passed through 
the pilot-house of the Hindman, cutting the wheel-ropes and rendering 
the boat unmanageable. Both boats fell off broadside to the stream, and 
drifted down under fire, striking first one shore then the other. They, 
however, escaped capture and twelve miles below the battery met the 
Neosho, which Porter had sent to their relief. The pump-boat was 
captured with all the crew. 

The squadron was at length reassembled at Alexandria, only to find 
the worst of their trouble before them. Ten gunboats and two tugs were 
above the rapids. Seven feet of water was the least that would take 





them down below the falls and they had only three feet four inches. 
Porter's release from this position is due to an army officer, Lieut. -Col. 
Joseph Bailey of the Fourth Wisconsin Infantry, under whose instruc- 
tions some Maine soldiers, who had been lumbermen at home, proceeded 
to dam the river and pen in water enough to give the necessary depth 
over the rapids. The work was begun on May 1st and completed in 
eight days. In four more the boats were through and in the river below, 
thanks to "Yankee ingenuity." For this service Colonel Bailey was 
promoted brigadier-general and received a vote of thanks from Congress. 
While the army and navy were detained at Alexandria, the enemv passed 
round the city and appeared on the banks below. They attacked two 
light gunboats, the Covington and Signal, which had the transport 
Warner with them. The Covington was riddled and burned, the two 
other boats with their crews and soldiers captured. The transport City 
Belle, carrying troops up to Alexandria, was also captured. The fleet 
suffered no further loss in regaining the Mississippi. 


The fortunes of war were not favorable to the Union arms along the 
Atlantic coast in 1864. In January Cillmore, still operating against 
Charleston, dispatched an infantry force under Gen. Truman Seymour 
to Florida. The impression prevailed at Washington that this" State 
would return to its allegiance to the Nation if the inhabitants were pro- 
tected by our troops, anil this movement of troops was made for this end. 
Jacksonville was again occupied without resistance, and in the early 
part of February Seymour advaucod along the St. Mary river, with 
slight engagements near Point Washington, at Barbers Place, at Lake 
City and at Gainesville. His orders were to concentrate his troops at 
Baldwin, but he allowed himself to be drawu on beyond that point, and 
on February 20th he encountered the enemy in force at Olustee, and 
met with an overwhelming defeat. He had less than 5,000 meu all told, 
and though they fought gallantly ami were ably commanded they could 
not hold their own against superior numbers, the Confederates" having 
also the advantage of a position of their own choosing, which could not 
be flanked. Seymour's loss was 19.3 killed, 1,175 wounded, and 460 cap- 
tured, a. total of 1,828, while the total loss of the euemy was less than 
500. Seymour retreated to Jacksonville and no further advance wa* at- 
tempted. The troops engaged were New Hampshire, Connecticut, Mas- 
sachusetts, New York, and colored infantry. No other movement of im- 
portance occurred in Florida before the collapse of the Rebellion. On the 
South Carolina coast long range firing from Morris Island was kept up on 
Charleston through the year, and occasional slight engagements occurred 
between the opposing armies. In North Carolina, where our army of 
occupation had been weakened by the withdrawal of troops to the depart- 
ment of South Carolina, alid to the Army of the James, the Coufeder- 



ates achieved a series of victories. Our outposts at Bachelor creek, eight 
miles above New Berne, were attacked and captured by Pickett's meu ou 
February 1st; a second victory was achieved by him at Newport Barracks 
the next day, and on February '3d a detachment of his troops captured 
aud destroyed the hue gunboat Underwriter which was lying at the New 
Berne wharf, under our guus. Pickett then retired without attempting to 
take New Berne. From April 17th to 20th occurred the engagements at 
Plymouth of Forts Gray, Wessella and Williams. Our garrisons there, 
consisting of the Eighty-Fifth New York, Sixteenth Connecticut, One 
Hundred and First and One Hundred aud Third Pennsylvania Infantry, 
was under command of General Wessells, about 2,000 men in all, while 
in the river opposite were the gunboats Southfield, Miami and Bombshell, 
under Lieutenant-Commander Flusser. The Confederates were 7,000 
strong, Geueral Hoke in command, and the armored ram Albemarle came 
down the Roanoke to assist in the attack. The Southfield was sunk, and 
Flusser was killed on the Miami, as were many of her crew, after which 
the boat was taken down down the river. The Bombshell was injured 
and sunk, and later was raised and put into service by the Confederate.-. 
The outer forts around the town were taken by assault, aud an enfilading 
fire opened on the town itself, forcing its surrender. Our loss in killed 
and wounded was only 100, but 1,600 of the troops were made prisoners, 
many of whom died in Andersonville of prison hardships later. There 
were 25 heavy guns surrendered, with 2,000 stand of arms and valuable 
stores. The loss of Plymouth necessitated also the withdrawal of our 
garrison at Washington, at the head of Pamlico sound. 

In May, under orders of Admiral Lee, then commanding the squadron 
off North Carolina, an attempt was made to destroy the Albemarle. The 
work was entrusted to Capt. Melaucthon Smith, and the boats assigned 
to the work were the Mattabesett (which Smith made his Hag-ship), Sas- 
sacus, Wyalusing, Whitehead, Ceres, Commodore Hull and Seymour. 
The Albemarle cam- out of the river on May 5th, accompanied "by the 
Cotton Plant (with troops on board) and the now Confederate Bombshell', 
and an engagement lasting through the afternoon ensued, but the ram 
was not destroyed, and returned up the river at nightfall. The recapture 
of the Bombshell was the only success of the engagement. The service 
of the Albemarle to the Confederates was of little worth after this, how- 
ever, as our boats lay iu wait for her at the mouth of the Roanoke, and 
she dared not meet them again. She remained at the Plymouth dock, 
protected against torpedoes by a barricade of logs, secured twenty <>r 
thirty feet from her broadside. 

Lieut. Wm. II. dishing, in command of the Montieello, asked for and 
obtained permission to attempt her destruction. He stole into the Roan- 
oke aud spent two days reoonnoitering the situation and maturing his 
plans, then returned to the fleet and prepared for its execution. A steam ^ 
launch was the vessel he chose, and a torpedo on the end of a pole wad 


his weapon of destruction. On the night of October 28th he went 
up the river, having fifteen officers and men on the launch. The 
distance from the mouth of the river to the town was eight miles, the 
average width of the river 200 yards, and both shores were picketed, but 
he was not discovered until hailed by the lookouts on the ram. In his 
report he says that, when discovered, "the launch made for the enemy 
under a full head of steam. The enemy sprung rattles, rang the bell, and 
commenced firing, and at the same time repeating their hail; the light of a 
fire ashore showed me the ironclad, made fast to the wharf with a pen of 
logs around her about thirty feet from her side." The launch circled 
around to get her head to the enemy, so as to strike the logs squarely, 
then bore down swiftly upon them. "Three bullets," said Lieutenant 
Cashing, " struck my, clothing, and the air seemed full of them. In a 
moment we had struck the logs just abreast of her quarter port, breasting 
them in some feet and our bows resting on them. The torpedo boom was 
then lowered, and by a vigorous pull I succeeded in driving the torpedo 
under the overhang, and exploded it at the same time that the Albemarle's 
gun was fired. A shot seemed to go crashing through my b >at, and a dense 
mass of water rushed in from the torpedo, filling the. launch and com- 
pletely disabling her." The men on the launch found themselves in the 
water, with the enemy close on hand on the shore firing on them, and 
calling on them to surrender. None of them complied. Gushing reached 
the shore completely exhausted, remained in the swamp the next day 
near the fort, 'then made his way through the swamp some miles before 
he could find a boat to take him back to the fleet. On October 20th he 
wrote to his admiral: "I have the honor to report that the rebel ironclad 
Albemarle is at the bottom of Roanoke river." He way but twenty-one 
years of age when he performed this daring act. 

With no further protection afforded by the Albemarle, and with most 
of Hoke's troops drawn off to Virginia to oppose Grant, the rebel garri- 
son left in Plymouth could not hold the town, which was retaken on Oc- 
tober 31st by the Commodore Hull, Shamrock, Otsego, Wyalusiug and 
Taeony, under Commander Macomb. 


The Confederates, notwithstanding the non-success of the Union move- 
ments along the Atlantic coast in lNt>4, had hut two ports which could be 
approached by vessels of any considerable draught. These were of great 
importance, Charleston in South Carolina, and Wilmington in North- 
Carolina. Both of these were blockaded, twenty vessels of the North 
Atlantic squadron lying off Charleston, and between thirty and forty off 
the two entrances to Wilmington. Notwithstanding the blockade Con- 
federate boats <r<it in and opt, and rendered valuable service to their gov- 
ernment. Tic priucipal defense of Wilmington was Fort Fisher, and ite 
reduction, together with that of the other defences of Cape Fear river, 




had long beeu desired. To effect this it was necessary that a joint attack 
of laud and naval forces should be made, and no sufficient army could be 
spared from other fields for this purpose until the close of Grant's cam- 
paign of 1864. After the siege of Petersburg was begun, he sent the 
Tenth Corps from the Army of the James as the co-operating land force 
for this purpose. It was his intention that Brig.-Gen. Godfrey Weitzel 
should command the expeditiou, but the Tenth Corps was from Butler's 
army and Butler elected to go with it. 

On September 5, 1$04, Admiral Farragut was officially notified that he 
•was to take command of the naval forces for this movement. His ill- 
health prevented his accepting the command, and ou September 22d Rear- 
Admiral Porter was notified that he was detached from the command of 
the Mississippi squadron, and directed te proceed to Beaufort, North Car- 
olina, and relieve Capt. S. P. Lee, who was acting rear admiral and com- 
manding the North Atlantic squadron. On December 10th Porter issued 
a general order detailing the plan of attack, and the part of each vessel 
therein. A powder-laden boat was to be driven against the Confederate 
shore batteries and exploded, when the other boats were to go in toward 
the shore and'open fire, and the infantry to land from the transports and 
assault. An old vessel, the Louisiana, was chosen for the powder-boat, 
and disguised as a blockade runner, in order that the enemy might per- 
mit her near approach. 

On December 18th " the largest fleet that ever sailed under the Union 
flag" was anchored at the rendezvous, twenty-five miles from Fort Fisher, 
the transports with Butler's troops being there also. A heavy storm de- 
layed the action, and the transports, not being built to ride out a gale at 
anchor, were taken with the troops ou board to Beaufort, fifty miles awav. 
On the night of the 23d the sea was calm again, and Porter, fearing the 
discovery of his plan if it were longer delayed, proceeded to execute it, 
though the troops taken to Beaufort had not yet returned. The Louisi- 
ana, was towed into the river by the Wilderness, and cast off at 11:30 
p. M. She blew up at 1:40 but without effecting the damage'to the enemy's 
works that was hoped for. At daylight the different divisions of the fleet 
moved up the river in the order arranged by Porter, and at 11:30 the at- 
tack was opened by the New Ironsides, the Monad nock, Canonicus, Ma- 
hopac, Minnesota, Mohican, Colorado and others following. Some, very 
effective work was done. Two magazines in forts were exploded by shells 
from the boats, several buildings set on fire and burned, and a number of 
batteries silenced. At sunset General Butler arrived with some of the 
transports, ami at dark the fleet retired to a safe anchorage. A boiler on 
the Mackinaw had been exploded by a shell, and the Osceola came near 
sinking from a leak caused by a shell explosion. No other damage was 
done the boats except by the explosion of their own Parrott rilled guns. 

On the 25th, Weitzel having arrived with the remainder of thetrans- 
ports and troops, the fleet again opened fire to cover the lauding of the 


army force. Weitzel in person headed the first force landed, some 800 
men, and pushed forward with them to within 150 yards of the fort, cap- 
turing a small outpost called Fishpond Hill battery. The result of his 
observations was that he returned to the transports and reported to But- 
ler t-hat the works of the fort were very strong, little injured by Por- 
ter's explosion or by his fire, and that it would be " murder to assault 
with our 6,000 men!" Butler was of the same opinion from the observ- 
ations he had made himself, and gave orders that the men who had 
landed, some 3,000 of them, should re-embark. Two days later he de- 
parted with his troops for the James, leaving the fleet still off Wilming- 
ton. Later the vessels not engaged in the blockade were taken to Beau- 
fort for ammunition and to await further orders. There has been much 
criticism of Butler's part in this fiasco, apparently well deserved. Be- 
tween himself and Porter there had been ill-feeling before and Porter was 
very bitter in his report on this occasion. He said: " Seven hundred 
men were left on the beach by General Butler [the surf was so rough 
they could not be taken off] when he departed for Fortress Monroe, and 
we had no difficulty in protecting them from the rebel army said to be in 
the background, which was a very small army, after all." 


Grant was greatly dissatisfied with the result of the movement against 
Fort Fisher under Butler. He had not, in the first place, intended But- 
ler should take personal command of it, and in* orders issued on Decem- 
ber 6, 1864, he had instructed Weitzel "to close the port of Wilmington," 
aod that the plan to be pursued should be to " effect a landing on the 
main land between Cape Fear river and the Atlantic," north of the river, 
entrench his troops if Fort Fisher wasnot carried and, co-operating with the 
navy, reduce and capture the defences at the mouth of the river. Weit- 
zel had effected such landing, but had not remained in possession. In 
justice to him it should be stated that he advised the return and concurred 
in Butler's decision to that effect, in utter ignorance of the order convey- 
ing hi.-> instructions. The order had been addressed to Butler for Weitzel, 
and was withheld by Butler. The war and navy department shared in 
Grant's dissatisfaction. On December 29th the Secretary of the Navy, 
at the suggestion of President Lincoln, sent the following dispatch to 
General Grant : 

"Ships can approach nearer the enemy's works at New Inlet than was 
anticipated. Their fire can keup the enemy away from their guns. A 
landing can easily be effected on the beach north of Fort Fisher, not 
only of troops but all their supplies and artillery. This force can have 
its Hanks protected by gunboats. The navy can assist in the siege of Fort 
H isher precisely as it covered the operations that resulted in the capture 
of Fort Wagner. Rear-Admiral Porter will remain off Fort Fisher, con- 
tinuing a moderate tire to prevent new works being erected, and the iron- 


clads have proved that they can maintain themselves in spite of bad 
weather. Under all these circumstances, I invite you to such a military 
co-operation as will ensure the fall of Fort Fisher, the importance of 
which h;is already received your careful consideration." 

To Admiral Porter the Secretary of the Navy wrote on the last day of 
1864: "Lieutenant-General Grant will send immediately a competent 
force, properly commanded, to co-operate in the capture of the defences 
on Federal Point." On January 8, 1865, Gen. A. H. Terry reported at 
Beaufort, North Carolina, with his co-operating force, consisting of the 
Second Division, and the Second Brigade of the First Division, Twenty- 
Fourth Corps, and the Third Division of the Twenty-Fifth Corps, Army 
of the James. On January 12th the fleet of the Atlantic Blockading 
squadron, a total of forty-eight vessels, put out from Beaufort harbor in 
three columns, the transports with troops on board accompanying the 
gunboats. On the 13th the boats were in line to open lire on Fort Fisher, 
the Ironsides with its heavy armament of seven Xl-inch shell guns and 
one YHI-inch rifle, within a thousand yards of the nearest Confederate 
guns, and one monitor three hundred feet closer to' the shore. Bombard- 
ment was begun as soon as ranges were got of the enemy's fortifications, 
kept up vigorously through the afternoon, and resumed at daylight the 
next morning. The debarkation of troops under cover of the gunboats' 
fire was begun on the morning of the loth, and at two o'clock that after- 
noon 6,000 troops had been landed, with twelve days' provisions. On the 
14th the small gunboats were sent into position to shell and dismount the. 
guns on the north side of the fort, bearing on the intended line of assault 
by the army, while the heavier boats remained in the position of the day 
before, firing incessantly on the fort to keep the enemy in their bomb- 
proofs. The entire cordon of boats kept up their fire during the night 
following. The enemy had not been inactive during these two days, but 
only the guns far up their line of works could be manned, owing to the 
concentrated fire on those nearer at hand, and the damage they inflicted 
on the boats was only trifling, the loss of the main mast of the Huron the 
most serious disaster on the 14th to the Union fleet. That evening Gen- 
eral Terry visited Porter on the flag-ship Malvern, to arrange the final 
plans for carrying the works. The plan was that 1,600 sailors and 400 
marines should accompany the troops in the assault, the sailors to board 
the sea face of the tort while the army assaulted on the land side. The 
order issued by Porter to the commanders of the vessels was: "The sail- 
ors will D2 armed with cutlasses, well sharpened, and with revolvers. 
When tie' signal is made to move the boats, the men will tret in but n<>t 
show themselves. When the signal is made to assault, the boats will pull 
round to the stern of the monitors, and land right abreast of them, and 
board the fort on the run in a seamanlike way. The marines will form 
in the rear, and cover the sailors. While the soldiers are going over the 
parapet in front, the sailors will take the sea face of Fort Fisher." 



At nine on the morning of the loth the bombardment of the fort bv 
the ironclads was reopened. The men from the boats were lauded in the 
forenoon, but at two in the afternoon Porter had not received from Terry 
the signal "vessels change direction of tire," by which he was to know 
when the army was ready to assault on their side. An hour later the 
signal was given, and the assault made. The army force had been ma- 
neuvered into position under cover and close to the land face of the fort. 
The soldiers assaulted in gallant style, and carried and held the western 
end of the parapet. The sailors were not so fortunate. The steam whis- 
tles, blown from every vessel of the squadron, and the sound of the shells 
bursting in a new direction, far beyond the faces of the fort, warned the 
enemy that an assault was upon them. They swarmed from their bomb- 
proofs upon the bastions, and poured volleys upon the advancing sailors, 
who haiT half a mile to cover under an enfilading tire, before their cut- 
lasses and revolvers could be used. 

Fleet-Captain Breese, in command of the sailors, says in his official re- 
port: " At three o'clock the signal came, the vessel* changed their fire to 
the upper batteries, all the steam-whistles were blown, and the troops and 
sailors dashed ahead, nobly vying with each other to reach the top of the 
parapet. * * * The sailors took to the assault by the Hank along the 
beach. * * * It was hoped to form them for the assault undercover 
of the marines; but exposed to a gallingfire of musketry, only four hun- 
dred yards distant, the first line did not take position as they should. 
The second and third lines came along, and the heads of the three lines 
joined and formed one compact column, which, filing up to the sea face 
of Fort Fisher, assaulted to within fifty yards of the parapet, which was 
lined with one dense mass of" musketeers, who played sad havoc with our 
men. Although rallied three times under the personal encouragement 
and exposure of their commanding officers, they failed to gain much 

The assault on the sea-face of the fort was thus a failure, but that it 
was so gallantly persisted in made it possible for the army to achieve 
success. The Confederates occupied in defending this part of the fort 
could render no assistance to those who were meeting the assaults of 
the infantry. When the soldiers had gained the parapets in front of them, 
they carried, one after another, seven of the most westerly traverses, then 
advanced upon those more toward the sea. The Ironsides and monitors 
and other boats nearest the shore resumed a fire of shells between the 
traverses in advance of the soldiers. The Confederates, hemmed in by 
this fire on one side and the bayonets of the soldiers on the other, fought 
desperately, but were obliged to abandon one traverse after another, or be 
killed where they stood. Major-Oeueral Whiting, commanding in the 
fort, was mortally wounded, still his troops held out. retreating slowly, 
hoping for relief from Hoke's division. Bragg had ordered Hoke to ad- 
vance by the peninsula, but he hail been driven back by tire from half a 


dozen gun-boats that were in position along the beach north of Terry's 
line. By nightfall the army had carried the bastion, and some of the 
traverses on the sea side of the fort. Shortly after ten in the evening re- 
sistance ceased. Hundreds of rockets sent up from the fleet announced 
to the enemy at Wilmington, and those manning outlying batteries, that. 
Fort Fisher was captured by the Federals. 

Our loss was 1*4 killed, 749 wounded, 22 missing, a total of 955. The 
next morning, while our soldiers and sailors were swarming over the fort 
iu idle curiosity, the chief powder magazine exploded, it is thought as 
the result of some carelessness, killing 200 and wounding about one hun- 
dred men. The enemy's loss, including the surrendered, was 2,483; 112 
officers and 1, 971 enlisted men were surrendered. Many of the Confed- 
erates escaped under cover of the night toward 'Wilmiugton before the 
surrender was made. There were also taken with the fort 169 heavy 
guus, over 2,000 small arms, and other munitions. Our three assaulting 
infantry brigades were led by Gen. X. M. Curtis and Cfnonels Pennvpacker 
and Bell, all of whom were wounded, the last-named mortally. Lieutenants 
Preston and Porter, young naval officers of great promise, were among 
the killed. 

On the niL r ht of the 16th and 17th explosion after explosion gave wit- 
ness that the Confederates were destroying and abandoning their de- 
fences of Cape Fear river. Half Moon battery was taken by the army 
on the 19th; .Sugar Loaf battery on February 11th; Fort Anderson- 
half way up the river to Wilmington, by the army and navy on February 
l*th, Schofield'a corps of the Army of the Ohio co-operating. Wilming- 
ton fell before the combined armies of Terry and Schofield on February 
22d. On that day Admiral Porter had the pleasure, as he reports, of 
celebrating Washington's birthday by hoisting the flag of the Union over 
Fort Strong. A national salute was fired at noon, and no hostile gun again 
sounded between Wilmington and the sea. Nor were there any further 
engagements of note along the Atlantic coast. Some of Sherman's iuland 
battles were yet to be fought in the Carolinas, but the coast was clear. 

It was the successful advance of Sherman through South Carolina, and 
not the batteries on Morris Island nor the fleet off Charleston harbor which 
brought about the surrender of that city. When Columbia had fallen 
into Sherman's hand, Hardee, in command at Charleston, finding himself 
flanked by the advancing army, determined to evacuate the city. "But." 
says Pollard, the Southern historian, "he was resolved to leave as little 
as possible for the enemy's rapacity. At an early hour of the morning. 
before the retirement of Geu. Hardee's troop*, every building, warehouse. 
or shed, stored with cotton, was fired by a guard detailed for the pur- 
pose. The engines were brought out; but, with the small force at the 
disposal of the fire department, very little else could be done than to keep 
the surrounding buildings from igniting. On the western side of the city 
the flames raged with great fury. 


"The horrors of the conflagration were heightened by a terrible catas- 
trophe. It appears some boys had discovered a quantity of powder at the 
depot of the Northwestern railroad, and amused themselves by flinging 
handfuls of it upon the masses of burning cotton in the streets. It was 
cot long before the powder running from their hands, formed a train upon 
the grouud, leading from the tire to the main supplies of powder in the 
depot. The result is easily conjectured. A spark ignited the powder in the 
train ; there was a leaping, running tire along the ground, and then an 
explosion which shook the city to its very foundations from one end to the 
other. The building was, in a second, a whirling mass of ruins, in a tremen- 
dous volume of flame and smoke. About 200 lives were lost by the explo- 
sion, and not less than 150 bodies were found charred in that fiery furnace. 

" From the depot the fire spread rapidly, and, communicating with the 
adjoining buildings, threatened destruction to that part of the town. Four 
squares, embracing the area bounded by Chapel, Alexander and Wash- 
ington streets, were consumed before the conflagration was subdued. The 
destruction of public property bad been as complete as Gen. Hardee could 
make it. He burned the cotton warehouses, arsenals, quartermaster's 
stores, railroad bridges, two iron-clads, and some vessels in the ship-yard. 
Among the captured property were 200 pieces of artillery, spiked and 
temporarily disabled, as they could not be brought off. The Yankees oc- 
cupied Charleston on the 18th of February. A scarred city, blackened 
by fire, with evidences of destruction and ruin wrought by the enemy at 
almost every step, had at last come into their possession; but not until a 
heroic defen.-e, running through nearly four years, and at last only by the 
stratagem of a march, many miles away from it." 

On such authority as this it will be, conceded that the Confederates 
themselves burned Charleston, nor is this denied. That Hampton, in 
command at Columbia when the Confederates evacuated that city, is re- 
sponsible for its destruction, has not been so well established. The forces 
on Morris Island were under command of Lieut. -Col. A. G. Bennett, at 
the time Charleston was evacuated. Heat once sent Federal troops to 
take possession of the city and of Fort Sumter, and at a. m. on the 
morning of the evacuation the flag of the Union floated again over the 
citidal from which it had first been lowered at the beginning of the war. 
General Gilmore reported 450 guns taken in the capture of Charleston 
and its defenses, many. of them heavy guns of foreign make and of great 


The city of Mobile lies at the head of a great bay of the same name, 
thirty mile- from the Gulf of Mexico. The principal entrance i.-> from the 
gulf direct, between Mobile Point on the east, guarded by Fort Morgan, 
and Dauphin island on the west, guarded by Fort Gaines. The bay 
could also be entered from Mississippi sound, but only by vessels of light 


$_* •• ' 

'""i.^*^ MP„gi 



draught, and this entrance was covered by a small earthwork on Tower 
island known as Fort Powell. The most formidable of these was Fort 
Morgan, which was five sided, and built to carry guns both en barbette 
and casements, and had a heavy water battery on the northeast. At the 
time of Farragut's attack, there was in the waters of the bay a small 
Confederate squadron commanded by Admiral Franklin Buchanan, the 
ram Tennessee, which was the most powerful ironclad the Confederacy 
ever possessed, and three small paddle-wheel gunboats, the Morgan, 
Gaines and Selma, the three all unarmored except around the boilers. 
The Tennessee was admirably built, heavily armored, 20 l J feet in length 
on deck, beam 4* feet, and drawing fourteen feet of water with her guns 
on board. To these defences was added a line of pile obstructions ex- 
tending from the point of Dauphin island across a sand bank in the di- 
rection of Fort Morgan. Where the piles ended a triple line of torpe- 
does began, which were extended to within '260 yards of the water battery 
under Fort Morgan. The remaining channel, some hundred yards, was 
left open for blockade runners. v 

Farragut, who had resumed command of his squadron in January, 
1864, had in vain applied for a sufficient force to move on this harbor of 
Mobile before the Confederate ram was ready for action. The army force 
could not be spared him, and the Bed River expedition was the move de- 
cided upon by the War Department. The ram was not put into service 
until May, but six months of 1864 passed before a land force could be 
spared toco-operate with the 'ou.lf Squadron, then the Thirteenth Corps, 
General Granger in immediate command, was sent. During these months 
Farragut kept up a tolerably efficient blockade of the port, and from the 
reports of refugees and the examinations made by his officers, he learned 
the location of the narrow channel and that it was clear of torpedoes-. 
He determined, when the time for action came, to take his fleet through 
this channel. This would bring him close to Fort Morgan, but leave the 
guns of Fort Gaines two miles away. The plan of attack was that the 
boats should move in two columns, the starboard column being the four 
monitors — Tecumseh, Manhattan, Winnebago and Chickesaw, and the 
port column the wooden ships, which were to be lashed in couples, seven 
heavy boats having each a lighter boat on the side furthest from the fort, 
their order as follows: the Brooklyn and the Octorara, Hartford and 
Metacomet, Richmond and Port Royal, Lackawanna and Seminole, Mo- 
nongahela and Kennebec, Ossipee and Itaska, Oneida and Galena. All 
had been built for naval service, and all were screw ships except the Oc- 
torara, Metacomet and Port Royal which were side-wheel, double-enders. 

At 5:30 on the morning of August 5th the signal for getting under 
way was given and the boats were soon in motion in the appointed or- 
der, the Brooklyn leading, followed by the Hartford, on hoard which 
Farragut was. As the boats steamed slowly in to the bar, the decks were 
cleared fur action. At 6:10 the flag-ship crossed the bar, and soon after 


all the vessels hoisted the United State* flag at the peak and three mast- 
heads and the Tecu.rn.seh tired two shots at the fort. The answering fire 
of the enemy began a few minutes after seven, directed against the lead- 
ing ship Brooklyn, which answered with her bow rifle. The engagement 
became general, and the Confederate boats, moving out from behind Fort 
Morgan formed in line across the channel, just inside the line of torpedoes, 
in which position they had a raking fire on the .fleet, which was confined 
'to one course by the narrowness of the channel. By 7:30 the leading 
ships had broadside range on the enemy's works, and by their heavy fire 
drove the Confederates from their gunn. The Tecumseh, after firing the 
two first shots at the fort, steamed directly up toward the Tennessee, the 
other monitors following. The Tennessee changed her position, apparent- 
ly to get away, and Commander Craven of the Tecumseh gave the order 
" Starboard" and pushed straight toward the ram. Just as the boats 
seemed about to touch, one or more torpedoes exploded under the Tecum- 
seh, she lurched from side to side, careened and wenttjown head foremost. 
The pilot and nine of her crew were picked up by a boat sent to the 
wreck from the Metacomet; two officers and five men escaped in cue of 
the Tecumseh's boats, and four swam ashore. These twenty-one only 
were saved out of more than one hundred men, the rest went to the bot- 
tom with their gallant commander and their ship. The Tennessee was 
only two hundred yards distant, but was unharmed by the explosion, and 
both fort and fleet kept up a furious fire on the rescuing boat from the 
Metacomet, fortunately failing to strike her. 

The three remaining Union gunboats steamed steadily on, drawing the 
fire of the guns ashore', in order to lessen the danger t<> the approaching 
wooden boats. The Brooklyn continued to lead until some objects in the 
water before her were taken to be buoys to torpedoes, when she and her 
consort stopped and began to back. The bows of the two boats fell off 
toward the fort and they were soon nearly athwart the channel. The en- 
gines on the Hartford were stopped as the Brooklyn began to back, but 
the flood-tide carried her on and it seemed as though the Brooklyn, Hart- 
ford and Richmond must collide. Farragut hailed to know what was the 
matter, and was answered : "Torpedoes ahead!" He, as is stated in his 
memoirs, " lifted a prayer to a Power greater than his own," and prompt- 
ly ordered his own ship and its consort ahead, giving to the boats follow- 
ing the signal: "Close order." Soon after the Hartford was safely past 
the line of danger. Backing and fighting, getting a broadside on the fort 
whenever possible, tln> Richmond and Brooklyn and the monitors were 
able to keep down the tire in the fort until most of the vessels had gone 
by. TheOneidagota VI 1-inch rifle shell which went through her chain 
armor and into her starboard boiler when it burst, scalding the firemen on 
duty; another shell entered her cabin, cutting both wheel-ropes, and two 
of her heavy guns were disabled. Her consort Galena was, however, 
able to pull her by the fort. 


When tlit Hertford was over the line of torpedoes the three smaller Con- 
federate gunboats took positions which gave them a raking fire she could 
not return. They retreated before her, keeping the same advantage of 
position, and tiring until her forward deck was covered with killed and 
wounded, one shot killing ten and wounding five, hurling shreds of the 
dead over on the deck of the Metaconiet. The Tennessee next stood down 
to ram her, but the Hartford by a move to the starboard avoided the 
thrust and passed the ram, which followed her up the bay until she was a 
mile from the rest of the fleet, then turned to meet the other wooden 
ships. These were advancing in close order, the Brooklyn leading. As 
the rain neared each boat a blow was anticipated, but all were able to 
avoid it. Shots were interchanged, the Oneida again the most unfortu- 
nate, her captain, Captain Mullany, being severely wounded, losing an 
arm. The Union gunboats came up, and opened on the Tennessee, the 
Winnebago thrusting herself between the ram and the disabled ship, up- 
on which the crew of the Oneida leaped upon the rail and cheered the 
gunboat and her captain, Commander Stevens (lately their own captain), 
long and loudly. 

The other Coufedederate boats fared badly at the hands of the squad- 
ron. The Gaines received two shots that disabled her, and hauled off 
toward Fort Morgan at 8:30 leaking badly, and was burned the following 
night. The Selnia surrendered after losing five killed and ten wounded. 
The Morgan, during a sudden squall and heavy rain and mist, escaped. 
The Tennessee, after passing our ships, appeared to have taken refuge under 
the guns of the fort. Between 8:30 and !> the crew of the Hartford were 
sent to their breakfast. Captain Drayton, flag-officer of the Hartford, 
approached Farragut at this time and, <aid : "'What we have done has 
been well done, sir, but it all counts for nothing, so long as the Tennessee 
hi there under the guns of Morgan." " I know it," replied the admiral, 
"and as soon as the people have had their breakfast I am going for her." 

They were not to finish the breakfast, however much they needed it, 
and however well they had earned it. They were hardly seated when the 
Tennessee was reported approaching again, and all hands were called to 
duty. The flag-ship got under way, and the monitors were signaled to 
destroy the ram. The Monongahela, Ossipee and Lackawanna were also 
brought into actiou, ami soon the Tennessee was fired upon and encircled 
by all Union boats and rammed until disabled. Admiral Buchanan re- 
ceived a wound from an iron splinter, breaking his leg, and twenty 
minutes later her flag was hauled down. At 10 o'clock the flag of the 
Nation floated over the rebel ram, and the forts of Mobile Harbor had no 
other than land defences. 

That afternoon the Chickasaw shelled Fort Powell for an hour, and in 
the night following the fort was evacuated and blown up. On August 6th 
the Chickasaw shelled Fort Gaines, which was surrendered on the 7th. 
The strongest fort remained to be taken. The, army under General 


Granger was transferred from Dauphin Island to Mobile Point, and a 
sie^e train sent from New Orleans, which was landed three miles in the 
rear of the fort on the 17th. Batteries were constructed, and thirty-four 
guns put in position. At daylight on Monday, August 22d, bombard- 
ment of the fort began, aud the guns of the batteries, of the monitors, 
and of the ships inside and outside of the bar, sent shot and shell against 
the last defence of the harbor all day. On the 23d the fort surrendered. 
The Gulf squadron held the bay of Mobile, and the port was closed. 

The reduction of the city could have been easily made then had any 
land force been there to co-operate in each a movement. No such force 
could then be spared, and, as Ave have recorded on another page, the re- ■ 
duction of Fort Blakeley and Spanish Tort, the land defences of Mobile, 
was among the very last engagements of the war, occurring on April 8 
and 9, 1865. The squadron assisted in the siege of Mobile, by cutting 
off* water communication between the forts and city. The only casual- 
ties to the navv in this siege were by torpedo explosions. The Milwaukee 
was sunk by a torpedo on March 28th; the Osage on the next day; the 
steamer Rudolph on April 1st ; the brigs Ida and Althea a few days after 
Spanish Fort was surrendered; the Seiota on April 14th. The loss of 
life was comparatively light from these disasters. 

In May, 1865, when Gen. Dick Taylor surrendered to General Canby 
the Department of Alabama and Mississippi. Confederate Commander 
Farraud surrendered what vessels remained in his charge in Alabama 
waters to Rear Admiral II. K. Thatcher, who had succeeded Farragut 
in command of the Western Squadron. In July, 1865, the East and 
West Gulf Squadrons were merged in one, Admiral Thatcher in com- 
mand. In May, 1867, the organization, was discontinued, and the North 
Atlantic Squadron alone remained. 


"During the early part of the war," said the late James Soley, in his 
admirable work " The Blockade and the Cruisers," " blockade-running 
was carried on from the capes of the Chesapeake to the mouth of the 
Rio Grande. It was done by vessels of all forts and sizes. By April, 
1861, the greater part of the last year's cotton crop had been disposed of, 
and considerable time must elapse before ft new supply ould come into 
market. The proclamation of a blockade caused for a time a cessation of 
regular commerce, and it was only after a considerable interval that a 
Dew commerce, with appliances specially adapted to the altered state of 
things, began to develop." 

The Southern people were not a ship building nor a sea faring people. 
When the emergency was upon them of being supplied with trusty, sea- 
worthy ships, fitted for fast sailiiiLT as well as for fighting, if they would 
have the Confederate flag float on tin* high seas, they looked to foreign 
countries for what they needed. France, at first disposed to aid them, 


soon became neutral, but in no emergency of the war where British influ- 
ence could be felt was it withheld from the Confederacy, nor did England 
fail to furnish the needed vessels. " Great shipbuilding firms iu Liverpool 
and Glasgow were almost constantly engaged in the construction of strong 
swift steamships calculated for cruisers and for nothing else. Each when 
completed, in spite of information from our consuls and protests from our 
minister to England, was allowed to slip out of port, under one pretext 
or another, and make for some prearranged rendezvous, where a merchant 
vessel laden with heavy rifled guns of the most approved pattern, with 
small arms and provisions, was awaiting her. Then the unarmed, harm- 
less British steamship of yesterday was transformed into the Confederate 
cruiser of to-day; every stitch of her British, from keel up to mainmast; 
her rigging, armament and stores British; her crew mostly British," 
though her officers generally were not, for the Confederate cruisers were 
officered by men who had been trained in the United States naval schools 
and service, at the expense of the government they were now warring 
upon. For a sample of the returns to British capitalists, take the work 
■of one boat for ten months: The Clyde-built, iron, side-wheel steamer 
Giraffe, given over to the Confederacy became the R. E. Lee, and under 
Captain Wilkinson, formerly of our navy, ran the blockade twenty-one 
times between December, 1*02 and November, 1863, and carried to "Eng- 
land 0,000 bales of cotton. 

The Sumter, Captain Semmes, a regular Confederate cruiser, ran our 
blockade and got to sea late in June, l<S«il, and before July 6th had cap- 
tured _ seven merchantmen. She cruised in the Carribean sea, visited 
ports in South America, and coaled without hindrance, though no attempt 
was made to conceal- her character. After taking seventeen prizes, seven 
of which were released in Cuban ports by Spanish authority and two re- 
captured, the Sumter was turned into a "blockade runner. The Florida. 
builtat Liverpool, in the winter of 1861-2, clearing from that port under 
the name of the Oreto, made several captures in 1863 which she burned, 
her commander Maffitt stating that his " instructions were brief and to 
the point, leaving much to the discretion, but more to the torch." In five 
mouths she took fourteen prizes, most of which were burned, though 
some were put into Confederate service. She was captured in the Bra- 
zilian port Bahia, by the United States sloop-of- war Wachusett, on July 7, 
1804, and taken to Hampton Roads in spite of the protest of the Brazil- 
ian government against what was indeed a violation of the rights of a 
neutral government. But the people of the Nation were impatient at 
our government's observance of laws of neutrality toward countries that. 
however much claim they made to that position, always managed to favor 
the Confederacy. 

A still more noted cruiser was the Alabama, also built at Liverpool. 
fitted out an I armed with British stores, against whose sailing our foreign 
minister, .Mr. Adams, made such emphatic protest upon instructions 


from President Lincoln and our Secretary of State. In January, 1>>63, 
she was off the coast of Texas, Captain Seinines commanding, where 
she captured and sunk the Hatteras; cruising among the West Indies, 
Semmes captured eight vessels ; then off the Brazilian coast, adding 
ten prizes to her list in two months ; next off the coast of Africa with like 
success ; after that a six mouths cruise among the East Indies, capturing 
and destroying seven vessels, and anon she was heard of off the coast of 
China, still successful in her mission of destroying our commerce on the 
seas. From September, 1862, one and another of our regular naval boats 
had been following this Will-o'-the-wisp, reaching each port after she had 
left for some distant and unknown field. On June 19th the Kearsarge, 
which had come upon the Alabama off Cherbourg several days before and 
ottered battle, succeeded in getting Captain Semmes into action. He had 
not now unarmed merchant marines to deal with, but a boat the equal of 
his own, manned and armed as well as his own. This ended the career 
of the Alabama. The engagement lasted an hour and in twenty minutes 
after the last shot was tired she sunk out of sight. 

Other Confederate cruisers, privateers and blockade runners were of 
more or less service to that government. Among these were the Eap- 
pannock, the Georgia, the Nashville and the Sea King or Shenandoah. 
The first proved unserviceable. The second cruised for a year in the 
Middle and Southern Atlantic, then was captured by the Niagara, under 
Commodore Cravens. The third got into position above Fort McAllister, 
and was destroyed by Commander Wordeo of the monitor Montauk. The 
fourth, the Sea King, built on the Clyde, and employed in the East In- 
dia trade, left London, ostensibly for Bombay, <>n October 8, 1864/ She 
carried a large supply .of coal and provisions, but had not been equipped 
for war purposes. Her commander Captain Corbin, carried with him 
from her owner, a power of sale to dispose of her at any time within six 
months. Her course was directed to Funchal, Madeira, where she met 
the steamer Laurel from Liverpool, which carried a cargo of guns, am- 
munition and naval equipments. The two vessels proceeded to an adja- 
cent island, barren ami uninhabited, called Desartes, where Corbin turned 
his vessel over to Captain Waddell of the Confederate navy. She was put iu 
commission in Confederate service as the Shenandoah, and after cruising in 
the Atlantic three months, started for a new field, to destroy our commerce 
in the Northern Pacific. Leaving Melbourne in February, 1865, she pro- 
ceeded to the neighborhood of Behring Strait, where she captured and 
burned a large number of our winders, which destruction was kept up 
until June, 1865. Wadded then learning of the collapse of the Confed- 
eracy, took his vessel to Liverpool, and turned her over to the British 

Only one ship-of-war was obtained by the Confederates in France, the 
ram Stonewall, the- French government interfering with and preventing 
further sales. 



THE United States of America lie between latitudes 24deg. 
20inin. and 4t'deg. north, and longitudes lOdeg. 14min. east 
and 4Sdeg. 30min. west, from Washington, or 66deg. 4ismin. and 
125deg. 32min. west, from Greenwich. They are bounded on the 
north by British North America, east by New Brunswick, south 
by the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Mexico, and west 
by the Pacific Ocean. 

The United States are divided into four great sections : 1st, the 
Atlantic slope; 2d, the vast basin of the Mississippi and Missouri ; 
3d, the country between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra 
Nevada ; and 4th, the Pacific slope. These divisions are formed 
by three mountain ranges — the Appalachian chain towards the 
east, the Rocky Mountains in the center, and the Sierra Nevada 
on the west. The Appalachian or A lleghany chain is more remark- 
able for length than height ; it extends from the State of Missis- 
sippi, northeast, through tiie States of Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, 
North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, 
for about 1,200 miles, at a variable distance of from 70 to 300 
miles from the Atlantic, and consists of several parallel ranges of 
an average aggregate breadth of about 100 miles.. The mean 
height of "the Alleglianies is not more than from 2,000 to 3,000 
feet, about half of which consists of the elevation of the mountains 
above the adjacent plain, and the rest of the elevation of the latter 
above the sea. The White Mountains, in New Hampshire, which 
belong to this chain, reach a height of above 7,00(> feet. The 
Black Mountain, in North Carolina, is said to rise 0.470 feet above 
the sea ; and other summits reach 6,000 feet and upwards. The 
Rocky Mountains are a prolongation of the great Mexican Cordil 
lera. Their average height may be about S,500 feet above the 
ocean, but some of their summits attain to from 12,000 to over 
15,000 feet. About lOdeg. or 12 leg. west from the U'»cky Mount- 
ains is the great coast chain of tue Sierra Nevada, or Snowy 
Mountains, which extends. under d liferent names and with different 



altitudes, from the Peninsula of California to Alaska. It is of 
still greater elevation than the Rocky Mountains ; some of its 
passes (within the United States) being about 9,000 feet, and some 
of its summits 15,500 feet above the level of the sea The region 
between these two vast mountain ranges comprises the eastern and 
most extensive and sterile portion of Oregon ; the great inland 
basin of Upper California, elevated from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above 
the Pacific, and mostly a desert ; and the country drained by the 
great river, the Colorado, and its affluents. West of the Sierra 
Nevada is the Pacific slope. The portion of the basin of the 
Mississippi and Missouri, on their right bank, is by far the most 
extensive. It comprises, 1st. a tract of low. flat, alluvial, and well- 
wooded land, lying along the rivers, and stretching inwards from 
100 to 200 miles or more : and 2d, the prairie and wild region, 
extending from that last mentioned, by a pretty equal ascent, to 
the Rocky Mountains. The prairies are of immense extent, but 
they are not, as is commonly supposed, level. Their surface is- 
rolling or billowy, sometimes swelling into very considerable 
heights. They are covered with long, rank grass, being inter- 
spersed in Texas and the Southern States with clumps of magnolia, 
tulip, and cotton trees, and in the Northern States with oak and 
black walnut. The prairies gradually diminish in beautv and 
verdure as they stretch towards the west, and become more elevated, 
till at length they imperceptibly unite with and lose themselves m 
a desert zone or belt skirting the foot of the Rocky Mountains. 
In the south this desert belt is not less than from 400 to 500 miles in 
width, but it diminishes in breadth in the more northerly latitudes. 
The Pacific slope, comprising the country west of the Sierra 
Nevada, includes California and the best and most fertile portion 
of Oregon and Washington Territory. Like the Atlantic coast it 
is, for The most part, heavily timbered. 

Rivers, Lakes, and Bays.— The rivets of the United States are 
of prodigious magnitude and importance. Of those flowing south 
ana east, the principal are the Mississippi and Missouri, which, 
with their tributaries, the Ohio, Arkansas, and Red River, give to 
the interior of the United States an extent of inland navigation, 
and a facility of communication unequaled, perhaps, and certainlv 
not surpassed, in any other country. The Alabama and Appa- 
Jachieola flow, like the Mississippi, into the Gulf of Mexico; the 
Alatamaha, Savannah. Roanoke, Potomac, Susquehanna, Delaware, 
Hudson, Connecticut, and Penobscot, into the Atlantic; and the 
Oswego, Cuyahoga, and Maumee, into the great lakes of the St. 


After the original in his ''General His- 
toric" Ivlition of IU2J). ' 



Lawrence basin. Of the" rivers which have their sources west of 
the ridge of the Rocky Mountains, and their embouchure in the 
Pacific, or in some of its arms, the principal are the Columbia, 
which falls into the Pacific ; the San Joaquin and Sacramento, 
which fall into the great Bay of San Francisco, and the Colorado, 
which, with its tributaries, after draining a vast extent of country, 
falls into the Gulf of California. 

Next to the great lakes Superior and Michigan, in the basin of 
the St. Lawrence, the largest lake within the limit of the United 
States is the Great Salt Lake, in the Territory of Utah, in about 
•ildeg. north latitude, and 113 west longitude. Lake Champlain, 
between Xew York and Vermont, is also of considerable dimen 
sions. Numerous small lakes occur in New York, Maine, and 
especially in Wisconsin and the Minnesota region. 

The coast of the Atlantic is indented by many noble bays, as 
those of Passamaquoddv, Massachusetts, Delaware, and Chesa- 
peake ; and several extensive and sheltered Unlets are formed by 
the islands off the coast, the principal of which are Long Island 
Sound, near New York, and Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, in 
North Carolina. The coast of the Gulf of Mexico has, also, many 
valuable inlets and back-waters: and there are some, though 
fewer, on the shores of the great lakes. The great Bay of San 
Francisco, in California, on the Pacific, is one of the finest basins 
anywhere to be met with. Altogether, the United States are 
furnished with some of the. best harbors in the world. 

Geology and Mineralogy. — The White Mountains consist of 
granite, which is also very prevalent in the greater part of New 
Hampshire and Maine. The Rocky Mountains and the Sierra 
Nevada consist principally of granite intermixed with volcanic mat- 
ter. Sienite, porphyry, and greenstone occur in the northwest part 
of the Appalachian chain; gneiss forms the upper regions in New 
York and Xew Jersey ; most of the mountain summits south of the 
Juniata River consist of feucoidal sandstone; and talcose mica, 
chlorite, and other slates, with crystalline limestone and serpentine, 
lie along the west side of the primary belt, in the middle and 
south parts of the Union. Blue limestone, red sandstone, shales. 
anthracite, coal-measures, and other transition formations, flank 
these rocks in many places. Secondary strata occupy by far the 
largest portion of the United States; but no strata corresponding 
in date with the new red sandstone or oolitic groups of Europe 
appear to be present. Tertiary formations, many of which abound 
With fossil remains, have been found in many parts of the Atlantic 
slope, in Alabama, and in the southern part of the Mississippi 


basin ; but they seem to be almost exclusively confined to those 
regions. The most extensive and remarkable alluvial tract is that 
around the mouth of the Mississippi. West of the Appalachian 
chain vast series of coal-beds stretch from the mountains westward 
through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and parts of Kentucky and 
Alabama, into the State of Missouri, and even as far as 200 miles 
beyond the Mississippi. Anthracite coal, or that best suited for 
manufactures, lies at the northern extremity of this great field, in 
Pennsylvania, and in the western part of Virginia, the eastern 
part of Ohio, and Illinois. The beds of Pennsylvania likewise con- 
tain immense and apparently inexhaustible stores of mineral oil, or 
petroleum. Numerous salt springs exist in New York, Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, and the Western States. Iron is distributed most 
abundantly through the coal measures in Pennsylvania, Ohio r 
Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri, where the ore contains from 25 to 
33 percent, of metal. It also abounds in the Xorph western States, 
and in one part of Vermont the ore is said to yield 78 per cent. 
iron. A large proportion of the ore found in this part of the Union 
is magnetic. Lead is next in importance: it is found in various 
places, especially in Missouri, Wisconsin, and Illinois, and in some 
of the Western Territories. In some parts of Wisconsin the lead 
ore is so very rich as to yield from 60 to 70 per cent, of lead. 
Copper has been found in large deposits in the State of Michigan, 
in the peninsula which stretches into Lake Superior. Immense 
sheets, or walls, of native copper occur in some of the mines in 
this district ; and it is a curious fact that, though only recently 
rediscovered, they had evidently been opened and wrought at a, 
remote period by the ancient inhabitants of America. Gold has 
been found in small quantities in certain parts of Virginia, both 
Carolina*, Georgia, and Tennessee, and on a large scale in the 
rivers and ravines at the foot of the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada, in California. The richest silver mines in the world are 
in Nevada and the Territory of Wyoming. Quicksilver, copper, 
zinc, manganese, with lime and building-stone, constitute the other 
chief mineral products. Substances of volcanic origin appear to 
be rarely, if ever, found in the United States east of the Rocky 

Products, — Apples, pears, cherries, and plums flourish in the 
north; [>omegranates, melons, figs, grapes, olives, almonds, and 
oranges in the southern section. Maize is gro. from Maine to 
Louisiana, and wheat throughout the Union; tobacco as far north 
as about latitude -iodeg and in the Western States south of Ohio. 



Cotton is not much raised north of 37deg., though it grows to 
39deg. Iiice is cultivated in Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and as 
far north as St. Louis, in Missouri. The sugar-cane grows as high 
as 33deg., but. does not thoroughly succeed beyond 31deg. 30min. 
The vine and mulberry tree grow in various parts of the United 
States. Oats, rye, and barley in all the northern and mountainous 
parts of the Southern States; and hemp and tlax in the Western 
and Middle States. 

History of the United States.— The early history of the colo- 
nies which now constitute the United States will be briefly given 
under the heads of the different States and Territories. The first 
effort at a union of colonies was in 1043, when the settlements in 
Massachusetts. Xew Hampshire. Rhode Island, and Connecticut 
formed a confederacy for mutual defence against the French, Dutch, 
and Indians, under the title of " The United Colonies of New Eng- 
land." They experienced the benefits of united action in 1 754, when 
an English grant of lands to the Ohio Company brought on the 
French an Indian war — the French claiming, at that period, as 
the first explorers. Northern Xew England, half of New York, 
and the entire Mississippi Valley. George Washington was sent 
on his first expedition to remonstrate with the French authorities; 
and the colonies being advised to unite for general defence, a plan 
for a general government of all the English colonics was drawn 
up by Benjamin Franklin ; but it was rejected by both the colonies 
and the crown — by the colonies, who wished to preserve their 
separate independence, and by the crown from a jealousy of their 
united strength. The colonists, however, took an active part in 
the war. Under Major Washington, they joined General Braddock 
in his unfortunate expedition against Fort du Quesne, now Pitts- 
burg; they aided in the reduction of Louisburg, Ticonderoga, 
Crown Point, and Niagara ; and rejoiced in the conquest of Quebec, 
by whieh the vast northern regions of America became the posses- 
sions of Great Britain. 

The principles of a democratic or representative government 
were brought to America by the earliest colonists. The colonies 
themselves were founded by private adventure, with very little 
aid from government. The Plymouth colony was for eighteen 
years a strict democracy, and afterwards a republic under a 
charter from the crown. A representative and popular govern 
tnent w;is established in Virginia in 10'Jo. It was not until the 
Protectorate and the reign of Charles II. that the colonies 
were considered as portions of the empire, to be governed by 


parliament, when navigation nets were passed to give English 
ships a monopoly of commerce, when the produce of the colonies 
was required to be sent to England, and duties were levied on 
commodities sent from one colony to another. Protests were 
made against these assumptions ; Virginia asserted her right of 
self-government ; and it was not until the English revolution in 
1688, that settled and uniform relations with the different colonies 
were established. 

In 1713, by the treaty of Utrecht, England, which, since the 
reign of Elizabeth, had imported slaves from Africa into her 
American and West Indian colonies, obtained a monopoly of the 
slave-trade, engaging to furnish Spanish America, in thirty-three 

., years, with 1M,000 negroes. A great slave-trading company was 
formed in England, one-quarter of the stock being taken by 
Queen Anne, and one-quarter by the king of Spain, these two 
sovereigns becoming the greatest slave-dealers in Christendom. 
By this monopoly, slavery was extended in, and to some extent 
forced upon, all the American colonies. 

In 1701, the enforcement of the Navigation Act against illegal 
traders, by general search-warrants, caused a strong excitement 
against the English government, especially in Boston. The 
British Admiralty enforced the law ; many vessels were seized ; 
and the colonial trade with the West Indies was annihilated. In 
1765, the passing of an Act of Parliament for collecting a colonial 
revenue by stamps caused general indignation, and led to riots. 
Patrick Henry, in the Virginia Assembly, denied the right of 
Parliament to tax America, and eloquently asserted the dogma, 
"No taxation without representation." The first impulse was to 
unite against a common danger; and the first colonial congress of 
twenty-eight delegates, representing nine colonies, made a state- 
ment of grievances and a declaration of rights. The stamps 
were destroyed or re shipped to England, and popular societies 
were formed in the chief towns, called "Sons of Liberty." 

In 17»'»*">. the Stamp Act was repealed, to the general joy of the 
colonists; but the principle of colonial taxation was not aban- 
doned: and in 17<">7 duties were levied on .glass, paper, printers' 
colors, and tea. This renewed attempt produced, in L768, riots in 
Boston, and Governor Gage was furnished with a military force 
of 7<><> to preserve order and enforce the laws, in 1773 the duties 
vrere repealed, excepting threepence a pound on tea. It was now 
a question of principle, and from north to south it was determined 

. that this tax should not be paid. Some cargoes were stored in 


damp warehouses and spoiled ; some sent back ; in Boston, a mob. 
disguised "as Indians, threw it into the harbor. Parliament passed 
the Boston Port Bill, 1774, by which the chief town of New 
England was no longer a port of entry, and its trade transferred 
to Salem. The people were reduced to great distress, but received 
the sympathy of all the colonies, and liberal contributions of 
wheat from Virginia, and rice from Charleston, South Carolina. 

It was now determined to enforce the policy of the English 
Government, and a fleet, containing several ships of the line, and 
10,(»(>0 troops, was sent to America; while the colonists, still 
asserting their loyalty, and with little or no thought of separation 
from the mother country, prepared to resist the unconstitutional 
assumptions of the crown. Volunteers were drilling in every 
direction, and depots of provisions and military stores were being 
gathered. A small force being sent from Boston to seize one of 
these depots at Concord, Massachusetts, led to the battle of Lex- 
ington, and the beginning of the war of the Revolution, April 19, 
1775. The British" troops were attacked on their return by the 
provincials, anci compelled to a hasty retreat. The news of this 
event summoned 20,000 men to the vicinity of Boston. The 
royal forts and arsenals of the colonies were taken possession of, 
with their arms and munitions. CrOwn Point and Ticonderoga, 
the principal northern fortifications, were surprised, and their 
artillery and stores appropriated. A Congress of the colonies 
assembled at Philadelphia, which resolved to raise - and ecmip an 
army of 20,000 men. and appointed George Washington com- 
mander-in-chief. June 17, Bunker Hill, ' in Charlestown, near 
Boston, where 1,500 Americans had hastily intrenched themselves, 
was taken by assault by the British troops, but with so heavy a 
loss (1,054) that the defeat had for the Americans the moral effect 
of a victory. After a winter of great privations, the British 
were compelled to evacuate Boston, carrying away in their fleet 
to Halifax 1,500 loyal families. 

The British Government now put forth a strong effort to reduce 
the colonies to submission. An army of 55,000, including 17,000 
German mercenaries ('• Hessians "), was sent, under the command 
of Sir William Howe, to put down this " wicked rebellion." 
Congress, declaring that the royal authority had ceased, recom- 
mended to the several colonies to adopt "such governments as 
might best conduce to the safety and happiness of the people;" 
and the thirteen colonies soon adopted constitutions as independent 
and sovereign St;io-s. On the 7th of June, 177*'», Richard Henry 


Lee, of Virginia. offei*ed a resolution in Congress, declaring tliat 
"the united colonies are, and ought to be, free and independent 
States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British 
crown; and that all political connection between them and t he 
state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." 
This resolution, after an earnest debate, was adopted by the votes 
of nine out of thirteen colonies. A committee, consisting of 
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sher- 
man, and Robert LI. Livingston, was instructed to prepare a 
declaration in accordance with the above resolution; and the 
celebrated Declaration of Independence, written by Mr. .Jefferson, 
based upon the equality of men and the universal right of self- 
government, ami asserting that "all government derives its just 
powers from the consent of the governed," on the 4th of July, 
1776, received the assent of the delegates of the colonies, which 
thus dissolved their allegiance to the British crown, and declared 
themselves free and independent States, under the general title of 
the thirteen United States of America. These thirteen. States 
were Xew Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia — occu- 

?ying a narrow line of the Atlantic coast between Canada and 
'lorida, east of the Alleghanies. with a population of about 
2,500,000 souls. 

After the evacuation of Boston, General Washington, with the 
remains of his army, thinned by the hardships of winter, hastened 
to New York'. On the 2d of July. General Howe, being joined 
by his brother. Admiral Lord iiowe, and Sir Henry Clinton, 
found himself at the head of 35,01)0 men ; defeated tin.' Americans 
on Long Island, August 27, 177»», compelled the evacuation of 
New York, and secured the possession of its spacious harbor and 
the River Hudson. General Washington, with inferior and undis- 
ciplined forces, retreated across New Jersey, closely followed by 
the English, hoping to save Philadelphia. Newark. Xew Bruns- 
wick, Princeton, the chief towns in New Jersey, were taken, and 
the British awaited the freezing of the Delaware to occupy Phila- 
delphia. On Christmas night, General Washington, by crossing 
in boats, among floating ice, made ;i successful night-attack upon 
a Hessian force at Trenton, and gave new courage to the 
desponding Americans, who recruited the army, and harassed the 
enemy with a winter campaign. 

In the meantime, Silas Deane ami Benjamin Franklin had been 



sent to France to solicit recognition and aid. The recognition 
was delayed, but important aid was privately given in money and 
supplies, ami European volunteers — the Marquis de Lafayette, 
Baron Steuben, Baron de Kalb, Kosciusko, and Pulaski-— ren- 
dered the most important services. Efforts were made to induce 
the British colonies of Canada and Nova Scotia to unite in the 
struggle for independence, and an expedition was sent against 
Montreal and Quebec, led by Generals Montgomery and Arnold. 

The Canadians refused their aid: Montgomery was killed, 
Arnold wounded, and the remains of the expedition returned 
after terrible sufferings. In 1777, after several severe actions in 
New Jersey, generally disastrous to the Americans, the British 
took possession of Philadelphia; and Washington, with the rem 
nants of his army, went into winter quarters at Valley Forge, 
where they suffered from cold, hunger, and nakedness. 

While Washington was unsuccessfully contending against dis- 
ciplined and overwhelming forces in New Jersey, General 
Burgoyne was leading an army of 7,000 British and German 
troops, with a large force of Canadians and Indians, from Canada 
into Northern New York, to form a junction with the British on 
the Hudson, and separate New England from the rest of the con- 
federacy, ilis march was delayed by felled trees and destroyed 
roads; his foraging expeditions were defeated; and after two 
sharp actions at Stillwater and Saratoga, with but three days 1 
rations left, he was compelled to capitulate, October 17; and 
England, in the midst of victories, heard with dismay of the loss 
of an entire army. The Americans gained 5,<>oo muskets and a 
large train of artillery. Feeling the need of more unity of action, 
articles of confederation, proposed by Franklin in 177"), were 
adopted in 1777, which constituted a league of friendship between 
the States, but not a government which had any powers of 

In 1778 Lord Carlisle was sent to America by the British 
government with offer.-? oi conciliation: it was too late. France 
at the same time recognized American independence, and sent a 
large fleet and supplies ot clothing, arms, and munitions of war 
to their ad; and General Clinton, who had superseded General 
Howe, finding 'his supplies at Philadelphia threatened, retreated 
to New York, defeating the Americans at Monmouth. 

The repeated victories of the British- arms, the aid afforded by 
great numbers of Americans who still julltered to the royal cause, 
and furnished during the war not less than i' troops, and the 


alliance of large tribes of Indians, who committed cruel ravages 
in the frontier settlements, did little towards subjugating the 
country. Portions of the sea-coast of New England and Virginia 
were laid waste ; but the British troops were worn out with long 
marches and tedious campaigns, and even weakened by victories. 
Spain, and then Holland, joined in the war against England, and 
aided the Americans. Paul Jones, with ships fitted out in French 
harbors, fought desperate and successful battles under the Ameri- 
can flag on the English coast, and ravaged the seaport towns. 

In ITS", S5,000 seamen were raised, and 35,000 additional troops 
sent to America, and a strong effort was made to subjugate the 
Carolinas. Lord Cornwallis, with a large army, marched from 
Charleston, through North Carolina, pursuing, and sometimes 
defeating. General Gates, but suffered defeat at King's Mountain, 
North Carolina; at Cowpens, in South Carolina, and at Eutaw 
Springs, which nearly closed the war in the South. In the mean- 
time, Admiral de Varney had arrived upon the coast with a 
powerful French fleet, and ti,000 soldiers of the elite of the French 
army, under Count de liochainbeau. Cornwallis was obliged to 
fortify himself at Yorktown, Va,, blockaded by the fleet of Count 
de Grasse, and besieged by the allied army of French and Ameri- 
cans, waiting for Sir Henry Clinton to send him relief from New 
York. October 19, 1781, he was compelled to surrender his army 
-of 7,000 men — an event which produced such a change of feeling 
in England as to cause the resignation of the ministry, and the 
despatch of General Sir Guy Carletou to New York witii offers 
of terms of peace. The preliminaries were signed at Paris, 
November 30, 1782; and on September 3, 1783, peace was con- 
cluded between England and France. Holland, and America. The 
independence of each of the several States was acknowledged, 
with a liberal settlement of territorial boundaries. In April a 
cessation of hostilities had been proclaimed, and tin; American 
army disbanded. New York, which had been held by the English 
through the whole war, was evacuated November LC> : and on 
December 4. General Washington took leave of his companions 
in arms, and on December 23 resigned into the hands of ('imgress 
ins commission as commander. From the retreat of Lexington. 
April IV*, 1775, to the surrender of Yorktown, October Ltf, 1781, 
in twenty-four engagements, including the surrender of two 
armies, the British losses in the Meld were not less than 25,000 
men, while those of the Americans were about 8,000. 

The States were now free, but exhausted, with a foreign debt 


of $8,000,000, a domestic debt of $30,000,000, an army unpaid 
and discontented, a paper currency utterly worthless, and a bank- 
rupt treasury. Tin? States were called upon to pay their share? 
of the general expenditures, but they were also in debt, and there 
was no power to compel them to pay, or to raise money by taxa- 
tion. In these difficulties, and t.'se failure of the articles of 
confederation, a convention was summoned by Congress in 1787 
to revise these articles. The task was so difficult, that the con- 
vention resolved to propose an entirely new constitution, granting 
fuller powers to a Federal Congress and executive, and one which 
should act upon the people individually as well as upon the States. 
The constitution was therefore framed, and was, in 1787-1788. 
adopted, in some cases by small majorities, in eleven State con- 
ventions, and finally by the whole thirteen States, chiefly through 
the exertions and writings of James Madison, John Jay, and 
Alexander Hamilton. 

George Washington and John Adams/ standing at the head of 
the Federalist party, were elected President and Vice-President of 
the United States. The President took the oath to support the 
Constitution in front of the City Rail in New York; and the 
government was organized with Thomas Jefferson. Secretary of 
State; Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury ; General 
Knox, Secretary of War; and John Jay, Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court. Congress assumed the war-debts of the several 
States, and chartered the bank of the United States, though its 
constitutional right to do so was strenuously denied bv the 
Republican or States' Rights partv. 

Washington was re-elected to the Presidency in L792. In 1790, 
he, worn and irritated l>v partisan conflicts and criticisms, refused 
a third election, and issued his farewell address to the people of 
the United States, warning them against the dangers of partv 
spirit and disunion, and giving them advice worthy of* one who 
was said to be - first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts 
of his countrymen." John Adams was elected President, and 
Thomas Jefferson, the second choice of the people for the Presi 
dency, became, according to the rule at first adopted, Vice-Presi 
dent. In 17!** the commercial regulations of France. niu\ the 
assertion of the right to search and capture American vessels, 
nearly led to a war between the two republics. In 1799 the 
nation, without distinction «>f party, mourned the death of Wash- 
ington ; and in the following vea'r the seat of government was 
removed t<> the city he planned for a capital, and which bears 
his name 



The partiality of Mr. Adams for England, the establishment of 

a Federal army, and the pus-sage of the Alien and Sedition Laws, 
by which foreigners could be summarily banished, and abuse of 
the government, by speech or the press, punished, caused great 
political excitement, and such an increase of the Republican, or, 
as it was afterwards called, the Democratic party, that the 
President failed of a reelection in 1801; and there being no 
election by the people, the House of Representatives, after thirty- 
six balloti'ngs, chose Thomas Jefferson, the Republican candidate, 
with Aaron Burr for Vice-President ; and the offices of the 
country were transferred to the victorious party. Internal duties, 
which a few years before had led to an insurrection in Pennsyl- 
vania called the Whisky Insurrection, were ubolished, and the 
Alien and Sedition Laws repealed. Tennessee. Kentucky, Ver- 
mont, and Ohio had now been organized as States, and admitted 
into the Union. In 1803 the area of the country was more than 
doubled by the purchase of Louisiana — the whole region between 
the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains — from France, for 
60,000,000 francs. 

In 1S05 Mr. Jefferson was elected for a second term ; but Mr. 
Burr, having lost the confidence of his party, engaged in a con- 
spiracy to seize upon the Mississippi Valley, and found a new 
empire, with its capital at New Orleans. He was tried for treason, 
but not convicted. The commerce of America was highly pros- 
perous, her ships enjoying much of the carrying trade of Europe; 
but in May, 18<>r», England declared a blockade from Brest to the 
Elbe, and Bonaparte, in Xovember, decreed the blockade of the 
coasts of the United Kingdom. American vessels were captured 
by both parties, and were searched by British ships for British 
subjects; and those suspected of hazing been born on British soil, 
were, in accordance with the d< ©trine, once a subject always a 
subject, impressed into the naval service. Even American men- 
of-war were not excepted from this process. The British frigate 
"Leopard" meeting the American frigate k ' Chesapeake," de- 
manded four of her men, and, on refusal, tired into her, and the 
surprised - Chesapeake" struck her flag. British ships were here- 
upon forbidden United States harbors. 

Mr. Jefferson, following the example of Washington, declined a 
third election; and in lsi>'.». James Madison became President. 
The French decrees, prejudicial to neutral commerce, were revoked 
in 1810 ; but the English continued, a source of loss and irritation. 


while hundreds of American citizens were in forced service in 
British vessels. The feeling was increased by a night-encountei 
between the American frigate "President" and the British sloop- 
of-war " Little Belt." May 16, 1811, In April, 1S12, an embargo 
was again declared by Congress, preparatory to a declaration of 
war against Great Britain, July 19, for which Congress voted to 
raise 25,000 enlisted soldiers, 50,000 volunteers, and 100,000 militia. 
General Hull, with 2,000 men at Detroit, invaded Canada ; but on 
being met by a small force of British and Indians, under General 
Brock, recrossed the river, and made a shameful surrender; and 
was sentenced to death for his cowardice, but pardoned by the 
President. A second invasion of Canada was made near Niagara 
Falls by General Van Rensselaer. One thousand American militia 
stormed the heights of Queenstown. and the British general. 
Brock, was killed ; but reinforcements arriving opportunely, the 
heights were retaken, and nearly all the Americans were killed or 
driven into the Niagara. 

American disasters on the land were, however, compensated by 
victories at sea. August 19, the United States frigate " Constitu- 
tion " captured the British frigate "Guerriere;" October IS. the 
"Wasp*' took the "Frolic;" October 25, the frigate "United 
States" captured the '•Macedonian;*' December 20, the ''Consti- 
tution" took the "Java." The Americans inmost cases had the 
larger ships and heavier ordnance ; but the immense disparity in 
losses showed also superior seamanship and gunnery. American 
privateers took 300 British vessels and 3,000 prisoners. In 1813, 
General Proctor crossed the Detroit river with a considerable 
force of British and Indians, and defeated General Winchester, 
with the usual results of savage warfare. In April an American 
army of 1,700 men captured York (now Toronto), and about the 
same time another American force of S00 men was defeated with 
great loss by the Indians under Tecumseh ; but the remainder of 
this campaign was wholly favorable to the Americans. The 
attempt, of the British general, Prevost, on Sackett's Harbor was 
repulsed: the squadron on Lake Erie, consisting of vessels, 63 
guns, was captured by Commodore Perry at the head of an 
American flotilla of vessels. 54 guns; and this latter success 
enabled General Harrison to invade Canada, where he defeated 
General Proctor in the battle of the Thames, in which t lie great 
Indian warrior-chief Tecumseh was killed. In 1813 another inva- 
sion of Canada was attempted; and York mow Toronto) was 
taken by General Dearborn; and an unsuccessful attempt was 


made to take Montreal. Villages were burned on both sidas. 
The British also destroyed American shipping in Delaware Bay. 
At the same period General Jackson defeated the Creek Indians. 
in Alabama and Georgia, who had been excited to make war upon 
the frontier settlements. 

In 1S14. Generals Scott and Ripley crossed the Niagara, and 
sharp actions, with no decisive results, were fought at Chippewa 
and Lundy's Lane, close by the great Cataract. General Wilkin- 
son also invaded Canada on the Sorel River, but was easily 
repulsed. A British invasion by Lake CHamplain, by General Sir 
George Prevost. with 14,ooo men and a flotilla on the lake, was no 
more successful. On the Oth of September the flotilla was defeated 
and captured in the harbor of Plattsburg, while the army was 
repulsed on shore, and retreated with heavy loss. In August, a 
British fleet ascended Chesapeake Bay, took Washington with but 
slight resistance, and burned the government buildings. A subse- 
quent attack on Baltimore was unsuccessful. New York, New 
London, and Boston were blockaded, and a large expedition was 
sent against Mobile and New Orleans. On the Sth of January, 
1815, General Packenham advanced with 12,000 men against the 
latter city, which was defended by General Jackson, at~the head 
of 6,000 militia, chiefly from Tennessee and Kentucky, aided by a 
small force of artillery, recruited from the Barataria pirates. The 
Americans were sheltered by a breastwork of cotton-bales, and the 
British assault was met with so deadly a fire of riflemen, that it 
wns repulsed with the loss of General Packenham and several 
officers, with 7UU killed and 1,000 wounded; while the entire 
American loss is stated to have only amounted to 71. This ill- 
planned action was fought more than a month after peace had been 
concluded between England and America, and was followed by 
two naval actions in February and March. Though during this 
contest fortune at first favored the Americans on the high seas, 
she changed sides completely from June, 1813. June 1, the 
" Chesapeake" was taken by the " Shannon ;" June 3, the " Grow- 
ler" and '• Eagle" were captured byBritish gunboats ; the -Argus' 
was taken by the "Pelican,'* August 14; the ••Essex. 1 * bv the 
" Phoebe " and " Cherub," March *29, 1814; the "President" by 
the "Endymion," January 15, 1815; the only counterbalancing 
success being the sinking of the British sloop '•Avon*' bv the 
"Wasp," September 8, 1814. in December, 1814, the Federalists 
of New England held a convention at Hartford in opposition to 
the War and the administration, and threatened a secession of the 




New England States. In 1S15, Commodore Decatur, who had 
taken a distinguished part in the recent war, commanded an 
expedition against the Algerians — whose corsairs had preyed on 
American commerce in the Mediterranean — and dictated terms 
to Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. 

The Democratic-Republican party having brought the war to a 
satisfactory conclusion, the Federalists disappeared ; and in 1817, 
James Monroe was elected President almost without opposition. 
A rapid emigration from Europe and from the Atlantic States to 
the richer lands of the West, had in ten years added six new States 
to the Union. Difficulties arose with the warlike southern Indian 
tribes, whose hunting-grounds were invaded ; and General Jackson 
sent against the Seminoles, summoned to his aid the Tennessee 
volunteers who had served under him against the Creeks and at 
New Orleans, defeated them, pursued them into Florida, took 
Pensacola, and banished the Spanish authorities and troops. He 
was, however, supported in these high-handed measures by the 
President ; and in 1819, Florida was ceded by Spain to the United 

From the beginning of the government the question of slavery 
had been a source of continual difficulty between the free and slave 
States. In 1819-20, Alabama and Maine, a slave and a free State. 
were added to the Union ; and the question of the admission of 
Missouri arose in Congress — the question of its admission with or 
without slavery. At the period of the Revolution, slavery existed 
in all the States except Massachn?etta : but it had gradually been 
abolished in the Northern anc Middle States except Delaware. 
and excluded from the new Spates between the Ohio and the 
Mississippi by the terms on whiai the territory had been surren- 
dered by Virginia to the Union. Under the Constitution, slaves 
were not counted in full as a represented population ; but by a 
compromise, three-fifths of their number were added to the whites. 
The slave States were almost exclusively agricultural, with free- 
trade interests. The free States were encouraging manufacturer 
by protection. The two sections bad already entered upon a 
struggle to maintain the balance of power against each other. 
After an excited contest, .Missouri was admitted, with acompro- 
inise resolution, that in future no slave State should be erected north 
of the parallel of 3tideg. 30min. north latitude, the northern bound- 
ary of Arkansas. 

During the second term of Mr. Monroe, in 1824, General Lafay- 
ette visited America, and was everywhere received with great 


enthusiasm. In the Presidential election of 1S24 there were four 
candidates— John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, 
and William 11. Crawford. There being ne choice by the people, 
the House of Representatives chose Mr. Adams; John C. Calhoun 
being elected Vice-President. Party unci sectional feeling became 
stronger. Mr. Adams and Mr. Clay, who had heretofore acted 
with the party of Jefferson and Madison, were henceforth identified 
with what was called the National Republican, and later, the Whig, 
and finally, in union with the Anti-Slavery party, the Republican 
party. In 1 S2*>. two of the founders of the republic, John Adams 
and 'Thomas Jefferson, died on the 4th of July, the anniversary 
of the Declaration of Independence — an event which made a pro- 
found impression. The four years of Mr. Adams, during which 
there were violent contests on protection and the powers of the 
Federal government to carry out public works within the States, 
ended with an excited election contest, which resulted in the 
triumph of the Democratic party, and the election of Andrew 
Jackson, with John C. Calhoun as Vice-President. The bold, deci- 
sive, and impetuous character of General Jackson was shown in a 
general removal of those who held office, down to small post- 
masters and tidewaiters, under the late administration, and the 
appointment of his own partisans. An act for the rechartering of 
the United States JBank was met by a veto of the President, who 
declared it unconstitutional and dangerous. In L832 an Indian 
war, called the Black Hawk War, broke out in Wisconsin ; but the 
passing of a high protective tariff act by Congress caused a more 
serious trouble. The State of South Carolina declared the act 
unconstitutional, and therefore null and void, threatening to with- 
draw from the Union if an attempt were made to collect the duties 
on foreign importations. The President prepared to execute the 
laws by force ; Mr. Calhoun resigned his otfi.-e of Vice President. 
ami asserted the doctrine of State-rights, including the right of 
secession, in the Senate. A collision seemed imminent, when the 
affair was settled bv a compromise bill, introduced by Henry Clay, 
providing for a gradual reduction of duties until 1843, when they 
should not exceed l'i' per cent. ml valorem. 

The popularity of General Jackson caused his re-election by an 
overwhelming majority against Henry ( lay, tin; leader of the Hank. 
Protection, and Internal Improvement party ; and he .entered upon 
his second term, with Martin Van Buren, of New York, as \ ice- 
President. The removal of the Government deposits from the 
United States Bank to certain State banks, le I to the failure o'i! 



the bank, and after some years to the adoption of Mr. Yan Burens 
plan of an independent treasury. The Cherokee Indians in Georgia, 
who had attained to a certain degree of civilization, appealed to 
the President for protection against the seizure of their lands by 
the State ; but they were told that he " had no power to oppose 
the exercise of the sovereignty of any State over all who may be 
within its limits; " and the Indians were obliged to remove to the 
territory set apart for them west of the Mississippi. In 1S35 the 
Seminole war broke out in Florida ; and a tribe of Indians, insig- 
nificant in numbers, under the crafty leadership of Osceola, kept 
up hostilities for years, at a cost to the United States of several 
thousands of men, and some fifty millions of dollars. 

In 1S37 Martin Van Buren succeeded General Jackson in the 
Presidency. His term of four years was a stormy one, from the 
great financial crisis of 1837, which followed a period of currency- 
expansion and wild speculation. All the banks suspended payment, 
and the great commercial cities threatened insurrection. Mr. Yan 
Buren was firm in adhering to his principle of collecting the 
revenues of the government in specie, and separating the govern- 
ment from all connection with the banks. His firmness in acting 
against the strong sympathies of the ^Northern and Western States 
with the Canadian insurrection of 1837-1S38, also damaged his 

In lb40 the election of General Harrison, with John Tyler for 
Yice-President, was one of unexampled excitement, characterized 
by immense popular gatherings, political songs, the use of symbols, 
and the participation of both sexes, to a degree hitherto unknown 
in America. The Whigs triumphed in nearly every State ; General 
Harrison was inaugurated March 4, 1841 ; and the rush to Wash- 
ington for offices was as great as the election had been exciting 
and remarkable. Worn down with the campaign and the otlice- 
seekers, General Harrison died in a month after his inauguration, 
and was succeeded by John Tyler, who, having been a Democrat, 
was no sooner in power than he seems to have reverted to his 
former political principles. He vetoed a bill for the establishment 
of a national bank and other measures of the party by which he 
had been elected. His cabinet resigned, with the exception of 
Daniel Webster, Secretary of State, and others, Democratic or 
neutral, were appointed in their place. During Mr. Tyler's admin- 
istration the northeastern boundary question, which nearly occa- 
sioned a war with England, was settled by Mr. Webster and Lord 
Ashburtoii ; a difficulty, amounting almost to a rebellion, was 

From the DePaes picture in Capt. John 

Smith's " General HiHtorie." 


settled in Rhode Island ; but the most important question agitated 

was that ot the annexation of Texas. This annexation was advo- 
cated by the South, as a large addition to Southern and slave 
territory; and, for t lie- same reason, opposed by the Whig and 
anti-slavery parties of the North. Besides, the independence of 
Texas, though acknowledged by the United States. England, and 
France, had not been acknowledged by Mexico, and its annexation 
would be a casus belli with that power. The recent admission of 
Iowa and Florida into the Union had kept the balance of power 
even between the North and South, but Texas would be an advan- 
tage to the South. But the gain of territory, and a contempt for 
Mexico, overcame these objections, and in 1845 Texas was formally 
annexed, and James K. Polk, of Tennessee, succeeded Mr. Tyler in 
the Presidency. 

M. Almonte, the -Mexican Minister at "Washington, protested 
against the annexation of Texas, as an act of warlike aggression; 
and to guard against a threatened invasion of Texas, General 
Zachary Taylor was ordered, with the troops of his military 
district, to its southern frontier. The Mexicans crossed the Ivio 
Grande, and commenced hostilities April 20, 1^4.3. General Tavlor 
moved promptly forward, and won the victories of Palo Alto, 
Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, Saltillo, and finally, against great 
odds — 20.0OU against 4,759 — the hard-fought battle of Buena 
Vista — a victory that excited great enthusiasm. In the meantime 
General Wool had been sent on an expedition to Chihuahua, in 
Northern Mexico; General Kearney to .New Mexico ; and Captain 
Fremont and Commander Stockton took possession of California. 
March 9, 1S47, General Scott landed at Vera Cruz, which he took 
on the 29th, after a siege and bombardment bv land and water. 
Marching into the interior with a force of about 9,000 men, he 
found General Santa Anna intrenched on the heights of Cerro 
Gordo with 15,000 men. On April is every position was taken 
by storm, with 3,000 prisoners, 43 cannon, 5,000 stand of arms, etc. 
Waiting at Puebla for reinforcements until August, General Scott 
advanced with 11, duo men towards Mexico, near which General 
Santa Anna awaited him with large forces and in strong positions. 
On the 19th and 20th of August were fought the battles of Con- 
treras and Churubusco, in which 9,000 Americans vanquished an 
army of over30,000 Mexicans in strongly fortified positions. After 
a brief armistice hostilities recommenced on the 7th September, 
and after a series of sanguinary actions the American armv, 
reduced to about 8,000, entered the city of .Mexico, which ended the 


war. By the treaty of Guadalupe the United States obtained the 
cession of Xew Mexico and Upper California, by paving Mexico 
§15,000,000, and assuming the payment of the claims of American 
citizens against Mexico. 

The opposition to the annexation of Texas, and to the war and 
the acquisition of the newly-acquired territory, became now com- 
plicated and intensified by sectional feelings and the opposition to 
slavery. The Northern party demanded that slavery should never 
be introduced into territories where it had not existed ; the South 
claimed the right of her people to emigrate into the new territories, 
carrying with them their domestic institutions. During the debates 
on the acquisition of the Mexican territories, Mr. "Wilmot, of 
Pennsylvania, introduced an amendment, called the " Wilmot Pro- 
viso," providing that there should be neither slavery nor involun- 
tary servitude in the acquired territory. This was voted down, 
but became a party principle. 

In 1840 General Taylor, the " Rough and Ready " victor of 
Buena Vista, became President, with Millard Fillmore as Vice- 
President. The Free-Soil party had nominated Martin Van Buren, 
with Charles Francis Adams 'as Vice-President ; the Democratic 
candidate being General Lewis Cass. The Liberal party in 1840 
had cast 7,609 votes; in 1841 it had 62,300; Mr. \ an Buren, in 
1848, received 201,203 — so rapid was the growth of a party soon 
destined to control the policy of the government. September 1, 
1840, California, rapidly peopled by the discovery of gold, adopted 
a constitution which prohibited slavery. Violent struggles and 
debates in Congress followed, with threats of secession, and protests 
against interference with slavery. The more zealous abolitionists 
of the North denounced the Constitution for its support of slavery, 
and its requirement of the return of fugitive slaves to their owners, 
and threatened separation. The South denounced the violation of 
the Constitution by interference with slavery — a domestic institu- 
tion of the States — the carrying olF of negroes secretly by organ- 
ized societies, and the passage of personal liberty bills in several 
States, which virtually defeated the requirements and guarantees 
of the Fugitive Slave Law. Mr. Clay introduced a compromise 
into Congress, admitting California as a free State, and introduc- 
ing a new and more stringent law for the rendition of fugitive 
slaves. President Taylor, more used to the rough life of a fron- 
tier soldier than the cares of state, died July 0, i6.~>0, and was suc- 
ceeded I iv Mr. Fillmore. 

The election of Franklin Pierce in 1S32, against General Scott, 


was a triumph of the Democratic, States' Rights, and Southern 
party. Jefferson Davis, a Senator from Mississippi, a son-in-law 
of General Taylor, and who had served under him in Mexico, was 
appointed Secretary of War. New elements were ,.dded to the 
sectional controversies which agitated the country, by the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise and the passage of the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill of Senator Douglas, which left the people of every 
Territory, on becoming- a State, free to adopt or exclude the insti- 
tution of slavery. The struggles of Kansas, approaching 
a civil war between the Free-Soil and Pro-Slavery par- 
ties in that rapidly growing Territory, resulted in the exclu- 
sion of slavery. A brutal assault upon Mr. Sumner, Senator 
from Massachusetts, by a Southerner, named Preston Brooks, in 
consequence of a severe speech on Southern men and institutions, 
increased the excitement of both sections. The formation of an 
Anti-Foreign and No-Popery party, called the " Know-Nothing" 
party, acting chiefly through secret societies, was a singular but 
not very important episode in American politics, though it doubt- 
less influenced the succeeding election. 

In 1S50 the Republicans, composed of the Northern, Free-Soil, 
and Abolition parties, nominated John C. Fremont for the Presi- 
dency, while the Democratic and States' Rights party nominated 
James Buchanan. Ex-President Fillmore received the Know- 
Nothing nomination. The- popular vote was — for Buchanan, 
1,838,100 ; Fremont, 1,341,264 ; Fillmore, S74,534. Mr. Buchanan 
was inaugurated March 4, 1857, with John C. Breckinridge, after- 
wards a General of the Confederate army, as Vice-President. 

A diliiculty with the Mormons, which caused the President to 
send a military force to Utah, was settled without bloodshed. The 
efforts of the government to execute the Fugitive Slave Law kept 
up an irritated feeling. There were savage lights between the 
Northern and Southern parties in Kansas, and on the western 
borders of Missouri. Resolute and well-armed settlers A-ere sent 
out by New England emigration societies. In October, 1859, 
John Brown, known as ■* Ossawattamie Brown," who, with his 
sons, had been engaged in the struggles in Kansas, planned and 
led an expedition for freeing the negroes in Virginia. lie made 
his attempt at Harper's Ferry, on the Potomac, where, after a 
vain attempt to induce the negroes to join him, he and his small 

1 tarty took possession of one of the government workshops, where 
le was taken prisoner by a party of United States soldiers, and 
handed over to the authorities of Virginia, tried and executed 


Of the Lewis and Clarke Expedition, in 
fndian Costume. 


December 2. His body was taken to his home in New York for 

In I860, the Democratic party, which, except at short intervals, 
had controlled the Federal government from the election of Jef- 
ferson in 1800, became hopelessly divided. The Southern dele- 
gates withdrew from the convention at Charleston, and two 
Democratic candidates were nominated, Stephen A. Douglas, of 
Illinois, and John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky; while the 
Republicans, or United Whig and Abolition party, nominated 
Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois ; and the Union or American party 
nominated John Bell, of Tennessee. The Republican convention 
adopted a moderate and even conservative " platform " of princi- 
ples, denounced the John Brown raid, and put forward as a prin- 
ciple, •* the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and 
especially the right of each State to order and control its own 
domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively." 
Still, the country was sectioually divided, and all who had labored 
to limit or destroy the Southern institution of slavery were acting 
with the Republican party. 

At the election of November, 1860, Mr. Lincoln received every 
Northern vote in the electoral college (excepting three of New 
Jersey, which were given to Mr. Douglas), ISO votes ; Mr. Breck- 
inridge received 72 electoral votes ; Mr. Bell, 39 ; Mr. Douglas, 
12. The North and South were arrayed against each other, and 
the South was beaten. Of the popular vote, Mr. Lincoln received 
1,857,010; Mr. Douglas, 1,365,070; Mr. Breckinridge, 847,951; 
Mr. Bell, 590,631. Tims, while Mr. Lincoln gained an overwhelm- 
ing majority of the electoral votes given by each State, the com- 
bined Democratic votes exceeded his by 356.317, and the whole 
popular vote against him exceeded his own by 916,91:8. A small 
majority, or even plurality, in the Northern States was sufficient 
to elect him. 

The South lost no time in acting upon what her statesmen had. 
declared would be the sigtuil of their withdrawal from the Union. 
On the loth of November, as soon as the result was known, the 
Legislature of South Carolina ordered a State convention, which 
assembled December 17, and on the 2Uth unanimously declared 
that "the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other 
States, under the name of the United States, is hereby dissolved;" 
giving as a reason that fourteen of these States had for years 
refused to fulfil their constitutional obligations. The example of 
South Carolina was followed by Mississippi, January 9, 1861; 


Florida, loth; Alabama, 1 lth; "Georgia, f9th; Louisiana, 26th: 
Texas, Feb. 1; Virginia, April 25; Arkansas, May 6; North 
Carolina, 21st ; Tennessee, June 8. Kentucky and Missouri were 
divided, and had representatives in the governments and armies 
ci both, sections. 

On the 4th of February, 1861. delegates from the seven then 
.secede i States met at Montgomery. Alabama, and formed a pro- 
visional oovernment, under the title of the " Confederate States of 
America? 1 A constitution was adopted much like that of the 
United States, and the government fully organized, February 18, 
1861; President, Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi; Vice-President. 
Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia ; and May 24, established at 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Prescient Buchanan, doubting his constitutional power to com- 
pel the seceding States to return to the Union, made a feeble and 
ineffectual attempt to relieve the garrison of Fort Sumter, in 
Charleston Harbor, closely besieged by the forces of South Caro- 
lina. Commissioners were sent to Washington to negotiate for 
the settlement of claims of the Federal government, and great 
efforts were made to effect compromises of the difficulties, % but 
without result. 

On tiie 4th of March, 1861, President Lincoln was inaugurated 
at Washington. In his address, he said : '• I have no purpose, 
directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery 
in the* States where it exists. J believe that I have no lawful 
ri'dit to do so, and 1 have no inclination to do so." On the 7th 
of April, a naval expedition set sai. from New York for the relief 
of Fort Sumter ; and its arrival oil Charleston Harbor was the 
signal for the commencement of a bombardment of the fort by 
the Confederate batteries of General Beauregard. The surrender 
of the fort, April li>. was followed by a sudden outburst of indig- 
nation in the North. The governnien railed out 75,000 volun- 
teers large numbers of whom were in a lew days inarching to the 
defence ol Washington. April 18, the Confederates seized the 
government arsenal at Harper's Ferry, and took or destroyed a 
hirge quantitv of arms and machinery. On the 20th,- the navy- 
yard near Norfolk, Va., was destroyed by the Federal officers, and 
live large men-of-war burned or sunk, to prevent their falling into 
the hands of the Confederates. Opposed to the Federal volun- 
teers assembled at Washington, the Confederates took up a posi- 
tion at Bull Km. a feu miles distant from the Potomac under 
General Beamvgard, where they were attacked by General 


McDowell. A severe action resulted in the repulse and complete 
panic of the Federals, who hastily retreated to Washington. Con- 
gress saw that it must act in earnest, and that the rebellion was 
not to be put down in ninety days by 75,000 volunteers. It voted 
to call out 500,000 men. The Confederate States had a popula- 
tion of 5,5S2,122 free inhabitants, and 3,519,902 slaves; total, 
9,102,024 ; and though the negroes were not called into the field 
except as laborers, they were not less useful in supplying the 
armies, by carrying on the agricultural labor of the country. The 
Confederates had also the strong sympathy and aid of the four 
slaveholding border States, prevented by their position from 
seceding — Delaware. Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. 

Holding their position in Virginia, the Confederates erected 
fortifications on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, and on 
.important points of the Mississippi, from Columbus, in Kentucky, 
to its mouth. They also made a strong effort to secure the State 
of Missouri, as well as to defend the seaports through which they 
must receive their most important supplies from abroad. The 
Federal government, on its side, blockaded the whole line of 
coast from Virginia to Texas, and sent huge forces to secure the 
doubtful States.' Gunboats were rapidly built for the rivers of 
the West, and vessels .purchased and constructed for the navy. 
In December. 1861, the Federals had 640,000 men in the field : 
and the Confederates had 210,000, and had called for 400,00c 

The first important operation of 1S^2 \va* the taking the 
defences of the Cumberland and Tennessee 1 ers (February <! 
and 1C), which led to the occupation of Nashville, the capital of 
Tennessee, henceforth held by the Federals — Andrew Johnson, 
formerly Governor and Senator, having been appointed Military 
Governor. Roanoke Island was also captured, on the coast of 
North Carolina. In March, General McClellan, who had suc- 
ceeded the aged Lieutcnant-General Scott as commander-in-chief, 
commenced a movement on Richmond, the seat of the Confed- 
erate govern ment, now defended by General Lee. 

On the Sth of March, the Confederate iron-clad "Virginia," 
constructed from the United States steamer '•Merrunac." which 
had been sunk- at Norfolk, and raised by the Confederates, 
attacked the Federal fleet in Hampton Roads, and in forty 
minutes sunk the "Cumberland,' 1 and set on lire and captured 
the "Congress" (frigates); while the other vessels took refuge in 
shoal water or in flight. The next day the •' Monitor," a war- 



vessel of entirely novel construction, low and Hat, with a revolv- 
ing turret, invented by Captain Ericsson, engaged the " Virginia." 
The battle ended in the repulse of the " Virginia.'* On the 6th 
of April, a sanguinary but indecisive battle was fought near 
Corinth, Alabama, the Federals being protected by gunboats. 
Soon after, Admiral Farragut, with a fleet of forty-five vessels, 
carried the torts at the mouth of the MissisHnoi River, and took 
New Orleans ; while the armies and gunboats , otured the forti- 
fications on the upper part of the river as low us Memphis, Ten- 
nessee. In the meantime General McClellan had besieged and 
taken Yorktown, and fought his way up the peninsula of the 
James River, until witnin five miles of Richmond, when he was 
beaten in a series of sanguinary battles, and driven, with a loss. 
in six days, of 15,000 men, to the shelter of his gunboats ; while 
Generals' .Banks and McDowell, sent to co-operate with him in 
the Shenandoah Valley, were defeated and driven back by General 
'■ Stonewall " Jackson. On the 1st of July, the President called 
for 300,000 men, and August 4-t : i 300,00<> lore men for the Fed- 
eral arm v. Congress abolished ^avery in tne District of Colum- 
bian-prohibited it in the Territories, and passed a resolution to 
compensate the masters in any State that would abolish -.lavery. 
They also authorized the President to employ negroes in the army, 
and to confiscate the slaves of rebels. In August, the Federah 
were a second time defeated at Bull Run, and General Lee crossed 
the Potomac into Maryland, creating great alarm in Washington, 
and even in Philadelphia. ' General McClellan made a rapid 
march, and met him at Sharpsburg or Antietam. The battle 
resulted in the defeat and retreat of General Lee, covering an 
immense train of provisions, horses, cattle, etc., which was prob- 
ably the object of his expedition. A Confederate invasion of 
Kentucky, about the same time, was attended with similar results. 
Another advance on Richmond was led by General Burnside, 
who had superseded General McClellan ; but he was confronted 
by General Lee at Fredericksburg, and defeated in one of the 
most sanguinary battles of the war. 

Shortly after this, President Lincoln issued the " Emancipation 
Proclamation," declaring the freedom of all the slaves in the 
rebel States. This measure, though nut strictly constitutional, 
was justified by military necessity. While the army of the 
Potomac was vainly endeavoring to advance on Richmond, the 
army of the Tennessee, under General Rosecrans, with its base at 
Nashville, was trying to sever the Atlantic from the Gulf States, 


and cut off the railways that supplied the Confederate armies in 
Virginia, At 3iurfreesborough, Tennessee, the Confederate Gen- 
eral Bragg attacked General Rosecrans, but was repulsed in the 
battle of Stone River, and fell back to Tullahoma. 

Early in May. 1S63, General Hooker, who had succeeded Gen- 
eral Burnside in the command of the army of the Potomac, crossed 
the Rappahannock, and was defeated by 'General Lee at Chancel- 
lorsville with great slaughter; but this victory was dearly bought 
by the loss of General Jackson, mortally wounded in mistake by 
his own soldiers. General Lee now' took the offensive, and 
invaded Pennsylvania, advancing as far as Harrisburg ; but being 
met by General Meade, the new commander of the army of the 
Potomac, he attacked him in a strong position at Gettysburg, was 
defeated, and compelled to recross the Potomac. In the mean- 
time, the two principal fortresses of the Mississippi, Yicksburg 
and Port Hudson, attacked by land and water, after a long siege, 
were starved into capitulation, and the entire river was opento 
Federal gunboats. Charleston, blockaded since the beginning 
of the war, was now strongly besieged— its outworks, Forts Gre°"g 
and Wagner, taken. Fort Sumter battered in pieces, but still held 
as an earthwork, and shells thrown a distance of five miles into 
the inhabited part of the city. In September, General Rosecrans 
had taken the strong position of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and 
penetrated into the northwest corner of Georgia, where he was 
checked by General Bragg at the battle of Chickamauga. At this 
period there were great peace-meetings in the North, terrible riots 
in New \ ork against the conscription and the negroes ; while the 
banks having suspended specie pavments, the paper-money of 
both Federals and Confederates was largely depreciated. 'The 
Confederates were, however, cut off from all foreign aid, except 
what came to them through the blockade ; and their own resources. 
both of men and material, were becoming exhausted. The rail- 
ways were worn, many destroyed or occupied by the Federals, 
and it became difficult to transport supplies and feed armies. The 
Federals had command of the sea, and access to all the markets of 

At the commencement of 1864, the Federals held, including the 
Ijpirnsons on the Mississippi, nearly Ioimmmi prisoners of war.°The 
Southerners also had about -fo.noo Federal prisoners, whom thev 
could feed with difficulty, and who suttcred great hardships. Gen- 
eral Ulysses S. Grant, who had been successful at Vieksburir, was 


appointed commander-in-chief of the Federal armies, and com- 
menced a vigorous campaign over an immense area — in Virginia. 
the Carolinas, Georgia, Louisiana, and Arkansas — with the deter- 
mination "to hammer continuously against the armed forces of the 
enemy and his resources, until by mere attrition he should be 
forced to submit/' Of the Confederates, General Lee defended 
Petersburg and Richmond ; General J. E. Johnston opposed the 
army of Tennessee at Dalton, Georgia ; General Forrest was in 
Mississippi; General Taylor and Kirby Smith commanded in 
Louisiana and Arkansas. In February, General Sherman marched 
from Yicksburg, making a destructive raid across Northern Miss- 
issippi to Alabama. In March, the Federals had 1,000,000 of men 
raised and provided for. The entire Confederate forces probably 
numbered 250,000. The army of the Potomac, commanded by 
General Meade, under the personal superintendence of General 
Grant, covered Washington, and advanced towards Richmond. 
General Butler advanced from Fortress Monroe up the James 
River; General Sigel marched up the Shenandoah. Sherman 
united the armies of Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio, at Chatta- 
nooga, where he had nearly 100,000 men and 250 guns. General 
Banks had .61,000 men in Louisiana. In March, General Banks 
moved up the Red River, toward.- Shrieveport, but was defeated 
on the 24th, and driven back to New Orleans. In May, the cam- 
paign of Virginia commenced, and the army of the Potomac 
fought a series of battles at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court- 
house, Jericho's Ford, North Anna, and Cold Harbor, with ter- 
rible losses. After each battle the Federals took up a new posi- 
tion further South, with a new base, until they had made half the 
circuit of the Confederate capital. General Breckinridge defeated 
General Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley, and once more threatened 
Washington. General Sheridan, with a strong cavalry force, 
drove back the Confederates, and laid waste the valley. In Sep- 
tember, General Sherman, advancing with a superior force, cap- 
tured Atlanta. General Hood superseding Johnston in the com- 
mand of the Confederates, was out-generaled and beaten. While 
he marched west to cut olf General Sherman's base, and attack 
Nashville, where he was defeated, Sherman burned Atlanta, 
destroyed the railway, and marched boldly through Georgia to 
Savannah. The Confederates made strong efforts, but they were 
unable to gain any advantages. 

In 18G5, the Federals made a new draft for 500,000 men. 
Expeditions were organized against Mobile. Wilmington, the 
most important Confederate port, was taken by a naval and mili- 



tarv expedition. Savannah and Charleston, approached in the 

rear by Sherman, were evacuated. Cavalry raids cut off the rail 
ways and canal that supplied the Confederate army in Petersburg 
and Richmond. Final! /, on March 29, 1S65, a series of assaults 
was made upon the Confederate works, during ten days of almost 
continual fighting, until the Confederates were worn down with 
fatigue. Richmond and Petersburg were evacuated April 2; and 
on the 9th, after several conflicts, General Lee surrendered at 
Appomattox Court- House, his army numbering 28,000. At this 
period, it is said that there was not lead enough remaining in the 
Confederate States to fight a single battle. On the 12th, Mobile 
surrendered with 3,000 prisoners and 300 guns. Then Genera! 
Johnston, in Xorth Carolina, surrendered a few days after to 
General Sherman; and the Trans-Mississippi Confederate army 
followed his example. 

In November, 1861, Mr. Lincoln had been triumphantly 
re-elected to the Presidency, with Andrew Johnson as Vice-Presi- 
dent. On April 11, 1805, while the North was rejoicing over the 
capture of Richmond and the surrender of the Confederate armies. 
the President was assassinated at a theatre in Washington, by 
John Wilkes Booth, an actor; while an accomplice attacked and 
nearly killed Mr. Seward, Secretary of State. The assassin was 
pursued and. killed, and several of his accomplices tried and exe- 
cuted. Andrew Johnson became President. Jefferson Davis and 
the members of the Confederate government were supposed to be 
privy to the assassination of President Lincoln, and large rewards 
were offered for their apprehension. Mr. Davis was captured in 
Georgia, and placed in Fortress Monroe. The war was scarcely 
ended when S00,000 men were paid off, and mustered out of the 
service. An amendment to the Constitution, forever abolishing 
slavery in the States and Territories of the Univm, was declared 
ratified by two-thirds of the States, December IS. ls*!5; and the 
President, who had pardoned most of those prominently engaged 
in "the great rebellion." in lS*Wi proclaimed the restoration 
to the Union of all the seceded States; but their Senators and 
Representatives were not admitted to take their seats in Congress, 
and only in IS72 wen- all the States fully represented. 

During the war the number of men called for by the Federal 
government was 2,759,0 P.); the number actually furnished by the 
States was 2,f>50,553, when at the '-lose of the war the drafts were 
discontinued. Of colored troops, mostly recruited from the slaves. 


there were 186,0U7. The Federal losses during the war are esti- 
mated at 275,000 men. The statistics of the Confederate forces 
are imperfect. In 1864, the army consisted of 20,000 artillery, 
128,000 cavalry, 400,951 infantry;' total, 549,220, commanded by 
200 general officers. The Confederate losses are unknown. 

The most important results of the war, however, were not 
accomplished by the cessation of hostilities; and in order to bring 
them about, and incorporate them irrevocably with the national 
institutions, three amendments to the Constitution have been 
passed by the States. The XTIIth Amendment, abolishing sla- 
very -within the United States, or any place subject to their 
jurisdiction," was passed by Congress" on January 31, 1865, 
and ratified by twenty-seven States on December IS, 1865. 
The XlVth Amendment, concerning the rights of citizens, 
representation, reconstruction, and the public debt, was adopted 
by Congress June 13, 1866, and ratified by the States July 20, 
1868. The XVth Amendment, guaranteeing civil rights to all, 
" without distinction of race, color, or previous condition of servi- 
tude," was adopted by Congress February 27, isi;i>, and ratified 
by three-fourths of the States March 30, 1870. These amend- 
ments were the logical and inevitable result of the civil war, 
and their passage, together with the reconstruction of the South- 
ern States, which was finally accomplished in the year 1872, 
brought to a close the most melancholy chapter of American 

In 1868, General Ulysses S. Grant, as candidate of the Republi- 
can party, was elected President by a considerable majority over 
Horatio Seymour, the candidate of the Democratic party. He 
went into office March 4, I860, and the principal events of 
his Presidency was the completion of the Pacific Railroad 
across the continent, which was opened May 10, f 860; and 
the Treaty of Washington, which settled the Alabama claims and 
several other Long-outstanding disputes with England. This 
treaty was drawn by a Joint High Commission, comprising 
representatives of both countries, which sat in Washington from 
March 1 to May 6-, 1*71. X eu - r ,iles f international law were 
laid down, and the question of damages was referred to a Hoard 
of Arbitrators which met at Geneva, Switzerland, in April, 1872, 
ami in September, 1872, decided to allow £15,250,000 to the 
United States lor damages sustained from the Alabama and other 
privateers which, escaping from English ports, preved upon Amer- 
ican commerce during the civil war In 1872 General (4 rant was 
again nominated for the Presidency bv the Republicans, and 


Horace Greeley, the well-known editor of the New York Tribune, 
was nominated by the Democrats and by a party calling them- 
selves Liberal Republicans, and comprising many of the leading 
members of the old Republican organization. General Grant was 
elected by a decided majority of both the electoral and popular 

On the 29th of November, but little over three weeks after the 
election, the venerable founder of the Tribune and recent candi- 
date for the Presidency, died, mourned and regretted by the 
nation. At the close of the Forty-second Congress, March 3, 1S73, 
a law was enacted by Congress, increasing the pay of Congress- 
men, the President and various Government officials. It was 
made retroactive extending over the entire term of the Forty-sec- 
ond Congress, commencing March 4, 1S71, and was a stench in 
the nostrils of the great mass of the American people. In Sep- 
tember following, the most serious financial panic the Republic 
has ever experienced commenced in New York, and spread 
throughout the country, prostrating its business industries, and 
leaving its blight for the five years following. 

In the "beginning ol 1874 the United States narrowly escaped a 
war with Spain on account of the capture of the Yirginius, by the 
Cuban authorities. Morrison R. Waite, of Toledo, was made 
Chief Justice of the United States, and still occupies that high 
judicial position. Congress discussed financial measures for 
months, resulting in the passage, by both houses, of the Currency 
Bill, increasing the issue of paper money. President Grant vetoed 
the measure, and Congress failed to pass it over the veto. 

The year ISTti became memorable as the Centennial year of the 
Republic, and was commemorated by the Centennial Exhibition 
at Philadelphia. Nearly all the nations of the globe were repre- 
sented. It was opened the 10th of May, and closed the loth of 

Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler were nominated 
for the Presidency and Vice Presidency by the Republicans, and 
Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks by the Democrats. 
The campaign was the most closely contested of any in the annals 
of the Republic. The election on the 7th of November left the 
result doubtful for many months. Tilden had 184 electoral 
votes and Hayes, 173. with Florida and Louisiana uncertain — 185 
being necessary to a choice. On the <>th of December all the 
electoral colleges met and cast their electoral votes The boards 
in Florida and Louisiana were Republican and some of the returns 








were thrown out for alleged violence and intimidation, thus giving 
these States to Haves ami securing his election. It was main- 
tained by the Democratic party that fraud only could bring about 
such a result, and double returns were forwarded to Congress. 
compelling that body to make the choice for President. 

To settle the disputed election, Congress worked and worried 
until the latter part of January, 1ST 7. A compromise bill was 
finally passed, which authorized an electoral commission of five 
Senators, live Representatives, and live Judges of the Supreme 
Court, to which the points in dispute were submitted. Eight 
members of the commission proved to be Republicans, and seven 
Democrats. Every vote on the contested points invariably 
resulted eight Republican votes opposed to seven Democratic 
votes. The decision was made on party lines, and the disputed 
States were given to Uayes by eight votes over seven. This decis- 
ion was to be final, unless the two Houses agreed to order other- 
wise. They could not so agree, and to the dissatisfaction of the 
Democracy, it was so decided. Returns were also received from 
two" electoral colleges from Oregon and South Carolina, on tech- 
nical grounds, which were also decided by the Commission with 
the usual eight to seven, in favor of the Republican candidate. 
Notwithstanding this recorded decision of the tribunal, the Dem- 
ocrats still believed that a tlrorough investigation would give the 
Presidency to their candidate. 

Government. — The government of the United States is one of 
limited and specific powers; strictly defined by a written constitu- 
tion, framed by a convention of the States in 1TST, which went 
into operation after being ratified by the thirteen original States 
in 17S9, by which instrument the several states, having their inde- 
pendent republican 1 government conferred upon a Federal Con- 
gress Executive or President, and Judiciary, such powers as were 
necessary to "form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure 
domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, and secure 
the blessings of liberty." 

The legislative powers granted to the Federal government are 
vested in a Congress consisting of a Senate of two senators from 
each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof; and a house of 
Representatives, consisting of one 01 more members from each 
State, elected by the people in «•< ]ii;tl electoral districts; so that 
the States, large and small, have each two votes in the Senate, and 
from one to thirty-seven in the House of Representatives. The 
Senator must be at least thirty years old. and is chosen for six 


years; the Representative, at least twenty-five years old, and is 
elected for two years. Senators and Representatives are paid 
$10,000 for each Congress of two years' duration. \ e Senate is 
presided over by the Vice-President; and is a high court for trial 
of cases of impeachment. It also confirms the appointments of 
the President, and ratifies treaties made with foreign powers. 
Revenue bills originate in the House of Representatives. Bills 
passed by both Houses, within the limits of their constitutional 
powers, become laws on receiving the sanction of the President; 
or, if returned with his veto, may be passed over, by two-thirds of 
both Houses. 

By the Constitution, the States granted to Congress power "to 
lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the 
United States;'' to borrow money; to regulate commerce; to 
establish uniform naturalization and bankruptcy laws; to coin 
money, and fix the standards of weights and measures, and pun- 
ish counterfeiting; to establish post-offices and post-roads; to 
secure patents and copyrights; punish piracies; declare, war; raise 
armies and navy; to call out the militia, reserving to the States 
to appoint their officers; and to govern the District of Columbia, 
and all places purchased for forts, arsenals, etc.. with the tonsjnt 
of the State Legislatures. All powers not expressly granted are 
reserved to the States or the people; but the States, though 
sovereign and independent under the Constitution, with all pow- 
ers of local legislation, eminent domain (t. t., absolute possession 
of the soil), and power of life and death, with which neither Pres- 
ident nor Congress can interfere, cannot make treaties, coin money, 
levy duties on imports, or exercise the powers granted to Congress. 

The Executive of the Federal government is a President, chosen 
by an electoral college, equal in number to the Senators and Rep- 
resentatives, elected by the people of the States, lie must be a 
native of the United States, at least thirty-live years old, and is 
elected for a term of four years. ;uid may be re-elected without 
limit; though a custom, dating from Washington's time, limits 
the incumbency to two terms. His salary is s^.".,noo a year. The 
Vice President, who, in ease of the death of the President, succeeds 
him, is President of the Senate. If In.' should die after becoming 
President, his successor would be chosen by Congress. The Pres- 
ident, by and with the consent of the Senate, appoints a cabinet, 
consisting of the Secretaries of State and Foreign Affairs, Treas- 
ury, War, Navy. Interior, the PoStmaster-General. and Attorney- 


General. These officers have salaries of $8,000 a year, have no 
seats in Congress, and are solely responsible to the President, who 
also appoints directly, or through his subordinates, the officers of 
the army and navy — of which he is commander-in-chief — the 
justices of the Federal judiciary, revenue officers, post-masters, etc. 
— in all about 100,000 persons. 

The President, either directly or through the Secretary of State 
and Foreign affairs, appoints ministers, consuls, and consular 
ajrents to foreign countries. There are twelve envoys-extra- 
ordinary and ministers-plehipotentionary, receiving from $17,- 
500 to $10,000 salary; twenty-three ministers resident, $7,500 to 

The Judiciary consists of a supreme court, with one chief-justice 
and eight assistant justices, appointed by the President for life, 
and district judges in each district. The supreme court has juris- 
diction in all cases arising under the Constitution, laws, and 
treaties of the United States; causes affecting ambassadors and 
consuls, of admiralty and jurisdiction; controversies to which the 
United States is a party, or between a State and the citizens of 
another State, citizens of different States, or citizens and" foreign 
States. It has original jurisdiction in State cases, or those affect- 
ing ambassadors or consuls — in others appellate. A person may 
be tried for treason, both against the Federal government and 
against the State of which he is a citizen. The President can 
reprieve or pardon a person condemned by a Federal court ; but 
has no power to interfere with' the judgments of State tribunals. 
Besides the supreme court, there are United States district courts, 
with judges, district attorneys, and marshals, in districts com- 
prising part or whole of the several States. The citizens of each 
State are entitled to all privileges and immunities of the several 
States. Criminals escaping from one State to another are given 
up for trial on demand of the Executive; and the Constitution 
declares that "no person held to service or labor in one State, 
under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in conse- 
quence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such 
service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to 
whom such service or labor may be due." The Constitution may 
be amended by a convention called at the request of two-thirds of 
the States; or amendments may be proposed by a vote of two- 
thirds of Congress, and ratified by two-thirds of the States; but 
"no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suf- 
frage in the Senate." 

falls "au sable," nkw iuuk. 


Tn pursuance of the decision arrived at by the Electoral Com- 
mission, Rutherford B. Hayes resigned the Governorship of Ohio. 
proceeded to Washington, and was peacefully inaugurated as the 
Nineteenth President of the United States, and became the Pres- 
ident de facto, although the Democratic party continued to hold 
that Samuel J. Tilden was President de jure. After the inaugural, 
however, the public mind, so long overstrained, relaxed, and 
political passion cooled. A blessed repose that was much needed 
fell upon the country. The depression in all the commercial and 
manufacturing interests throughout the country, which began in 
1S73, still continued, and the people looked forward with much 
anxiety to the financial condition of the Republic, and eagerly 
awaited the dawn of a revival of business interests. In his 
inaugural the President advocated the first step to more prosper- 
ous times to be a paper currency resting upon a coin basis, and at 
all times and promptly convertible into coin. To the South he 
extended the assurance that his earnest efforts would be put forth 
in behalf of a civil policy that should forever wipe out the dis- 
tinction between North and South. He backed up his overtures 
to the South by selecting as one of the members of- his Cabinet, 
Hon. David M. Key. of Tennessee, who had been identified with 
the Rebellion. Thus, the Southern policy of the President seemed 
to give satisfaction for a time to a great majority of the people. 

The cpiestion of finance and of relief from the business prostra- 
tion of the country chiefly occupied the attention of our national 
legislators until the day fixed for the resumption of specie pay- 
ments — January 1. Li>79. The great struggle of political parties 
for the ascendency was on the question of nuance. At a special 
session of Congress, held in the fall of 1*77. the enemies of 
resumption made a determined effort to defeat the measure. A 
bill to repeal the act of resumption was introduced into the House 
by General Ewing, of Ohio, and the financial battle again waxed 
tierce and hot on the floors of Congress. The roar of conflict on 
this great issue continue. I. tewing, Garfield, K. el ley and other 
great statesmen and leaders in our national councils crossed 
swords in the arena of debate on this great question which 
agitated the country from ocean to ocean. 

• The bill introduced by Mr. tewing to repeal the resumption act, 
after a might V forensic struirirle, passed the House November *22, 
lb77. it then went to the Senate, which body made some 
important amendments, and it came back to the House in June, 
167b. Here the attempt to suspend the rides, to concur in the 


Senate amendments, and pass the bill, failed to receive the 
requisite two-thirds vote. Nearly two months after resumption 
was accomplished, another attempt was made to repeal the 
measure, but the House rejected the proposed repeal by a large 
vote. This ended the long record of financial discussion. 

The Forty-sixth Congress, from 1871) to 1881, will be recorded 
in history as one of the most excited and troubled that the country 
had witnessed since the perilous times of lS()l)- , 61-*62. A num- 
ber of exciting questions had arisen since the winter of lS7S-*7i>. 
The Forty-fifth Congress had failed to pass two of the twelve 
great appropriation bills, viz: the army bill, and the legislative, 
executive and judicial bill, together disposing of 845,000,000. 
This amount was needed to carry on the Government, and the 
failure to make the appropriation was extreme and unprecedented 
in our nation's history. Thus an extra session of ( 'ongress became 
an absolute necessity. This began March 18, 1879, and was the 
first session of the Forty-sixth Congress. For more than three 
months the struggle continued, ending with the appropriation of 
the §45,000,000, except £000,000, which was also appropriated, 
less §7,400 in December following. 

During the summer and fall of 1870, the Southern States of 
the Union were swept with the scourge of yellow fever to an 
extent without precedent in the history of that dread contagion. 
The frightful pestilence swept with its foul breath the most fertile 
fields and valleys, and the most isolated villages, as well as the 
crowded marts of trade and most densely populated cities of 
the 'South. Its heavy hand was laid upon New Orleans with a 
withering touch, while Memphis became literally the City of Des- 
olation. The dire suffering of the people in hamlet and city 
appealed with mute eloquence to the people of the North, and 
met with a hearty response, and money, provisions, life's neces- 
saries of every description, with medical skill, were lavished 
abundantly. It was one more link in uniting the two extremes 
of the Union in the bonds of sympathy and fraternity of feeling. 

Although a portion of the American people- have always <pies- 
tioned Haves' title to the I'res.dency. vel there is an united verdict 
that his administration lias been less tainted with the corruption 
of government othcials than that of any previous administration 
perhaps in the annals of the It (public, at least since the days of 
Andrew Jackson. His wife, too, left her impress upon Washing- 
ton circles, in wholly and absolutely discarding the use of intox- 
icating drinks from the White House. Her example is a monument 


to her integrity of character and conscientious love of principle 
that will not soon be forgotten. 

The year 1SS0 witnessed one of the most significant and im- 
portant campaigns the country has ever known in the history of 
political parties. The Republican National Convention assembled 
at Chicago on the 2d of June, and continued in session seven days. 
In that convention was compressed the giant intellects of the 
party, and for seven days, forensic tactics, logic and eloquence 
were marshaled in mighty conflict before a result was obtained. 
General Grant, Hon. James G. Blaine, Hon. John Sherman, Sen- 
ators Windom, Edmunds and Washburne were successively named 
as nominees for the Presidency. Senator Conkling, of New York ; 
Cameron, of Pennsylvania, and Logan, of Illinois, were the intel- 
lectual giants who urged the claims of General Grant. They 
presented a strong front, and their favorite went into the contest 
with a following of three hundred and four votes on the first 
ballot. Day after day the balloting proceeded, with varying 
fortunes among the several candidates, and throughout that 
stormy siege of seven days' duration the phalanx of Grant stood 
firm and unshaken, going down in the decisive ballot with their 
ranks unbroken. The last two or three ballots indicated the 
change in the tide, when State after State wheeled into line in 
favor of Hon. James A. Garfield, of Ohio, and who, on the Sth 
day of June was declared the Republican nominee for the Pres- 
idency of the United States. Chester A. Arthur, of New York, 
was chosen as the candidate for Vice President. 

On the 9th day of June the 'National or Greenback party held 
its convention also in Chicago, and chose as its standard-bearers, 
General James B. Weaver, of Iowa, for President, and Hoiu 
A. J. Chambers, of Texas, for Vice President. 

June 22d, the Democratic National Convention assembled in Cin- 
cinnati, and chose General Win field S. Hancock, as its candidate for 
President, and William II. English, of Indiana, for Vice President. 

1S0 political campaign was ever prosecuted with more intense 
earnestness, more partisan bitterness, more lavish display. It 
eclipsed the great campaign of 1800, and went far ahead of the 
great hard-cider campaign of 1S40. The result of the eleetion in 
November, according to the official returns, showed that the 
Garfield electors received 4,439,-115 votes; Hancock. 4,4: , »0,014; 
Weaver, 3o.">,729; Dow, 9,644; scattering, 1,793, giving a net 
majority in favor of Garfield over Hancock, on the popular vote, 
of 3,401. The electoral count confirmed the vote of the people^ 


Grand Master of the (trand Lodge A. F. & A. M. of 

Virginia, 178(5-8. 


and on the 1th of March. 1SS1, General James A. Garfield was 
inaugurated as the Twentieth President of the United States. It 
was the most imposing inauguration ever conferred upon any 
President, and the grand pageant and ceremonies were witnessed 
by more than one hundred thousand people, attracted thither 
from every section of the Union. Conspicuous among the 
notables of the nation was General Hancock, the defeated can- 
didate of the Democratic party, who by his presence showed his 
nobility of character in thus honoring the new chief magistrate. 

The last days of the Forty-sixth Congress will be rendered 
notable in history on account of the passage of an act known as 
the funding bill, by which a certain portion of the government 
bonds was to be refunded at three per cent, interest, and which 
measure met with such intense opposition from the national 
bankers throughout the country, that they threatened to wind up 
their institutions, if the bill should become a law. and many of 
them returned their legal tenders. The bill was vetoed by Pres- 
ident Hayes, however, and this brought out against him the most 
bitter invectives from the friends of the bill, who declared that the 
action of the banks was threatening and revolutionary, and that 
it was a concession to the money power, that would result in 
untold evil to the great mass of the American people. 

The national debt readied its highest point July I, 1866, show- 
ing the enormous sum of $2,773,236, 173.09. From that time each 
year showed a steady decrease of the principal to July 1, 1876, 
when the indebtedness, less cash in the treasury, had been reduced 
to $2,099,439,314.99, a decrease in ten years of §682,796,828.70. 
The decrease continued throughout the administration of Pres- 
ident Hayes, as follows: July I. 1877, the debt less cash in the 
treasurv was $2,060,158,223.26; Julv 1, 1878, it was x-2,035,7S6,- 
831.82; Julv 1. 187'.), $2,o27,207.256'.37, and on the 1st of July, 
]880, the reduction reached to *1. , .>+L\17:-V2 , .>r>.: , »l. 

The census of the United States for the decade ending with 1880, 
shows that the United States has increased from a population of 38,533,- 
191 in 1870, to over 50,000,000 in 1880, and that the increase in 
commerce, manufactures, agriculture and industrial enterprise of 
every character is correspondingly large, giving every indication that 
as a people we are making rapid strides on the road of national pros- 
perity and renown. The tables of exports and imports for the last 
decade show a remarkable volume of foreign trade for a country 
where commerce is carried on under a high protective tariff. 


The Forty-sixth Congress closed on the 3d of March, 1881, and at noon 
of March 4, Vice-President Arthur, having just taken the oath of office, 
assumed the chair of the Senate, in obedience to the official proclamation 
calling a special session of that body. The purpose of calling this special 
session was to enable the Senate to receive and act upon such appoint- 
ments as the new President might see proper to make. The changes made 
by the expiration of terms of twenty-five Senators made an equal political 
division of the Senate — thirty-seven Republicans and thirty-seven Demo- 
crats, with General Mahone, of Virginia, and Hon. David Davis, of 
Illinois, rated as Independents. President Garfield's Cabinet appointments 
were submitted the second day of the session, and were promptly con- 
firmed. Owing to the equal division of the parties, the organization of 
the Senate threatened to be a matter of some difficulty. Both parties held 
caucuses for the selection of the membership of the various committees. 
Judge Davis acted with the Democrats, and General Mahone cast his vote 
with the Republicans, and the Republican list of committees was adopted 
by the Vice-President casting his vote. The organization of the commit- 
tees was thus effected on the 18th of March. 

The Democrats now determined to make a contest for the organization 
of the Senate itself, by retaining control of the subordinate offices of that 
body. The Republicans nominated George C. Gorhani for Secretary, and 
Henry Riddleberger, a Virginia Readjuster, for Sergeant-at-Arms. The 
Democrats resolved in caucus to resort to all manner of tactics to delay 
action upon reorganization. Senator Davis announced that inasmuch as 
the Republicans had secured the committees, he deemed it proper that that 
party should complete the organization, and no vote of his should prevent 
the election of their candidates. The dilatory tactics of the Democrats, 
however, were kept up, and the contest was continued through the entire 
month of Aprd, the discussions from day to day taking a wide range over 
the political field. The contest was most heated and bitter throughout, 
and there was scarcely a question of recent or current politics that was not 
made a subject of animated controversy. 

The President had sent a number of appointments to the Senate for 
confirmation, and during this contest in organizing, these appointments 
were awaiting the action of that body. Among these was that of Wm. 
H. Robertson, whom the President had named for collector of customs at 
the port of New York. This appointment was particularly distasteful to 
Senator Conkling. Various attempts were made to reconcile the antago- 
nism that existed between the President and the Senator on account of 
this appointment, but all to no purpose. The President claimed that the 
New York collectorship was a national office, to which there could be no 
local claim, and he felt free to make the appointment according to hia own 
judgment Senator Conkling, however, adhered firmly to his claim to a 
controlling voice in the selection of Federal officers in New York. 


By an unanimous vote, on the 4th of May, the Senate agreed to sus- 
pend the contest over the organization, and go into executive session, for 
the purpose of confirming the President's appointments. Seeing that it 
was the plan of Senator Conkling to secure the confirmation of the uncon- 
tested appointments, including those within the State of New York, and 
then, if possible, secure an adjournment of the Senate, without taking 
action on the others, President Garfield withdrew all the New York 
appointments except that of Robertson, and thus brought the contest with 
Senator Conkling, over the collectorship, to a distinct issue, which the 
Senate could not evade. 

From that time on caucuses were held day after day, in which Senator 
Conkling set forth his claims at great length, until he was convinced that 
he could secure no action in his favor on the part of the Senate. Finally, 
on the 16th of May, Senators Roscoe Conkling and Thomas C. Piatt, of 
New York, resigned their seats in the Senate, and sought a re-election by 
the General Assembly of their State, at Albany. After a protracted con- 
test of seven weeks or more, they failed in securing the vindication they 
desired, and Warner Miller and Eldridge G. Lapham were elected Senators 
in their stead. On the 18th of. May the Senate of the United States con- 
firmed the President's appointments almost without opposition, and on the 
20th of May the Senate adjourned without renewing the contest over the 
■election of the minor officers. 

On the 2d day of July, about 9 o'clock in the morning, as President 
Garfield was about to start for a trip to the New England States, and was 

gassing through the Baltimore & Potomac Railway depot, arm-in-arm with 
ecretary Blaine, he was shot doivn by an assassin, who afterwards proved 
to be Charles J. Guiteau, and who was promptly arrested before he made 
bis escape from the room, and conveyed to the District of Columbia jail. 
A hasty examination of the President's wound was made in one of the 
offices of the depot, and at the earliest possible moment he was taken back 
to the executive mansion, and his wife, who was at Long Branch, tele- 
graphed for. She reached her husband's bedside about 6 o'clock that 
evening, by a special train provided her. Dr. D. W. Bliss took charge 
of the case, selecting as his associates Dr. J. K. Barnes, Surgeon-General 
of the army; Dr. J. J. Woodward, also of the army, and Dr. Robert 
Reyburn. The following day Dr. D. Hayes Agnew, of Philadelphia, 
and Dr. Frank H. Hamilton, of New York, were called in for consulta- 
tion and advice. 

The news of the tragedy flashed into every nook and corner of the land, 
across to the Old World on the wings of the lightning, and created the 
intensest excitement everywhere. Men were appalled, that in time of pro- 
found peace the assassin's arm should be raised against the head of the 
foremost government of the earth. The heart and pulse of the nation 
were thrilLd with feelings of mingled sorrow, horror and indignation. All 





over the Ian<l where preparations were in progress for the celebration of 
the nation's natal anniversary, they were suspended, and the Fourth ol 
July, 1881, was probably the gloomiest in our history. The excitement 
was more intense probably because the attempted assassination was gener- 
ally supposed to be an indirect result of what was termed the spoils system, 
or an inordinate thirst of office-seeking, and the bitter antagonism that had 
been engendered between the so-called "Stalwarts," and the friends of the 
Administration, a division that had grown out of the controversy over the 
appointments in the State of New York. This outburst of sorrow, grief 
and indignation overleaped the bounds of partisan prejudice, and the entire 
people, embracing all parties and factions, North and South, from every 
corner of the Republic, deplored the monstrous crime, and united in the 
national lamentation. Nor was it confined to the American people alone. 
Expressions of sympathy were wafted from every civilized nation of the 

The first terrible shock having passed, after a few days hope revived in 
the hearts of the people, as the bulletins day after day from the physicians 
were of the most encouraging character. The speedy recovery of the 
President was so confidently looked for that the Governors of several 
States appointed a day of general thanksgiving and rejoicing. These 
favorable symptoms continued until the 23d of July when the first serious 
relapse occurred. Chills and rigor set in, and on the following day Dr. 
Agnew made an incision below the wound to give a freer passage of the 
pus in the supposed track of the bullet. From thi3 time forward many 
experiments were resorted to for the relief of the patient and to combat the 
intense heat that prevailed. In the first days of August the reports 
grew more favorable, but after the first week passed unfavorable symptoms 
again set in and a new incision was made from the assumed track of the 
ball. On the 10th the President signed an official document in an extra- 
dition case pending with Canada. After this the reports were less hopeful, 
and on the 15th his condition was deemed precarious, he being aflected 
with rigors and vomiting. Inflammation of the right parotid gland was 
announced on the 18th, and an incision was made in it on the 24th. 
From the 25th to the 27th fears of a fatal ending were entertained through- 
out the country, but by the last of the month the indications were more 
hopeful. The malarial influences in and about Washington were deemed 
to De against the recovery of the patient, and it was decided to remove him 
to Long Branch. The journey was therefore made on the 6th of Septem- 
ber, and the distance — 228 miles — was accomplished without accident in 
six hours and a half. For a few days after the removal there were slight 
evidences of improvement, but bronchial trouble began to develop, and by 
the ICth there was a serious relapse, showing marked symptoms of blood- 
poisoning, with severe chills and fever, and inability to retain anything in 
the stomach. Dr. Bliss thus describes the President's last day on earth : 


"At 8 a. m., September 19, the pulse was 106 and feeble; temperature 
108.8°, and all the conditions unfavorable. In half an hour afterward 
there was another chill, followed by febrile rise and sweating, and also 
with pain as before. During the period of chill and fever, he wa3 more or 
less unconscious. He passed all day in comparative comfort, and at 8:30 
in the evening his pulse was 108, respiration 20, and temperature evi- 
dently a little lower than normal. At 10:10 P. M. I was summoned 
hastily to the bedside, and found the President in an unconscious and dying 
condition, pulseless at the wrist, with extreme pallor, the eyes open and 
turned upward, and respiration 8 per minute, and gasping. Placing my 
finger on the carotid, I could not recognize pulsation ; applying my ear 
over the heart, I detected an indistinct flutter, which continued until 10:35, 
when he expired. The brave and heroic suilerer, the nation's patient, for 
whom all had labored so cheerfully and unceasingly, had passed away." 

Gathered around the bed of the dying President, besides the physicians, 
were Mrs. Garfield and her daughter, Colonel Rockwell, Mr. O. C. Rock- 
well, General Swaim, Dr. Boynton, J. Stanley Browne and Warren 
Young, the President's private secretaries, and four attendants. The last 
words of the President, occasioned by a severe pain at the heart, were, 
" O, Swaim !" The news of the ending was flashed all over the land, and 
mourning and sorrow were universal. Messages of condolence from 
private and official sources were received by the bereft widow from abroad 
as well as at home, and the entire nation donned the emblems of woe. 

An autopsy of the body was made on the 20th, when the ball was dis- 
covered to have passed through the spinal column, and was encysted about 
two and a-half inches to the left of the spine, in an entirely different 
locality from what the combined wisdom of the best physicians had sup- 
posed it to be. Much discussion followed throughout the country over 
the medical treatment, but the conclusion arrived at was that the wound 
was necessarily mortal, and perhaps nothing more could have been done, 
to allay suffering. Religious services were held at Long Branch on the 
21st, and the body was borne to Washington, where it was received by an 
imposing funeral escort, and lay in state under the dome of the Capitol 
until the afternoon of the 23d, and was viewed by tens of thousands 
during the time. A little after 5 o'clock in the afternoon of the 23d, 
after impressive services in the rotunda, a train, heavily draped with 
emblems of mourning, left Washington for Cleveland, with the dead Presi- 
dent, reaching that city about 1:20 o'clock on the afternoon of the 24th. 
The body lay in state on a catafalque, beneath a pavilion erected for the 
purpose in Monumental Park. All day Sunday, the 25th, it was visited 
by hundreds of thousands, and on Monday, the 26th, the most imposing 
funeral pageant the nation ever beheld bore the honored remains 'to their 
final resting-place in Lake View Cemetery. That day was observed 
throughout the country as one of general mourning, in response to a pro- 
clamation of President Arthur. Business was suspended, public and 


private dwellings draped, and religious services held, not only in America, 
but the occasion was also observed in many of the court circles of Europe. 

On the death of President Garfield, Chester A. Arthur became Presi- 
dent, and took the oath of office at his own residence, in New York, about 
2 o'clock on the morning of September 20. He accompanied the remains 
of the dead President from Long Branch to Washington, where on the 
22d he was sworn into office in a more formal manner by the Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court. His first official act was the proclamation of a day 
of mourning for his predecessor. He requested the members of the 
Cabiret to retain their places until the meeting of Congress, in December, 
and called a special session of the Senate, to begin on the 10th of October. 
This session lasted from the 10th to the 25th of October, and was devoted 
exclusively to executive business. David Davis, of Illinois, was elected 
President of the Senate. Among the important nominations confirmed 
was that of Charles J. Folger, of New York, for Secretary of the 

The first session of the Forty-seventh Congress began on Monday, 
December 5, 1881, and, with one exception, was the longest session ever 
held in the history of the country, not adjourning until the 8th of August, 
1882. Probably no session of Congress has ever received more bitter 
criticism than this, in its appropriations and expenditures of money, which 
exceeded that of the former Congress about 378,000,000. The River and 
Harbor bill was regarded as one of particular extravagance, and was 
vetoed by the President, but was promptly passed over the President's 
veto, and became a law. 

Soon after the death of the President steps were taken for bringing the 
assassin to trial on the charge of murder. The presentment of the jury 
was made on the 4th of October, the indictment was found in due form a 
few day3 later, and on the 14th the prisoner was arraigned in court to 
plead to the indictment. His plea was, " Not guilty." George M. 
Scoville, of Chicago, his brother-in-law, took charge of the defense. The 
trial began on the 14th of November, before Judge Cox, of the Criminal 
Court. He assigned Mr. Leigh Robinson to be associate counsel for the 
defense, and Mr. Walter D. Davidge, of Washington, and John K. Porter, 
of New York, were employed to assist District-Attorney Corkhill in the 
prosecution. Three days were occupied in getting a jury, and on the 17th 
Attorney Corkhill opened the case for the prosecution. The examination 
of witnesses, including medical experts, was of the most thorough and 
searching character, and was not concluded until the 4th of January, 
1882, when requests were presented and discussed from both the prosecu- 
tion and defense for rulings on various law points involved. This occupied 
until January 12, when the arguments before the jury Were begun, and 
occupied the time until the 25th of January. It was probably one of the 
most remarkable trials ever had in the history of American jurisprudence. 


Grand Master of the Grand Lodge A. F. & A. M. of 

Virginia, in 1795-7. 


The prisoner was allowed the utmost latitude, in the most violent abuse of 
the prosecution, the jury, the court, his own counsel and the American 
people. Judge Cox delivered his charge to the jury on the 25th. The 
jury retired, and in less than thirty minutes thereafter returned with a 
verdict of " Guilty." The prisoner grew furious and desperate, and both 
judge and jury were subjects of his violent abuse. Subsequently a motion 
for a new trial was overruled, and sentence of death was passed upon the 
assassin, and in obedience to that sentence he was hanged in the jail on the 
30th of Juue, 1882. 

Before the incoming of the new Administration allegations of fraud and 
irregularity were made in the conduct of the mail service on the Star 
routes. It was alleged that favors had been shown to a combination or 
"ring" of contractors, who obtained control of a large number of routes 
in the West and Southwest, where railroad connections did not exist It 
was charged that a conspiracy to defraud the Government existed, in 
.vhich some of the leading contractors, the Second Assistant Postmaster- 
General, Thomas J. Brady, and other persons in high standing, including 
Senator S. W. Dorsey, of Arkansas, were concerned. 

Oh the 20th of December, 1881, tidings came from the Jeannette Arctic 
exploring expedition, which had sailed from San Francisco on the 8th of 
July, 1879, and which had been given up as lost. During 1881 five 
exploring expeditions were sent to the polar regions, all of them instructed 
to find the missing Jeannette, if possible. News came that the Jeannette 
had been crushed in the ice on the 23d of June, 1881. The officers and 
crew retreated with sledges and boats. They embarked in three boats 
which kept together until within fifty miles of the mouth of the Lena, 
when they were driven apart by a heavy gale. Lieutenant Danenhower 
and Chief Engineer Melville, with nine men, succeeded in reaching a 
native village, where they received succor, and placed themselves in com- 
munication with the Russian government. They were in a most pitiable 
condition, badly frozen, and reduced to the verge of starvation. In 
March of 1882, DeLong, the commander of the expedition, and his party 
were found dead, from starvation and exposure, and the diary of Com- 
mander DeLong, found with him, is one of the most sad and graphic 
descriptions of this terrible tragedy of the Arctics. 

Commencing on the 5th day of September, 1881, and continuing f. 
nearly a week thereafter, destructive fires swept through the forests' and 
fields of Huron and Sanilac, and portions of St Clair, Lapeer and Tuscola 
counties, Michigan, burning dwellings, barns, churches, saw-mills, fences, 
orchards, farm crops, etc The flames spread so rapidly that live stock 
could not escape, and the loss of human life was also sreat A number 
of email villages were entirely wiped out. A wild scene of terror and des- 
olation was presented, and in a number of townships there were not build- 
togs enough left standing to give even temporary shelter to the homeless, 
and men. women and children endured untold suffering before temporary 


relief could reach them. Day was turned into the blackness of night by 
the density of the smoke, even at a distance from the scenes of desolation, 
and again the entire heavens would seem to be livid with flames. The 
descriptions given by eye-witnesses are almost incredible. Great sheets of 
fierce flames would roll over their heads, leaping from forest to forest licking 
up houses and barns and every species of vegetation in the path of destruc- 
tion. Acres of forests had every tree turned up by the roots, the result 
of hio-b winds, and others presented blackened trunks erect. Men, women 
and children fought the flames with the energy of despair to save their 
homes, but in hundreds of instances all in vain. The fire broke out simul- 
taneously in many places, and in every instance was caused by setting fire to 
brush and log heaps to clear up farms. Many believed the last day had 
come, and gave up in despair, making but little efiort to save their homes 
from the lurid destroyer. The fire ran through twenty-six townships in 
Sanilac county, and through twenty-four townships in Huron, working 
greater or less devastation according to the material it had to feed upon. 
The adjoining counties of Lapeer, Tuscola and St. Clair also suflered 
severely, but in a much less degree,' and with no loss of life. It is estimated 
that nearly eighteen hundred square miles of territory were burned over, 
or fully one million acres, included principally in a belt sixty miles in 
length, north and south, and from ten to thirty miles wide, the fires in 
Tuscola and Lapeer counties lying west of that belt. The total loss of life 
was 138, and the value of property destroyed about 82, 500,000. Relief 
committees were formed everywhere, and the first agents that reached the 
burned district found thousands of homeless people, massed in unburned 
school-houses, dwellings and barn*. Many were sheltered in improvised 
buildings, constructed^ with half burned plank, thatched with cornstaiKS. 
Some were in dug-outs, and some -without shelter. With the living were 
also found the charred remains of unburied dead, with men, women and 
children so badly burned, though yet alive, they were almost beyond 
recognition. The calamity was truly appalling. 

Another appalling disaster that cannot escape the pen of the historian, 
is that of the great tlood of the Mississippi Valley, in March, 1882. From 
Cairo, Illinois, to the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of 1,152 miles, the 
major portion of the rich, bottom hinds, bordering on each side of the 
Mississippi, was flooded for weeks— greater in extent than was ever before 
known. In many places the width of the overflow was not less than fifty 
or sixty mile3. It is perhaps no exaggeration to state that the total flooded 
area covered from 35,000 to 40,000 square miles. No estimate could be 
formed of the value of property destroyed. The loss by the flood of 18/4 
was placed at 813,000,000, and the devastation of the flood of 1882 was 
far greater than any previous overflow the Mississippi ever produced. 
Hundreds and thousands of families lost their stock, their household goods, 
their buildings, their all, and it is estimated that 60.000 persons were 


deprived of their ordinary means of subsistence. The desolation and 
suffering baffled description, and the facts were too terrible for exaggeration. 

At the end of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1882, the total debt of the 
national government was SI, 918, 312, 994, showing a decrease since June 
30, 1881, of S150,6S4,351. The amount of cash in the Treasury was> 

According to the corrected returns of *he census of 1880. the pop- 
ulation of the United States wh-n thai c-usus was completed was 
50,155,783, of which number 25,518,820 were males, and 24,636,963 
were females. Native. 43,475,840; foreign, 6,679,943; white, 43,402,- 
970; colored, 6,560 793; Chinese, 105,465; Japanese. 148; Indiana, 
66.407. The papulation of the States was 49,371,340; that of the 
Territories, 784.443. 

According to this census there is not a State or Territory whose area 
does not differ from that previously given. The total area of the United 
States i3 about 800 square miles less than it was heretofore fixed. In 
fourteen states and five territories the revised area is less than the old, and 
in the rest it is greater. In some cases the difference is very great. 

Mr. J. R. Dodge, the special agent for the statistics on agriculture, say3 
the most striking suggestion in the census is the unprecedented advance in 
the production of cereals during the decade from 1870 to 1880. It 
amounts to nearly 100 per cent, of all kinds taken together, while the 
increase of the ten years preceding was only 12 per cent. The 
apparent increase in corn is 133 per cent., the three great corn-growing 
States, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, producing in 1879 more than the entire 
country did ten years before. The cotton states show an increase of about 
40 per cent, in corn. The gain in wheat production in the last decade 
was about 73 per cent. Oats, rye, barley and buckwheat have also made 
handsome gains. The returns on the yieid of cotton, sugar, rice and 
tobacco are of the mo3t encouraging character. So with the production of 
coal, iron, steel, petroleum and the precious metals. 

The product of the precious metals in the United States reached it* 
highest point in 1877, when the mines of Nevada alone yielded $51,580,290, 
within a few hundred thousand dollars of the total product of all the 
States and Territories in 1870. Since that time there has been a stead j 
decline in Nevada, but a large increase in Colorado and Arizona. 

The grandeur of American commerce and production may be measured 
by the magnitude of its agricultural exports. The total value of the 
exports of breadstuffs for the three years ending June 30, 1881, was 
$749,470,445. Of this value the wheat and flour exported in that time 
aggregated 8591,524,024. Counting the crop of 1880 at 480,000,000 
bushels, the exports of 1880-81 constituted about 38^- per cent, of the 
total wheat product of the country, while the trade returns for the year 
ending June 30, 1881, show a larger total commerce than any former year 
in our history. 


The husband of Jane Rolfe, the grand-daughter of 


(From the original in the possession of the Boiling family.) 


The administration of President Arthur was marked by a wise 
conservatism in the management of domestic affairs, and a dignified 
yet courteous relation with all foreign powers. Some passages of 
arms occurred with the representatives of the British government 
relative to American citizens, born or naturalized, who had become 
involved in the troubles between that government and its Irish sub- 
jects, and a rebuke, which covered a threat, was administered to the 
doughty Chancellor of Germany in consequence of his attempted 
restriction of the importation of American pork into that country. 
There was much popular agitation, from time to time, of the Monroe 
doctrine — " America for Americans " — in connection with the project 
of the Nicaragua canal across the Panama Isthmus. While the 
Clayton-Bulwer treaty, as long as it remains in force, precludes the 
enforcement of that doctrine, our people will never permit the con- 
struction of the canal under the protection of any foreign powers. 

President Arthur's first cabinet was as follows : Secretary of State, 
Frederick T. Frclinghuysen, of New Jersey; Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, Charles J. Folger, of New York ; Secretary of War, .Robert T. 
Lincoln, of Illinois ; Secretary of the Navy, William H. Hunt, ot 
Louisiana; Secretary of the Interior, Samuel J. Kirkwood, of Iowa; 
Postmaster General, Timothy O. Howe, of Wisconsin; Attorney 
General, Benjamin H. Brewster, of Pennsylvania. Subsequent 
changes were : Secretary of the Navy, William E. Chandler, of New 
Hampshire; Secretary of the Interior, Henry M. Teller, of Colorado; 
Postmaster General, Walter Q. Gresham, of Indiana, succeeding Sec- 
retary Howe, who died March 25, 1883 ; Postmaster General, Frank 
Hatton, of Iowa, succeeding Secretary Gresham, resigned ; Secretary 
of the Treasury, Walter Q. Gresham, succeeding Secretary Folger, 
who died September 5, 1SS4 ; Secretary of the Treasury, Hugh 
McCulloch, of Indiana, succeeding Gresham, who was appointed 
circuit judge of the Seventh United States district. 

The second session of the Forty-Seventh Congress convened De- 
cember 4, 1882, and adjourned on the 3d of March, 1883, David 
Davis, president pro tem. of the Senate, and J. Warren Keifer, of 
Ohio, speaker of the House. Its principal measures were the passage 
of the civil service act, a bill introduced by Senator Pendleton, of 
Ohio; the bill authorizing the issue of postal notes, and the adoption 
of an amended tariff. The bill restricting Chinese immigration was 
passed at the first session ot this Congress. The first session of the 
Forty-Eighth Congress convened on December 3, 1883, and ad- 
journed on the 7th of July, 1884. George F. Edmunds, of Vermont, 
was president pro tem. of the Senate, John G. Carlisle, of Kentucky, 
speaker of the House. Its most important measures were the crea- 
tion of a Bureau of Labor, in the Department of the Interior, to 
oollect labor statistics, the repeal of the test oath and the passage of 


a bill providing that " the charge of desertion now standing against 
any soldier who served in the late war in the volunteer service shall 
be removed w r hen it shall be made to appear to the satisfaction of the 
Secretary of War that such soldier served faithfully until the expira- 
tion of his term of enlistment, or until May 1, 1865, having previ- 
ously served six months or more, or was prevented from completing 
his term of service by reason of wounds received, or disease con- 
tracted in the line of duty, but who, by reason of his absence from 
his command at the time the same was mustered out, failed to be 
mustered out and to receive an honorable discharge. Provided, that 
no soldier shall be relieved who, not being sick or wounded, left his 
command without proper authority whilst the same was in the pres- 
ence of the enemy." This act, approved July 5, 1884, does justice, 
after almost twenty years delay, to a large class of our soldiers who, 
for honorable and unavoidable reasons, were not with their regiments 
when the discharges were given, and who, consequently, could never 
receive discharge papers. 

At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 18S4, the National 
debt was 81, 878,3S0, 93-1.77. On the 1st of December following the 
■debt had been decreased 832,143,249.1], and the cash in the treasury 
December 1st was 8428,340, 7S8.97. The appropriations made for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1883, amounted to 8295,7-29,015.21; for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884,8230,209,321.50; for the fiscal 
year ending Juno 30, 1885, 8200,700, 78S. 68. For 1884-18S5 the sum 
of S20, 810, 000. 00 was appropriated for pensions, and by the act mak- 
ing the appropriation an unexpended balance said to be 866,000,000 
is made available for 1635 for the further pavment of pensions. 

On the 24th of May, 1883, there was thrown open to traffic a 
bridge connecting the cities of Brooklyn and New York, whose com- 
pletion was one of the most brilliant triumphs of engineering skill 
the world has ever witnessed. The suspended span of the bridge is 
1,595| feet in length; its altitude is 135 feet above mean high water 
mark. The anchorages are solid cubical structures of stone masonry-, 
119x132 feet at the base, and rising 90 feet above high water mark. 
The total strain of weight on these cables when the bridge is crowded 
with ordinary traffic is estimated at 11,700 tons, and their ultimate 
strength 49,200 tons. The bridge roadway from its New York ter- 
minus opposite City Hall to Sands street, Brooklyn, is 5,989 feet 
long, or a little over one mile. The actual cost of its construction 
was $15,500,000. The bridge is public property, 663 per cent, paid 
for and owned by the city of Brooklyn, '66^ per. cent, by tho city of 
Now York. 

Another world's fair was held, winter of lt>84-5, at New Orleans, 
the preparations for which were on a' larger scale than any ever 
before made. The main building of the exposition was four times 


larger than that of the Philadelphia Centennial building. The at- 
tendance was less than the enterprise merited. 

The closing months of 1884 witnessed a greater depression in the 
manufacturing and producing interests than had been experienced 
einco the hard times of 1873. The causes were not as serious as at 
that time, however, and the business stagnation was not as long con- 
tinued. Over 100,000 unemployed skilled laborers were put to work 
again in the month of January, 1885, alone. The greatest suffering 
was experienced in the Hocking Valley, Ohio, where differences be- 
tween the mine operators and the miners culminated in a lock-out of 
the latter, the employers importing foreign labor under contract, and 
the miners and mine employes to the number of some 4,000 heads 
of families remaining without work, and consequently without means 
of living, many of them houseless, through the months of a very se- 
vere winter. A bill passed the House of Eepresentatives in the first 
session of the Forty-Eighth Congress, to " prohibit the importation 
and migration of foreigners and aliens under contract," and was re- 
ported favorably on to the Senate of the United States from the com- 
mittee on Education and Labor in that body, but it was tablod in 
the Senate. It is probable that the next four years will see much 
legislation looking to the protection of labor interests, and the regu- 
lation of traffic in the interests of farm productions. 

The political canvass in 1884 for the twenty-second president ol 
the United States was one of the most exciting the country has ever 
witnessed. The Eepublican and Democratic parties both held their 
national conventions in Chicago. The Eepublican party was the 
first to convene, adopted its platform June 5th, and nominated for 
president James G-. Blaine of Maine, for vice-president John A.Logan 
of Hlinois. Blaine was nominated on the fourth ballot June 6th, and 
Logan on the first ballot. The Democratic convention met in July, 
adopted a platform on the 10th of that month, and nominated for 
president Grover Cleveland, then governor of New York ; for vice- 
president Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana. The nominations were 
made July 12th, Cleveland on the second ballot, and Hendricks on 
the first. The greenback-labor party convened at Indianapolis, 
adopted a platform May 28th, and on the same day nominated 
Benjamin F. Butler of Massachusetts for president, A. M. West of 
Mississippi for vice-president, both on the first ballot. The anti- 
monopoly convention also nominated General Butler for president at 
their convention in Chicago May 14th. The Prohibition national 
convention assembled in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, July 23d, and on 
the 24th nominated its candidates, John P. St John of Kansas for 
president, William Daniel of Maryland for vice-president. 

The campaign was opened with the utmost enthusiasm on all sides, 
and was prosecuted with the utmogt vigor to the very day the polla 

3'n>J~<L V-Cx^ ^h^"' ^S) ^^nq^ ^\ 


were opened, when there had never been felt, with one exception, so 
much doubt as to the result. The only interest attached to the can- 
vass of the minor parties was in connection with the weakening of 
one or the other of the two great parties by the loss of the votes 
of their adherents. The great contest was again between the 
Kepublican and Democratic parties. The platforms of both par- 
ties had been framed with a view to the most pressing wants 
of the people, and were strikingly similar. The only reaHssue ot 
importance between the parties, according to the pledges of 
their platforms, was the tariff question. With a very few ex- 
ceptions the Democratic leaders fought shy of this question, and 
the result was a canvass depending almost entirely upon person- 
alities, soon descending to unworthy recriminations, and appeal- 
ing too much to the prejudices instead of the reason of the voters. 
Such vituperation regarding the personal character of the princi- 
pal candidates had certainly not been heard since the canvass 
for Andrew Jackson, and it is to be hoped will never be heard 
again. At the outset of the campaign a defection was made from 
the Republican ranks. A large number who had previously been 
supporters of Republican men and measures, refusing to support 
Blaine, set up as " Independents," and were so known during the 
jampaign. The first choice of these had been Edmunds of Vermont. 
Sherman of Ohio would have had their support, perhaps anybody 
but Blaine. They ultimately gave their influence and votes for 
Cleveland. The leaders in this bolt were George William Curtis, who 
brought the influence of Harper's publications against Elaine; Carl 
Schurz, who took the stump for Cleveland ; and Henry Ward Beecher, 
who electioneered for Cleveland with more zeal than discretion. 
Their following was mainly in Massachusetts and New York, and 
when the election came to hinge, as it did, on the New York returns, 
they had a decided weight on the result. The prohibition vote, 
150,396, was drawn largely from the Republican party. Blaine was 
«tlso unfortunate in some of his friends, notably in the support of 
Whitolaw Reid, of the New York Tribune, which support cost him 
che vote of those working people of New York who belong to labor 
organizations, again an unfortunate loss in a State on which the 
eloction finally depended. A peculiar feature of the canvass was the 
taking of the stump by Blaine himself, it not being the custom of the 

f (residential candidates to appeal directly to the people for their suf- 
rage. His campaign speeches were marvels of rhetoric and of logio, 
charged with that brilliancy and profundity which has made him a 
power in public atfairs, but thoy did not this" time serve his purpose. 
Logan and Hendricks also took active part in the campaign. 

The email plurality of 1,047 votes out of 1,171,263 cast in N«w 
York Stato, gave the election to Cleveland. 


President Cleveland announced bis cabinet on tbe day after bis inau- 
guration, March, 5, 1885, as follows: Secretary of State, Thomas F. 
Bayard, of Delaware; of tbe Treasury, Daniel Manning of New York 
(who died February 4, 1887, Charles S. Pairchild succeeding him on 
March 31st); of War, William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts ; of the Navy, 
William C. Whitney, of New York; of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, 
of Mississippi; Postmaster-General, William F. Yilasof Wisconsin; At- 
torney-General, A. H. Garland of Arkansas. The Forty-Eighth Congress 
adjourned sine die, the Hi mse on March 4th, the Semite on April 2d. 
Among the important bills passed was that prohibiting the importation- of 
foreign laborers under contract ; that declaring the land granted the Texas 
Pacific railroad fortified; and that authorizing negotiation for the Okla- 
homa lauds. A change in postal laws went into effect on July 1, 1885, 
making letter weight postage two cents an ounce, and providing for special 
deliveries of letters for ten cents each. The gift of Bartholdi, the French 
sculptor, to the United States, of bis colossal statue, "Liberty Enlight- 
ening the World," was received at New York on June 10, 1885 ; it was 
formally unveiled on Bedloes Island, New York harbor, on October 28, 
1886. A number of distinguished Americans died in 1<S85, including 
Brig-Gen. Irwin McDowell, U. S. A., May 4th; ex-Gov. Gilbert 0. 
Walker, of Virginia, May 11 ; ex-Secretary-of-State, F. T. Frelinghuysen, 
May 20th; General and ex-President Grant, July 23d; Gen. George B. 
MeClellan, October 20th; vice-President Hendricks, November 25th. 

The Forty-Ninth Congress convened ouMonday, December!, 1885, John 
Sherman speaker pro tern of the Senate, John Carlisle speaker of the House. 
This congress stood: Democrats, 183; Republicans, 144. Adjourning out of 
respect to the death of the vice-president, Congress reassembled on January 
5, 18^0, and its first session was continued until August 5th. The total num- 
ber of bills and joint resolutions introduced -were 13.202 (House 10,228, 
Senate, 2,074). Of these 987 were finally enacted, 746 originating in the 
House, 241 in the Senate. President Cleveland vetoed 115 bills, 102 of 
which were for private pensions, six for tbe erection of government build- 
ings. The Blair educational bill passed in the Senate on March 5th but 
was rejected by the House ; the Interstate Commerce bill passed in tbe 
Senate on May 12th. An event of this year of National significance was 
the " Haymarket riot" in the city of Chicago, on May 4th. The occa- 
sion was an evening, open-air meeting of anarchistic speakers who assem- 
bled on what is known as Haymarket Square, ( 'hicago. The meeting was 
broken up by a large force of police sent for that purpose, and as un- 
people were apparently disper.-ing a bomb was thrown into the midst of 
the police cordon, killing six of them and wounding sixty-one police and 
bystanders. No efforts of the law unearthed the miscreant who threw the 
bomb, but seven men, leaders of the anarchistic movement in that city, 
were tried a- instigators and accessories to the crime, of whom four were 
hanged on November 11, 1887, ajid three sentenced to the State peniten- 


tiarv, after a very protracted trial. Among the deaths of noted Ameri- 
cans in this year were: Gen. Wintield Scott, February 9th ; ex-Gov. Ho- 
ratio Seymour of New York, February 12th ; Gen. Durbiu Ward, May 
22d; Hon. David Davis, June 2»ith ; ex-Gov. S. J. Tilden of New York, 
August 4th ; ex-President Chester A. Arthur, November 18th; Hon. 
Chas. Francis Adams, November 21st; Gen. John A. Logan, December 

The second and final session of the Forty-Ninth Congress convened on 
December 6, 1886, took holiday recess on December 22d, reassembled 
January 4, 1887, and expired on March 4th following. The fisheries dis- 
pute with England occupied much of the time of this short session. On 
February 25th the House failed to pass the Dependent Soldiers' Pension 
bill over the president's veto, a two-thirds vote being necessary, and the 
vote standing, yeas 175, nays 125. The total appropriation bills passed 
by this Congress agregated the sum of 8247,387,144.30. For the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1887, the National debt was decreased 8109,707,- 
046.38. On March 22d, President Cleveland appointed the five com- 
missioners required by the Interstate Commerce law. One of the great 
events of the year was the celebration, at Philadelphia, of the centennial 
of the framing of the United States constitution, September 15, 16, 17. 

Beginning on the first Monday in December, 1887, the Fiftieth Con- 
gress continued practically in uninterrupted session until October 20, 
1888, when it adjourned to meet for the second session in December and 
to continue until March 4, 1889, as required by law. During the two ses- 
sions there were introduced in the House 12,569 bills and 268 joint resolu- 
tions. In the Senate 3,998 bills and 144 joint resolutions were introduced 
which broke all previous records in this respect. Of all these bills and 
joint resolutions 1,791 became law's. Of the House bills which became 
laws, 832 were private bills and 358 measures of a public character. 
Some of the more important House bills which became laws were : For a 
conference of South and Central American nations in Washington in 
May ; to divide the great Sioux reservation in Dakota ; the Scott Chinese 
exclusion act; providing for the taking of the eleventh census; creating 
a department of agriculture, the head of the department to be a cabinet 
officer; to protect lands belonging to Indians from unlawful grazing; to 
establish a department of labor; to create boards of arbitration or com- 
missions for settling controversies or differences between inter-state common 
carriers and their employes ; for the erection, extension or repair of vari- 
ous public buildings. Pills originating in the Senate became laws to the 
number of 601, of which 409 were of a private character. Forty-seven 
Senate bills were vetoed, the most important being the direct tax bill. By 
far the most important of the Senate bills enacted into law was the Omni- 
bus territorial admission bill, by which North and South Dakota, Wash- 
ington and Montana territories acquire statehood. Of the bills passing 
the Senate 684 failed, through one cause or another, to reach President 


Cleveland. He vetoed during the session 47 Sonate. bills, and 09 House 
bills, all but tight of which were private pension or relief bills. Among 
the bills passed bv the House and approved by the Senate were bills pension- 
ing Mrs. Sheridan, Mrs. Logan, Mrs. Frank Blair, and retiring General 
Rosecrans from service. During his entire term as president Mr. Cleve- 
land vetoed directly 278 bills, 157 more than were vetoed by all his 
predecessors combined, from Washington down. 

Noted Americans dying in 1888 included : Mrs. Eliza (Ballou) Garfield, 
mother of Jas. A., January 21st; David R. Locke ("Petroleum V. Nasby"), 
February loth; Morrison R. Waite, chief-justice United States Supreme 
Court, March 23d; Benjamin Harris Brewster, ex- Attorney General, 
April 4th; Major-Gen. Q. A. Gillniore, April 7th; ex-Senator Roscoe 
A. Conklmg, April 18th ; Gen. Phil. H. Sheridan, August 5th ; Richard 
A. Proctor, astronomer, September 12th ; Eleanor, wife of Gen. Wm. T. 
Sherman, November 28th. The disasters of the year included a great 
snow storm in the Northwest in January, in which 237 lives were known 
to have beeu lost; the severest storm for a half century in the Middle At- 
lantic States, causing great loss of life and damage to shipping; a rail- 
road collision near Mud Run, Pennsylvania, October 10th, in which 63 
were killed ; and a yellow, fever epidemic at Jacksonville, Florida, 412 
deaths resulting out of 4,705 cases. 

On April 30, 1888, President Cleveland appointed Melville W. Fuller, 
of Illinois, chief-justice of the United States Supreme Court, and the 
Senate confirmed the nomination on July 20th. Major-Gen. John A. 
Schofield was appointed to command of the armies of the United States, 
succeeding Sheridan, on August 14th. The Australian ballot system was 
adopted in Massachusetts in this year.- A similar election law was enacted 
in the New York assembly, but vetoed by Gov. David B. Hill. On October 
30th, Lord Sackville, British minister to the United States, was officially 
notified by Secretary of State Bayard that he would no longer be recog- 
nized in that official capacity on account of his interference in the domes- 
tic politics of this country. 

The various political parties held nominating conventions and put their 
tickets iu the fieULin 1888. as follows: Union Labor, met at Cincinnati, 
May 15th; nominated A. J. Streeter of Illinois for president, Charles E. 
Cunningham of Arkansas, for vice-president. United Labor, met in the 
same city, same day.; nominated R. II. Co.wdreyof Illinois, for president, 
W. II. T. Wakefield of Kansas, for vice-president. Prohibition, met in 
Indianapolis, May 30th; nominated Clinton B. Fisk of New Jersey, for 
president. John A. Brooks of Missouri, for vice-president. Democratic, 
met in St. Louis, June 5th; nominated Grover Cleveland of New York, 
for president ; Allen G. Thurman of Ohio, for vice-president. Republi- 
can, met in Chicago, June 10th to 25th ; nominated Benjamin Harrison 
of Indiana, for president, Levi P. Morton of New York, for vice-presi- 
dent. The contest for first place on the Republican ticket was protracted, 


and was decided on the eighth ballot, when the vote was as follows : Har- 
rison, 544; John Sherman, 118; Russell A. Alger, 100; Walter Q. 
Gresham, 59; James G. Blaine, 5; Win. McKinley, jr., 4. The Ameri- 
can, Industrial Reform and Equal Rights parties also held conventions and 
nominated tickets, thus making nine in the field. The vote for those last 
named was of course insignificant, and the prohibition and labor votes 
also fell off. The great contest was between the Democratic and Repub- 
lican parties, the main issue being the tariff question, the Democratic; 
platform promising tariff reduction in accordance with the recommend- 
ation of President Cleveland's last annual message to Congress, and the 
Republican platform declaring against such reduction. The result of the 
election on November 4th was that twenty States went Republican, sev- 
enteen Democratic, and one, West Virginia, was declared doubtful. 
Cleveland and Thurman received a plurality of the popular vote, 5,539,- 
891 being cast for them against 5,442,.')b7 for Harrison and Morton, and 
248,960 for Fisk and Brooks. On January 14, 1889, the electoral colleges 
of the various States met and cast their ballots for president and vice- 
president, as provided for in the constitution. This electoral vote was 
counted by Cougress on February loth, and Harrison and Morton receiv- 
ing 233, Cleveland and Thurman 1(58 votes, the election of the Republi- 
can candidates was officially announced. 

The Fifty-First Congress was opened December 2d, Vice-President 
Morton presiding in the Senate, Thomas B. Reed of Maine elected speaker 
of the House, the Congress Republican by a slight majority. Among 
the important events of 1889, were the Samoan difficulty and its satisfac- 
tory adjustment ; the opening of Oklahoma lands to settlers on April 22d ; 
the admission of four new States, North and South Dakota on Novem- 
ber 2d, Montana November 8th, Washington November 11th; and the 
Pan-American Congress and International Marine conference held in 

The deaths of the year included : Owen Brown last survivor of the 
Harpers Ferry raid, January 7th; John Ericssun, inventor of the Monitor 
model for war vessels, March 8th; Stanley Matthews, associate chief-jus- 
tice United States Supreme Court, March 22d; ex-Secretary of the In- 
terior, John P. Usher, April 13th ; Allen Thorndike Rice, May 16th; 
Lucy, wife of ex-President Hayes, June 25th; Maria Mitchell, astrono- 
mer, June 28th; Julia, widow of ex-President Tyler. July 10th; Con- 
gressman S. S. ('ox, September 10th; ex-Gov. J. F. Hartranft, of Penn- 
sylvania, October 17th; ex-Senator Geo. II. Pendleton, November 25th; 
Jefferson Davis, ex-president of the Confederate States, December 5th. 
On May 31st occurred the "Johnstown flood," destroving several towns 
in the Coneruaugh valley; estimated loss of lite, 5,000. On March Huh 
and 17th the hurricane off Samoa, in which three vessels of the American 
navy were wrecked; loss of life nearly 150. 




Assuming tlnit our readers are acquainted with the history of the 
administration and maladministration of government in the thirteen 
American colonies up to and including the acts which forced those 
colonies into rebellion, we will pass in brief review the events imme- 
diately preceding the Declaration of Independence : 

The first blood of the Revolution had been shed at Lexington ; Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point had surrendered at Ethan Allen's demand, made 
bv "the authority of the (treat Jehovah and the Continental Congress ;" 
March 20, 1775, Patrick Henry had spoken before the Virginia conven- 
tion those immortal words of patriotism which were to thrill all coming 
generations of Americans ; the North Carolina convention, assembled in 
May, 17 To, at Charlotte, Mecklenburg county, had passed the twenty 
daring resolutions now enrolled on the pages of history as the " Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Independence ;" British troops in the colonies had 
been augmented by reinforcements under Generals Howe, Burgoyne and 
Clinton ; martial law had been proclaimed in MnsSffehvrsetts, and Samuel 
Adams and John Haneoek declared outlaws and rebels beyond the hope 
of royal clemency; the 17th day of June, 1775 — the day of Bunker 
Hill — had passed; the Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, had, on the 15th of June, 1775, appointed George Wash- 
ington commander-in-chief oi the colonial forces, and he had joined his 
army, and, as best he might, equipped and drilled his troops; the expe- 
dition against Quebec had been made and had ended in disaster and the 
fall of brave Montgomery, December 31, 1775; and when, mt the morn- 
ing of New Year's Day, 177b\ Washington unfurled the first flag of thir- 
teen alternate stripes of red and white over his quarters in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, the hour of final separation between the thirteen colonies 
and the English throne was close at hand. 

After some preliminary and rather vacillating action on the part of tha 
colonial congress, in May, 177t>, the popular feeling among the people 


forced their representatives to the decisive step, and Kichard Henry Lee, 
ef Virginia, gave it voice. 

June 7, 1776, he rose in his place in the House, and read before his 
awed but resolute coadjutors, the great resolution which was to be the 
bugle-call to independence. The resolution embraced the three great sub- 
jects : A Declaration of Independence, a Confederation of States, and 
Treaties with Foreign Powers, and was in the following words : 

"Resolved, That the United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free 
and independent States ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the 
British crown, and that all political connection between them and Great 
Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. 

"That it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for 
forming foreign alliances. 

"That the plan of Confederation be prepared and transmitted to the 
respective colonies for their consideration and approbation." 

As the last word of this daring resolution fell upon the ears of the lis- 
tening assembly, John Adams, of Massachusetts, rose and seconded it, and 
the question was open for discussion. 

Only a few of the most dauntless and far-seeing among that patriotic 
assembly were prepared for so irrevocable a declaration, and its friends 
and supporters knew that to press the motion to a decision that day would 
be to divide the House. The question now was brought home to each 
delegate, a personal and momentous consideration. Every man who voted 
for it knew he put a halter about his own neck, a price upon his 
head, and lighted the beacon fires of what might well be feared would be 
a hopeless war within the borders of the colony whose interests he was 
there seated to maintain. 

Adjournment was taken until 10 o'clock the next morning, in order to 
give time for consideration of the resolution. 

Promptly at 10 A. >i., June 8, 177(5, the House met, and Lee's resolu- 
tion was referred to a committee of the whole, Benjamin Harrison, of 
Virginia, taking the chair. All day and until the shades of evening had 
gathered, the debate went on. No words can give an adequate idea of 
that great struggle, but its one promising feature was always the same: 
whoever spoke, whatever argument was used, whatever line of action 
sketched out — one unanimous desire pervaded the entire assembly — to take 
that action which should most conduce the ultimate good for the people- 
represented. There could be but one decision reached, and the hearts of 
the supporters of the resolution grew stronger, their words more daring, as 
the day waned away. 

At 7 P. m., John Hancock, of Massachusetts, President of the House, 
resumed the chair and announced that as no decision had been reached, 
the committee asked have to sit again on Monday, the 10th, and the reso- 
lution to adjourn over Sunday was carried. 

Monday, June 10, 17715, the debate was resumed, and continued during 



that clay and the day following. The principal opponents to immediate 
action were James Wilson, Robert R Livingston, Edward Rutledge and 
John Dickinson, representing the Middle colonies, and their argument was 
that their constituents were not yet prepared for so radical a measure, and 
its adoption without their consent would indicate a lack of unanimity. 

Against them and their followers were arrayed the force and fire of the 
New England and Southern colonies, represented by John Adams for 
Massachusetts, and Richard Henry Lee and George Wythe for Virginia. 

In session and out of session, far into the hours of the night, the discus- 
sion went on, until the fire and fury of Adams, combined with the irre- 
sistibly persuasive eloquence of Lee, triumphed, and the resolution which, 
in the solemn words of the eloquent Massachusetts statesman, involved 
"objects of the most stupendous magnitude, in which the lives and liber- 
ties of millions yet unborn were interested," was favorably looked upon 
by the whole House. 

June 10, 1770, four days from the first reading of Lee's resolution, a 
committee was appointed, instructed to draw up a Declaration in the 
spirit of that resolution, which was still before the House, and bring in 
Their report whenever the resolution should be again brought up. Lee, 
called to his home by the serious illness of his wife, was prevented from 
acting on the committee of which he would naturally have been chairman, 
and Ihomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was appointed in his place, and thus 
to aim came the glory of descending in name to posterity as the framer of 
the "Declaration of Independence." The other members of the com- 
mittee were : John Adams, of Massachusetts ; Benjamin Franklin, of 
Pennsylvania ; Roger Sherman, of Connecticut ; and Robert R. Living- 
ston, of New York. 

A postponement of further action in regard to the Declaration was now 
had until the 1st day of July, Jefferson, as chairman of the committee, 
thus giving the reason : "It appearing in the course of these debates that 
the Colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- 
land and South Carolina were not yet matured for falling from the parent 
stem, but that they were fast advancing to that state, it was thought 
prudent to wait a while for them." 

Then followed three weeks of suspense, during which clouds of peril and 
disaster closed about the Continental armies, while a besotted and dotard 
king "amused the people with the sound of commissioners crying peace 
when there was no peace." But the hearts of the people of the colonies, 
however heavy they might have been, were unshaken, and their deter- 
mination grew stronger that they would follow the road of Independence, 
let it lead Avhere it might. When the hour came, the deed was done, the 
edict went forth not to be recalled, and a new empire, styled the "United 
States of America," was ready for action in the world's drama, and for 
enrollment upon the pages of its history. 

On the morning of the Fourth of July, 1776, the Congress convene^ 


at 10 a. m., and entered upon the order of the day. Some new membra 
were present who desired further discussion of the question. They were 
satisried by a glowing review of the whole previous action of the assembly 
and summary of all phases of the question, delivered, at the request of the 
House, by John Adams. 

The question before the House was on the adoption of the paper which 
lay upon the table, with the alterations, and as the day drew to its close, 
the president, with firm voice, asked : "Shall the Declaration now pass?" 
A clear, prompt "Aye" rose as one voice in answer, the secretary laid the 

Biper upon the president's desk, it received the dashing autograph of John 
.ancock, and the suspense was ended. 

Just at sunset the great bell on the Hall of Independence pealed forth 
the glad tidings to the waiting people, answering, for the first time, to the 
prophetic inscription which had been cast upon it, which bade it 

"proclaim liberty throughout the land, unto all the inhabitants 


And for two hours, amid the booming of cannon, the roll of drums, the 
sobs and cheers of strong men, the bell of liberty rang out its joyful 

The Declaration went out to the people signed by John Hancock as 
president, and attested by Charles Thompson as secretary of the Congress, 
and having received the vote of every colony except New York, its dele- 
gates at that moment not having the power to act. Five days later the 
New York convention, with John Jay as chairman, accepted the action of 
Congress in the matter, and resolved to "support it with their lives and 

Thus the Declaration became the act of all the United Colonies, and on 
the 19th of July following, Congress ordered : "That the Declaration, 
passed on the Fourth be fairly engrossed on parchment, with the title and 
style of 'The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of 
America, and that the same when engrossed be signed by every member 
of Congress.' The Journal of Congress, August 2, says : "The Decla- 
ration being engrossed, and compared at the table, was siened by the mem- 

The records of history are conflicting as to when the different signatures 
were actually affixed, but it is likely that all member there present on the 
second day of August, appended their signatures on that day, and that 
those not then present, or elected at a later day, signed as soon thereafter 
as they were authorized and the opportunity was given. 

The original manuscript of the Declaration is preserved in the office of 
the Secretary of State, at Washington, and as its alterations are of con- 
siderable moment in themselves, and are an index of the discussion whid 
accomnanied the passage of the Declaration, we present a reprint of tnd 


entire document, as an historic souvenir which should be preserved in every 
American household. 

The words, or sentences, or parts of sentences, printed in quotation 
marks, " " were those erased by Congress, and those printed in brack- 
ets, [ ] were the ones supplied. 


•'When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary, for one 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with 
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and 
equal station to which the laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle 
them, a decent respect for the opinions of mankind requires that they 
6hould declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

" We hold these truths to be self-evident — that all men are created equal ; 
that they are endowed by their Creator with [certain] "inherent and" 
unalienable rights; that amongst these are life, liberty and the pur- 
suit of happiness ; that, to secure these rights, governments are instituted 
among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; 
that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, 
it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new 
government, laying its foundations on such principles, and organizing its 
powers in such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety 
and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that governments long 
established, should not be changed for light and transient causes ; and 
accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to 
suffer, while evils are sufferahle, than to right themselves by abolishing the 
forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses 
and usurpations, "begun at a distinguished, period and" pursuing invaria- 
bly the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute 
despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, 
and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the 
patient suffering of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which 
constrains them to [alter] " expunge" their former system of government. 

"The history of the present king of Great Britain is a history of 
[repeated] " unremitting ' injuries and usurpations, "among which appears 
no solitary fact to contradict the uniform tenor of the rest ; but all have " 
[all having] in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over 
these States. To prove this, let facts he submitted to a candid world, 
"for the truth of which we pledge a faith yet unsullied by falsehood." 

"He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for 
che public good. 

JUST at sunset 
July 4, 177o, 
amid the boom- 
ing of cannon, 
tlierollof drums, 
and the cheers of 
strong men, the 
bell on " Inde- 
pendence Hall" 
pealed forth the 
glad tidings of 
the passage of 
the " Declaration 
of Independence" 




" He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing 
importance, unless suspended in their operation, till his assent should be 

obtained ; and, when so suspended, he lias utterly neglected to attend to 

" He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large dis- 
tricts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of represen- 
tation in the legislature — a right inestimable to them, and formidable to 
tyrants only. 

"He has* called together legislative bodies, at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the 
sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 

"He has dissolved liepresentative Houses repeatedly, ' ' and continually," 
for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the 

" He has refused for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others 
to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, 
have returned to the people at large, for their exercise ; the State remain- 
ing-, in the meantime, exposed to all the danger of invasion from without, 
and convulsions within. 

" He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States, for that 
purpose obstructing the laws for the naturalization of foreigners ; refusing 
to pass others, to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the condi- 
tions of new appropriations of lands. 

"He has "suffered " [obstructed] the administration of justice, "totally 
to cease in some of these States" [by] refusing his assent to laws for estab- 
lishing judiciary powers. 

"He has made "our" judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure 
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

"He has erected a multitude of new offices, "by a self-assumed power," 
and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their 

"He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, "and ships 
of war," without the consent of our legislatures. 

"He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, 
the civil power. 

"He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction, foreign to 
our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to 
their acte of pretended legislation : — 

"For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

'For protecting them by mock trial, from punishment for any mur- 
ders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States: 

"For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world: 

" For imposing taxes on us without our consent: 

"For depriving us [in many eases] of the benefits of trial by jury : 

"For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended otienses: 

"For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighbour^ 


province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging iU 
boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for 
introducing the same absolute rule into these " states " [colonies] : 

"For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and 
altering fundamentally the forms of our governments : 

"For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested 
with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever: 

"He has abdicated government here, "withdrawing his governors, 
and" [by] declaring us out of his "allegiance" [protection, and waging 
wars against us] : 

"He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and 
destroyed the lives of our people : 

"He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries, tc 
complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with 
circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, [scarcely paralleled in the most bar- 
barous ages, and] totally unworthy "the head of a civilized nation: 

The three next paragraphs in the original were as follows : 

"He has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the 
merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistin- 
guished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions of existence: 

"Helms incited treasonable insurrections of our fellow-citizens, with 
the allurements of forfeiture and confiscation of our property : 

" He has constrained others, taken captives on the high seas, to bear 
arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends 
and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands." 

In place of the three paragraphs erased, Uiese were intrmluced : 

"[He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas 
to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their 
friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.] 

"[He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeav- 
oured to bring on the inhabitants of out frontiers, the merciless Indian 
savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of 
all ages, sexes and conditions]. 

The next paragraph, which related to the slave trade, was entirely erased. It 
was as follows: 

" "He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating in- 
most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people, 
who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery, in 
another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation 
thither. This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is ' 


warfare of a Christian king of Great Britain. Determined to keep open 
a market where MEN should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his 
negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit, or restrain, 
this execrable commerce; and that this assemblage of horrors might want 
no fact of distinguished dye, he is now exciting those very people to rise 
in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived 
them, by murdering the people upon whom he also obtruded them; thus 
paying off former crimes committed against the liberties of one people, 
with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another." 

"In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress, in 
the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only 
by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked, by every 
act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a [free] people 
"who mean to be free. Future ages will scarce believe that the hardiness 
of one man, adventured within the short compass of twelve years only, 
to build a foundation so broad and undisguised, for tyranny over a people 
fostered and fixed in principles of freedom. 7 ' 

• "Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We 
have warned them from time to time, of attempts made by their legisla- 
ture " to extend a jurisdiction over these our States" [to extend an unwar- 
rantable jurisdiction over us]. We have reminded them of the circum- 
stances of our emigration and settlement here, "no one of which 
could warrant so strange a pretension: that these were effected at 
the expense of our own blood and treasure, unassisted by the wealth 
or the strength of Great Britain: that in constituting indeed our 
several forms of government, we had adopted one common king, 
thereby laying a foundation for perpetual league and amity with 
them; but that submission to their parliament was no part of our 
constitution, not even in idea, if history may be credited; and" We 

thave] appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, "as well as to" 
and we have conjured them by] the ties of our common kindred, to disa- 
vow these usurpations which " were likely to" {would inevitably] inter- 
rupt our connexions and correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity : "and when occasions have beeu 
given them by the regular course of their laws, of removing from their 
councils, the disturbers of our harmony, they have by their free election, 
re-established them in power. At this very time, too, they are permitting 
their chief magistrate to send over not only soldiers of* our common blood. 
but Scotch and foreign mercenaries to invade and destroy us. These facta 
have given the last stab to agonizing affection ; ami manly spirit bids us 
to renounce forever these unfeeling brethren. We must endeavour to for- 
get our former love tor them, and to hold them, as we hold the rest of man- 
kind, enemies in war, in peace, friends. We might have been a free and 
a great people together; but a communication of grandeur and of freedom, 
it seems, is below their dignity, Be it so, since thev will have it. The 

The meeting place of the first Continental Con- 
gress, 1774. 


road to happiness and to glory is open to us too: we will climb it apart 
from them, and acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our eternal sep- 
aration." [We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity which denounces 
our separation, and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind — enemies in 
war; — in peace, friends.] 

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United .States of America, 
in General Congress assembled, [appealing to the .Supreme Judge ot 
the world, for the rectitude of our intentions,] Do, in the name and by 
authority of the good people of these "states, [colonies,] reject aud 
renounce all allegiance and subjection to the kings of Great Britain, and 
all others, who may hereafter claim by, through, or under them; we 
utterly dissolve all political connexion which mav heretofore have sub- 
sisted between us and the parliament of Great Britain; and finally we d<< 
assert" [solemnly publish und declare] that these United Colonies are, 
[and of right ought to be,] Free and Independent States; [that they are 
absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that a'H political 
connexion between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to 
be, totally dissolved ;] and that as Free and Independent States thoy have 
full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish con> 
merce, and to do all otheiv acts and things which Independent States may 
of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, [with a firm reli 
ance on Divine Providence,] we mutually pledge to each other, our 
lives, our fortunes, aud our sacred honour." 



President of the Continental Congress of 1776, and first signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, was born January 12, 1737, near Quincy, 
Norfolk county, Massachusetts, a son of Rev. John Hancock, then settled 
in a pastorate "over the people of that vicinity. He was a grandson of 
that John Hancock who was one of the earliest settlers in the struggling 
colony of Massachusetts, residing for a half of a century in the county of 
Middlesex, where, as a clergyman, he was loved and revered by the people 
of his charge. 

Thomas Hancock, uncle to the subject of this sketch, and the one to 
whom he was indebted for his wealth and station in after life, by industry 
and enterprise accumulated great riches, the worthy use of which has 
perpetuated his name. He studied especially the interests of Harvard 
University, increased its library and founded a professorship. The name 
of HANCOCK, in golden letters, now adorns one of the alcoves of that 
institute, in testimony to his liberality in advancing the science and litera 
ture of his day through the medinm of the University. 

Under the care of tbis uncle, his father having died when he was an 
infant, John Hancock received his education, graduating from Harvard in 
1754. He then spent six years in his uncle's counting house, and then, in 
1760, visited England. 

In 1704, soon after Hancock's return from England, his uncle died, leav- 
ing him, at twenty-seven years, with a fortune the most magnificent in the 
colony. With such material resources at his command, and the ability 
which later events demonstrated be possessed, the ambition and public 
spirit of Hancock would not long permit him to confine his energies within 
the limits of commercial life. 

He was first chosen one of the selectmen in the town of Boston, an office 
which he held many years, and, in 1766, the associate of such illustrious 
men as James Otis, Samuel Adams and Thomas Cushing, he was elected to 
represent that town in the General Assembly of the province. During 
his term of service in that body, he was appointed to act on nearly all 
the important committees, and was often chairman upon deliberations 
involving the highest interests of the people. 

When the tyranny of the British government first began to excite the 
alarm of the colonists, Hancock was one of the first and most prominent in 
the defense of their rights. It was largely through his influence that 
associations were formed in Massachusetts binding themselves to discounte- 
nance the importation of British manufactures, and the other colonies 
speedily followed the example of Massachusetts. This action was taken 
in retaliation to the exorbitant imposition of duties upon foreign importa- 
tions, and other acts injurious to tlie commercial prosperity of the colonies. 
This*tep may be regarded as the first on the part <>t' the people looking to 


the conservation of their liberties, and in the movement Hancock was an 
acknowledged leader. 

In 1767, Hancock, in a very characteristic manner, showed his devotion 
to the cause of the people. He was tendered, by Governor Bernard, a 
commission as lieutenant in the governor's guard, no small honor, the guard 
at that time being composed of the first gentlemen of Boston. In the 
presence of several witnesses Hancock, declaring he would hold no office 
under a man whose vices and principles alike were hostile to the liberties 
of his country, tore the commission in fragments and tossed them under 
his feet. 

The popularity of Hancock among his townspeople was so great, and 
his influence as exerted against the government so severely felt, that the 
royal governor, under advice of Lord North, then prime minister of 
Engand, adopted an extremely conciliatory course toward him, and 
endeavered by studied civilities and direct overtures, to win him to the 
support of the royal cause, or, at least, to prejudice him in the eyes of his 
countrymen. For a time these measures were in a degree successful ; the 
popularity of Hancock waned, and between him and his colleague, Adams, 
bitter words produced a transient intermission of friendship. 

It is certain that at this time Hancock acted with great independence, 
often against the entreaties of his friends and of those who regarded the 
interests of the colonists as at stake ; but nothing shows, to the dispassionate 
student, that he for a moment contemplated deserting their cause, and an 
opportunity soon came which set him right with them. 

There had been growing dissatisfaction between the officers representing 
the king and the people upon whom they had been thrust, and this dissatis- 
faction now not unfrequently blazed out in wordy collisions and bitter 
recriminations between the opposing factions, and these at length led to 
more serious demonstrations of hostility. 

Mobs were formed which gathered, committed some act intended to 
annoy the royalists, and then melted away. On one occasion a merchant 
ship belonging to Hancock was seized by the revenue officials while being 
loaded, as they claimed, in contravention to the revenue law. As if by 
magic a crowd gathered, surrounded the officers and beat them with clubs 
until they were forced to retreat under the cover of their armed vessels. 
The mob then, in triumph, burned the collector's boat and razed to the 
ground the houses of several obnoxious royalists, and then dispersed. 

This and other like riotous acts on the part of the colonists was made an 
excuse by the governor for quartering several regiments of British troops 
upon the Boston people, and the intolerance of the troops and the anger 
of the citizens soon brought about a collision in which blood was shed. 

March 5, 1770, a small detachment of troops on parade were assailed by 
a mob of citizens with snow-balls and other comparatively harmless 
missiles, and in return, by the order of their commanding officer, they dis- 
charged their muskets at their assailants. By this affray, known in history 

olurtdtfY- ^*rr-}^y 



as the ''Boston massacre," a few citizens were killed, and several wounded 

Hancock was appointed one of a committee who waited upon the governor, 
and unsuccessfully demanded the removal from the city of the troops, and at 
the funeral of the slain he pronounced an eulogy whose energy and patri- 
otism fired the hearts of the colonists and gave great offense to British 
officers and their sympathizers. We have space only for three briet 
extracts : 

" Security to the persons and property of the governed," said Mr. 
Hancock, "is so obviously the design of civil government, that to 
attempt a logical demonstration of it would Ikj like burning a taper al noon- 
day to assist the sun in enlightening the world. It cannot be either 
virtuous or honorable to attempt to support institutions of which this is not 
the great and principal basis." 

Again: "Some boast of being friends to government; I also am a 
friend to a righteous government, founded upon the principles of reason 
and justice; but I glory in publicly announcing my eternal enmity to 

• In deprecating the quartering of the soldiery upon the people, he said : 
" Standing armies are sometimes * * * composed of persons who 
have rendered themselves unfit to live in civil society ; who are equally 
indifferent to the glory of a George or a Louis ; who, for the addition of 
one pennv a day to their wages, would desert from the Christian cross and 
fight under the crescent, of the Turkish Sultan. From such men as these, 
what has not a kState to fear? With such as these, usurping Caesar 
passed the Rubicon ; with such as these, he humbled mighty Rome, and 
forced the mighty mistress of the world to own a master in a traitor." 

This oration completely restored Hancock in the favor of the people, and 
settled forever the hope of the British government that he might be in- 
duced to become a traitor in its interests. Henceforth he was pursued with 
its unremitting persecution. 

The expedition against Lexington, when the opening battle of the Revo- 
lution was fought, April 19, 1775, had for one of its objects the capture of 
Hancock and of Adams, both then resident in that village. Fortunately 
for the people, these devoted patriots were warned in season to make 
their escape, though so narrowly that both left their homes at the very 
moment of the entrance of the troops. The defeat of the English in this 
engagement was followed "by a proclamation from the Governor declaring 
the province of Massachusetts in a state of rebellion, and offering pardon 
to all who would -avail themselves of this act of royal grace, with the ex- 
ception of John Hancock and .Samuel Adams, for whom was reserved the 
honor of being declared outlaws. 

In October, 1774, Hancock had been unanimously elected president of 
the provincial Congress of Massachusetts, and now, in 1775, so much had 
the roval disfavor endeared him in the affections of his countrymen, he was 


chosen to the highest honor within their gift, and made President of 
the Continental Congress, which then convened in Philadelphia. 

The duties and responsibilities of this office, then most momentous 
and almost terrible, he ably filled for two and one-half years, during 
which time the Declaration of Independence, as elsewhere fully nar- 
rated in this volume, transformed the weak colonies into a phalanx 
of free and independent States. Of Mr. Hancock's connection with 
this event, a narration is also given in the introduction of the Decla- 
ration, on a preceding page of this volume. 

In October, 1777, worn with his onerous duties and wasted by the rav- 
ages of the gout, Mr. Hancock resigned his position at the head of 
the government, and amid the thanks and blessings of the people wnom 
he had served, returned to end his days in his native province. 

But while life was his, the people to whom he devoted it could illv spare 
his services. A convention was called to frame a constitution for the 
State of Massachusetts, and he was elected to a seat in the convention, 
where he served with his accustomed fidelity and energy. How far he 
favored a government by and for the people was here proven by the zeal 
with which he contended for the limitation of the executive authority. 

In 1780, he was elected governor of the Commonwealth, its first gov- 
ernor under the new constitution, and to this office, with one interval of 
two years, 1785-86, when his health would not permit him to serve, he 
was re-elected until his death. 

About 1773 Mr. Hancock was united in marriage with Miss Quincy, 
daughter of an eminent magistrate of Boston, and descended from one of 
the most distinguished families of New England. At his death no chil- 
dren were left to perpetuate his name, his only son having died in infancy. 
The character of John Hancock was distinguished by strong common 
sense, quickness of apprehension, and great decision ; his manners were 

folished, his address affable and easy, his speech eloquent and dignified, 
t was characteristic of his force of character that in personal matters he 
was very far from following the prevailing austerity of Puritan dress and 
custom. It is said of him : 

"His equipage was magnificent, and such as at i resent is unknown in 
America. His apparel was sumptuously embroidered with gold, silver and 
lace, and decked by such other ornaments as were fashionable at that day. 
He rode, especially upon public occasions, with six beautiful bays and 
with servants in livery. He was passionately addicted to what are called 
the elegant pleasures of life, such as dancing, music, concerts, routs, as- 
semblies, card parties, rich wines, social dinners and festivities. His 
house was daily crowded with guests, both citizens and strangers, allured 
by the splendor of his hospitality, whom he entertained with elegance and 

But with all his personal expenditures, he never forgot the poor and the 
deserving. He gave liberally, not only to such public enterprises as the 


Harvard University, to which lis was a munificent donor, hut in private 
benefactions. Charity was the common business of his life, and from his 
hand scores of families received their daily bread. 

He died suddenly, October 8, 1703, at the age of 5B years. For sev- 
eral days his body lay in state, and multitudes thronged to pav their last 
homage to one who had been so great a friend in their hour of need, and 
then, amidst their tears and lamentations, his body was consigned to the 

[John Adams, one of the signers on the part of Massachusetts, was 
the second President of the United States, and a biographical sketch 
of his lile will be found in that department of this work where the 
lives of the Presidents are given.] 


If, from among the galaxy of statesmen and patriots whose names are 
appended to the Declaration of Independence, it were desirable to single 
out one man who was the truest type of the people he represented, everv 
student, looking toward the New England colonies, would pronounce the 
name of Samuel Adams. 

This man ot the people was born in Boston, Massachusetts, September 
22, 1722, and was descended from a family who were early identified with 
public affairs in the colony, and who honorably fulfilled all public obliga- 
tions. His father was many years justice of "the peace and selectman in 
Boston, and for a long period was annually chosen to represent that town 
in the Massachusetts House of Assembly under the colonial government. 

At an early age Samuel Adams was admitted a student at Harvard 
University, and in 1740 received the decree of bachelor of arts; in 1743. 
that of master of arts. His collegiate (lays were marked by his attentive 
habits of study, a simplicity and quietude ot manner, which bordered on 
austerity; an economical and systematic adjustment of all personal affairs 
and expenses; and, even at that early date, a strong and jealous interest 
in the destinies of the people. These characteristics of his young man- 
hood distinguished his whole after life. 

It 'is related of his college days, that he proposed for discussion and 
maintained the affirmative, the question : " Whether it be lawful to resist 
the supreme magistrate if the Commonwealth cannot be otherwise pre- 
served?" Wlrle out of the college funds furnished him by his father he 
saved enough to publish a pamphlet, which he culled: "Englishmen's 
Rights," in which he more fully reasoned the affirmative of the same 

His studies ended, he entered upon a mercantile career, in which he was 
never fairly prosperous, because his best attention and the most of his 






time was ever given to the consideration of public affair-. His father died 
leaving him, at the age of twenty-five, as the oldest son, with the char^ 
of a large family. But even this could not change the strong bent of his 
mind, which continued to be engrossed with the political situation, and 
unmindful of such details as would have made him a successful business 

The people having such a man in their service, naturally made him a 
leader at the beginning of their organized struggle, and from the time he 
took his first stand as opposed to "taxation without representation," he 
never betraved or neglected their interests nor acted without wisdom in 
their behalf. 

In his stiff handwriting is still preserved, in the Massachusetts archives, 
instructions for the delegates from Boston to the General Assembly, pre- 
pared in 1763, by a committee appointed for that purpose, and of which 
Samuel' Adams was chairman. In this manuscript is found the first pub- 
lic denial of the right of the British government to tax the colonies with- 
out their consent; the first denial of the supremacy of parliament; and 
the first public suggestion of a union of the colonies to successfully resist 
British aggression. 

In 1764 he was an active member of a political club in Boston, where 
measures were discussed aud formulated, by which the people of 
the colony were largely guided. Here the determination was first made 
to oppose paying the duty on stamped paper. Although Mr. Adams was 
in favor of this opposition, and of destroying the stamped paper and the 
office from which it was issued, the further riotous proceedings in which 
the people indulged did not meet with his approval, and he aided the civil 
magistrates in stopping them. 

In 1765, he was sent by Boston to the General Assembly, where his 
influence and active sagacity were at once felt in the endeavor to support 
the popular rights of the colonists. Of his acts and influence at this period, 
the royal governor, Hutchinson, thus give^ unwilling testimony, in a letter 
written to a friend of the royal government, who had asked why Mr. 
Adams was not silenced by patronage : 

" Such is the obstinacy and inflexible disposition of the man, that he 
can never be conciliated by any office or gift whatever." 

Samuel Adams was chosen clerk of the house soon after he had taken 
his seat lor the first time in that body. Following the " Boston Massacre," 
he bore his full share with John Adams, Hancock, and others, in the 
efforts which were resolutely made to effect the removal of the troops from 
the town. 

The first suggestion of the "Committee of Correspondence." which is so 
often mentioned in these sketches, and which was of so much benefit to 
the colonists, is claimed by both Massachusetts and Virginia ; by the 
former in behalf of Samuel Adams, and by the latter for Richard Henry 
Lee. It is likely these two statesmen each thought out for himself this 


plan. It wms proposed in a town meeting of Boston by Mr. Adams in 
1772, and at once adopted. 

A last effort on the part of the British government to frighten or bribe 
Samuel Adams to silence was made in 177-'), when Colonel Fenton, in the 
name of Governor Gage, waited upon him with an offer of benefits, should 
he cease his opposition to the measures of the government, and "make 
peace with the king," and a threat that he should he sent to England and 
there tried, under a statute of Henry VIII., for treason, should that oppo- 
sition continue. Every school-boy knows the answer of Adams, yet who 
that admires the noble, could resist another opportunity to record it? 

"I trust I have long since made my peace with the King of kings. Xo 
personal consideration shall induce me to abandon the righteous cause of 
my country. Tell Governor Gage it is the advice of Samuel Adams to 
him, no longer to insult the feelings of an exasperated people.'' 

Not long after, Governor Gage issued his celebrated proclamation to 
which reference has been made before, in which he declares : " I do hereby. 
in his majesty's name, offer and promise his most gracious pardon to all 
persons who shall forthwith lay down their arms and return to the duties 
of peaceable citizens; excepting only from such pardon Samuel Adam* 
and John Hancock, whose offenses are of too flagitious a nature to admit 
of any other consideration but that of condign punishment." 

Mr. Adams continued in his seat as a member of the assemblv until 
Massachusetts sent her first delegates to the Continental Congress in Phila- 
delphia, when he was one of the chosen ones. He took his seat Septem- 
ber 5, 1774, and from that day until he retired to private life in 1781, he 
was always a moving spirit in the great struggle of those years, always 
wise and determined in immediate action, and hopeful for future results. 

In 1781, he returned to Massachusetts, where, although now past the 
allotted life of man, he was still to perform a further service for the 
people. He was a member of the convention which formed the constitu- 
tion of Massachusetts, and of the committee which drafted it. He was 
successively member of the senate, its president, and member of the con- 
vention which adopted the Federal constitution. After this he was elected 
governor of the Commonwealth. 

He died October 3, 1803, at the age of 81. 


The fourth signer of the Declaration of Independence on behalf of 
Massachusetts colony, was Robert Treat Paine, who was born in Boston 
in 1731. He was descended from two of the oldest families in the prov- 
ince, and of undoubted Puritan stock. His father was a man of liberal 
education for his time, and was educated for the ministry. For a few 
years he was pastor over a church in Weymouth, near Boston. Owing to 


delicate health he was obliged to resign his pastorate, after which he set- 
tled in Boston and engaged in mercantile pursuits. Nor was he in his 
business so successful but that the help freely given him bv hLs dutiful 
sou in later years was much needed. The mother of Robert Treat Paine 
was the daughter of the Rev. Mr. Treat, of Eastham, Barnstable county, 
an eminent divine, and a distinguished classical scholar, and grand-daugh- 
ter of Governor Treat, of Connecticut, and Con her mother's side) of the 
Rev. Samuel Willard, of Boston, a gentleman greatly celebrated for his 
piety and learning. 

It is safe to assume that some inherent gifts of scholarship from such 
illustrious ancestry were bestowed upon Robert Treat Paine, since we find 
him at the age of fourteen entered as a student of Harvard College. 

On leaving the University he devoted himself for some months to teach- 
ing, then made a voyage to Europe, and on his return for some time pur- 
sued the study of theology. In 1755 he served as chaplain in an expedl 
tion of the provincial troops to the North, and in later years occasionally 
preached for some of the clergymen of Boston and its vicinitv. 

After mature consideration, however, he decided to turn "his attention 
to the law, and was in due time admitted to the bar in Boston. Soon aft;> 
he settled in Taunton, Bristol county, Massachusetts, where he rose into 
prominence as a sound and brilliant "practitioner. 

In 1768 the first people's convention was called in Massachusetts, and 
Mr. Paine there represented Taunton. When the soldiers who had per, 
petrated the "Boston Massacre," as narrated in the life of John Hancock. 
were to be tried, the attorney-general, whose duty it was to prosecute, was 
prevented by sickness from attending, and Mr. Paine was appointed in his 

In 1773 he was appointed chairman of a committee of visrilance and 
correspondence for Taunton. In that year and the following year, he was 
a representative in the provincial legislature. 

Robert Treat Paine was one of the first in Massachusetts to advocate the 
appointment of delegates to a Continental Congress ; was a member of the 
assembly when the resolution to so act was carried, and was one of those 
chosen to represent Massachusetts in the first Congress when it convened 
in Philadelphia. To this honor he was annuallv re-elected in the succes- 
sive years until the Congress of 1789. 

In 1775 he was appointed one of theijudges of the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts, but at that time declined iu-ceptance. In April, 1776, he 
was on a committee for proeurinc: cannon for the Continental armv. ' In 
the June following, with Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Rutledge for his coadju- 
tors, he reported rules for resrulating the debates of Congress. In 1777 he 
was appointed attorney-general for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
by the unanimous vote of the Council and House of Representatives. 

In 1778 Mr. Paine was one of a committee appointed bv the legislature 
to form the constitution of civil government for Massachusetts, and theif 


(fat*y Z^a^r^j^^^ 

t/zm&> /A<^rn 


labors not being finished that year, he served on the .same committee in the 
following year, and the constitution which tiiev reported was adopted in 

In 1790 he resigned the office of attorney-general, and having been 
appointed judge of the supreme judicial court, took his seat on the bench. 
The duties of that office he discharged until 1801, a period of fourteen 

In 1804 he received his last public office, by the votes of a grateful 
people, that of councilor of the Commonwealth. 

May 11, 1814, he died, full of years and honors. 


Was born in Marblehead, Province of Massachusetts Bay, in July, 
1744, son of a merchant of Marblehead. In due time he was graduated 
from Harvard University, taking the degree of bachelor of arts in 1762. 

His public life began in 1773. May 20. when he took his seat in the 
general court of Massachusetts Bay, as the representative from Marble- 
head. ■ May 28th, two days after taking his seat, Elbridge Gerry was 
appointed on the standing committee of correspondence and inquiry, and 
during the remainder of that year, and the opening months of 1774, he 
■was an active participant in the stirring events which marked that period 
in the colony of Massachusetts — the impeachment of the judges ; the oppo- 
sition to the importation of tea, and to the Boston port bill, the establish- 
ment of the system of non-intercourse, and the arrangement of a close 
and systematical communication between the colonies. 

In August, 1774, General Gage, then representing the royal authority 
in Massachusetts province, issued precepts for the election of delegates to 
meet in Salem, October 7. Afterward, finding that the representatives 
chosen bv the people were not likely to act in accordance with the royal 
wishes, he declared, by proclamation, that they were excused from 

But the delegates, who had not been chosen to please the king, were 
not to be deterred from their duties by fear of his displeasure. They con- 
vened on the dav and at the place appointed by the governor, and found 
neither he nor any of his council appeared to administer the oath. 
Nothing daunted, they formed themselves into a provincial congress, and 
adjourned to meet in Concord. There they met three days later, trans- 
acted three days' business, and adjourned to meet in Cambridge the fol- 
lowing week. This assembly continued to meet from adjournment from 
time to time through the following month, and the work accomplished is a 
matter of history. 

Of this congress Elbridge Gerry was a leading and influential member, 
and also of the following one, which convened in Cambridge, Februaiy 1, 


1775. In this congress Mr. Gerry was actively engaged as chairman, and 

as member of several important committees. 

Mr. Gerry was the intimate friend of the gallant General Warren, who 
fell at Bunker Hill, and on the night preceding the General's departure to 
meet his fate, they shared one room and one bed. A premonition of that 
fate seemed to possess the two friends, and the parting words of Warren to 
Gerry were: 

" Dulce et decorum est, 
Pro patria mori " 

January 18, 1776, Elbridge Gerry was elected a delegate from Massa- 
chusetts to the Continental Congress, and took his seat in that body Feb- 
ruary 9th following. During that session of Congress he was on many 
important committees, and as one of the representatives of " His Majesty* 
rebellious colony, Massachusetts," he affixed his signature to the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

1777-80, Mr. Gerry continued to be one of Massachusetts' represent- 
atives in Congress, and then enjoyed three years of comparatively quiet 
life, giving his attention to his personal affairs. In 1783 he was again 
returned to Congress, serving until September, 1785. 

In May, 178Y, he was one of the delegates from Massachusetts to the 
assembly convened in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of the Confede- 
ration, and under the new form of government the inhabitants of Mr. 
Gerry's district chose him as their representative, and he served four vears, 
and then, absolutely refusing a re-election, he retired to his farm in Cam- 
bridge, where he enjoyed ten years of peaceful private life. 

When Mr. Adams was called to the chief magistracy of the government, 
and took his seat in June, 1797, affairs between France and America were 
in a most unsatisfactory condition, whose probable outcome seemed 
another war. President Adams appointed Mr. Gerry special ambassador 
to France, there to concert, in conjunction with General Pinekney, the 
regular ambassador, and Mr. Marshall, afterwards chief-justice, some 
measure looking to the preservation of peace between the two countries. 
So well did Mr. Elbridge acquit himself in this delicate mission, that when 
the other two men were ordered out of France, he was permitted — 
requested, indeed — to remain, which he did, and to his individual efforts 
and his tact, the struggling America of that day was indebted that she 
•was not precipitated in a war she was totally unprepared to carry on. 

On his return from Fiance, Mr. Gerry was urged by his political friends 
to permit the use of his name by the Republican party for the office of 
governor, but declined. For several years be was now left to the cultiva- 
tion of his farm, in which he delighted : but in 810 ? yielding to the long- 
continued solicitation of his friends, he accepted the nomination lor gov- 
ernor from the Republican party, and was elected by a decisive majority. 


In 1811 Mr. Gerry was re-elected to the chair of the chief executive, 
but in 1812, consentin: again to accept the nomination, he lost the elec- 
tion by a few votes. 

In June, 1812, the Republican members of Congress fas was then the 
custom') recommended to the people a proper person to till the office of 
Vice-President for four years from the 4th of March following, and their 
unanimous choice was Elbridge Gerry. 

March 4, 1813, he took the oath of office as Vice-President of the 
United States, and when the senate convened on the 25th of May follow- 
ing, he took his seat as president of that body. 

The remainder of his story is told in the monument erected by Congress, 
•which reads: "The tomb of Elbridge Gerry, Vice-President of the 
United States, who died suddenly in this city, on his way to the capitdl, 
as President of the Senate, November 23, 1814, aged 70." 

And so the end of his life illustrated his chosen motto: " It is the duty 
of even* citizen, though he may have but one day to live, to devote that 
day to the service of his country." 


Born in Amesbury. Massachusetts, in November, 1729, was the fourth son 
of Stephen Bartlett, whose grandfather, John Bartlett, established himselt 
in Beverly, Massachusetts, in the early part of the seventeenth century. 
The family were of Norman extraction. 

Without availing himself of such classical means of education as his 
times afforded, Josiah Bartlett became, at an early age, well grounded in 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin tongues, a knowledge in which he was 
proficient before he attained the age of sixteen, and, with a natural 
capacitv and tenacious memory, was able to retain through all his after 

At the age of sixteen he commenced the study of medicine, was gradu- 
ated in 1750, and began the practice of his profession in Kingston, >ew 
Hampshire. His professional career was especially distinguished by his 
original and successful treatment of a malignant throat disease, railed, in 
common language, "black canker." 

In 1765, Dr. Bartlett represented Kingston in the New Hampshire 
legislature, which position he continued to till until the needs of the hour 
called him to a wider field of action. In 1774, having served until that 
time, ami having been made justice of the peace by Governor Wentworth 
in order to buy his influence and had his commission revoked because he 
would not sell it, the colonial house elected Dr. Bartlett as one of the 
representatives of New Hampshire in the Continental Congress, and in 
August, 1775, he was again chosen a delegate to that body, and took hu 
seat in the September following 

j£*vu^ Ma** 


He was again elected in 1776, and, a member of that august body by 
whom the fate of the colonists was decided, he had the honor to Ik- the 
first who voted for and the second who signed the Declaration of Indepen- 

He filled the position of representative for New Hampshire in the Con- 
tinental Congress during 1777, when ill health prevented his active attend- 
ance ; and in 1778, when the Congress met in Yorktown, Philadelphia 
being in the possession of the British troops. 

Returning to New Hampshire in 1779, he was appointed chief justice of 
the court of common pleas, and in 1780, was made " muster master" of the 
troops then being raised for the Continental service. In 1782 he was 
appointed judge of the first court, and in 1788 was promoted to the office 
of chief justice. 

In 1790 he was chosen president of New Hampshire, which office he 
filled until 1793, when he was elected first governor of New Hampshire as 
an independent State. 

After holding this office one year, Dr. Bartlett resolutely refused to con- 
tinue longer in public life, and sought the repose he had so honorably 
earned. But his death soon followed, that event occurring in May, 1795. 

The death of his wife, whose family name was also Bartlett, occurred six 
years previous to his demise, and they left a family of sons, whose descend- 
ants are distinguished citizens of New Hampshire. 


Oldest son of "William Whipple, of Kittery, Maine, and Mary (Cutt) 
Whipple, his wife, was born at Kittery, in the year 1730. In one of the 
public schools of that town, he was taught reading, writing, arithmetic and 
navigation, which latter study he soon took practical lessons in, embarking 
as a sailor before the mast on board a merchant vessel. 

Before he was twenty-one years of age he commanded a vessel, and in 
that capacity made a number of voyages to Europe and the West Indies, 
blemishing his otherwise honorable career by engaging in the slave traffic 
between the West Indies and the colonies. In 1759 he abandoned the 
sea, and engaged in mercantile business in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
with a brother, under the firm name of William ami Joseph Whipple. 

The subject of this sketch was united in wedlock with his cousin, 
Catherine, daughter of John Moffat, Esq., and one child was born of then- 
union, which died in infancy. 

In 1775, the people of New Hampshire formed a temporary government, 
composed of a House of Representatives and a Council of twelve members, 
and William Whipple was one of the council. 

January 23, 1770, he was appointed a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress, as one of the representatives of New Hampshire, and in that year. 


in behalf of the colony he represented, he set his name to the Declaration 
of Independence. 

He was re-elected to that office for three successive years, and daring 
the latter part of his term of service, was presiding officer, continuing to 
serve until September, 1779, when he retired from Congress. 

In 1777, while still a member of Congress, Mr. Whipple was called on by 
the government of New Hampshire to enter her military service in defense 
of her frontier, threatened by Burgoyneat the head of a powerful army of 
disciplined troops and savages. The militia of the State wire divided into 
two brigades and one placed under command of General Whipple, and the 
other under General Stark. Their record is a matter of history. 

In 1782, Robert Morris, then engaged in an endeavor to restore the 
exhausted finances of the country, appointed a receiver in each State, and 
General Whipple, at his hands received the appointment for New Hamp- 
shire. The difficulties attending the duties of that office may be inferred 
from the fact that while General Whipple received his commission in May, 
1782, it was not until January, 1784, after peace was declared, that he 
was able to make his first remittance to the national treasury, and then it 
was only three thousand dollars. 

In 1782, General Whipple was also appointed one of a court of com- 
missioners to hear and settle a dispute long existing between Pennsylvania 
and Connecticut, relative to the Wyoming lands, and well fulfilled the 
delicate mission, although then falling into the illness which ultimately 
resulted in his death. 

In the same year he was appointed one of the judges of the supreme 
court of New Hampshire, and continued to ride the circuits two or three 

In the autumn of 1785, his illness, an affection of the chest, became more 
distressing. He was obliged to give up public life, and confine himself, 
not only to his home, but to a sick chamber. Here he died, November 28, 
1785, in the 55th year of his age. 


Third of the signers of the Declaration of Independence on behalf of New 
Hampshire, was born in Ireland in 1714, and his father, James Thornton, 
came with his family to America three years later, settling first in Wiscasset, 
Maine. After a few years' residence there, he removed to Worcester, 
Massachusetts, where his son Matthew received an academic education. 

Having ended this preparatory course, Matthew Thornton read medicine 
in Leicester, and then settled down to practice in Londonderry, New 
Hampshire. As its name indicates, this town was largely settled by Irish 
emigrants, who welcomed their young countrymen with that warmth of 
national attachment which characterizes the Irish heart. Here Dr. Thornton 


patted many peaceful years, establishing a large and successful practice, 
which gave him comparative affluence. 

In 177o, the royal government was overthrown in New Hampshire, the 
people formed a provincial convention, and Matthew Thornton was 
appointed first president. At that time he held the appointment of com- 
missioner of the peace from Governor Benning Wentworth, and was also a 
colonel in the New Hampshire militia. 

In the stormy days which preceded, accompanied and followed the 
independence of the colonies, Dr. Thornton was always the wise, temper- 
ate and unflinching friend of the people, the undismayed defender of their 
rights and liberties. 

In January, 1776, the people of New Hampshire convened a general 
assembly for legislative purposes, and Dr. Thornton was chosen speaker of 
the house. In September following he was appointed delegate for one 
year to the Continental Congress, and taking his seat in November, was 
then permitted to add his name to the Signers of the Declaration. His 
was the last signature affixed, completingthe immortal record of the fifty-six. 

He served a second term in Congress, elected in December, 1776", and 
taking his seat January 23, 1777. " During his first election, in January, 
1776, he was appointed a judge of the Superior Court of New Hampshire^ 
which office he retained until 1782. 

In the autumn of 1779, he left his residence in Londonderry and 
settled in Exeter, purchasing a farm and dividing his time between agri- 
cultural pursuits and his official employments. Here he passed the evening 
of his life in merited tranquillity, serving twice as a member of the General 
Court, and one term as State Senator. 

While on a visit to his daughters, who were settled in Newburvport, 
Massachusetts, having reached the advanced aire of 89 years, he was 
suddenly and peacefully removed from the world at the touch of death 
June 24, 1803. 

Two sons and two daughters, a State he had served, and a Nation he 
had helped to create, mourned his loss. 


One of the signers of the Declaration 'on behalf- of the colonv of Rhode 
Island, was born March 7, 1707. in that part of Providence which in 1730 
became the township of Scituate. He was descended from sound and illus- 
trious Puritan stock, and his father was William Hopkins, a farmer. 
Stephen Hopkins in his youth received onlv such education as a country 
school of that day afforded, although, owing rather to natural apti- 
tude than to outward advantages, he mastered all the practical branches 
of mathematics, particularly surveying. He early in life entered upon the 
labors of farm life, receiving from his father, when onlv nineteen years 
old, a deed for seventy acres of land, and hm his" Grandfather an 


S^n^anx^M /T<Wk 


additional tract of ninety acres. After his father's death he continued 
to carry on their estate which, in 1731, he increased by the purchase or 
adjoining lands. 

His public life began in March, 1731, when he was elected town dork of 
Scituate. This office he held until December 24, 1741, in the meantime 
serving also as president of the town council, chosen in March, 1735, and a~ 
clerk of the court. He was also, in June, 1732, representative from 
Scituate in the General Assembly, discharging the duties of that office until 
1738. In May, 1736, he was appointed a justice of the peace, and one oi 
the justices of the court of common pleas, and in May, 1739, chief justice 
of that court. In 1741, he again represented Scituate in the General 
Assembly, and was chosen speaker of the House. 

During all this time he was actively engaged in the business of surveying, 
and in 1740, as surveyor for the county of Providence, did great service 
in laying out the lands and making accurate returns thereon. He also 
revised the streets and made a map of Scituate, and performed the same 
service for the town of Providence. 

In 1842, he sold his farm, removed to Providence, and built a stately man- 
sion of that time, which was his residence for the remaining years of his 
life. In Providence he entered upon a mercantile career, building, owning 
and fitting out ships. 

But he was one of those who are born to have honors thrust upon them. 
and private life was not for him. The year of hi* settlement in Provi- 
dence he was chosen to represent that town in the Assembly, where he was 
again elected speaker. After one year's interval, in 1744, the same honors 
were again bestowed upon him, and again in 174<>, from which time he 
served every year up to and including 1749. In May, 1751, he was for the 
fourteenth time a representative in the Assembly, and in that year he was 
appointed chief justice of the superior court, which office he held until 1754. 
In 1754, Stephen Hopkins was commissioner from Rhode Island to a 
congress assembled in Albany, New York, to concoct and digest a plan of 
union of the colonies. The time was not then ripe for such action, and 
nothing was accomplished. 

In May, 1756, by the unanimous choice of the people, he became gov- 
ernor of the commonwealth of Rhode Island, and in 1758, was again 
elected to that position. He tilled it, also, with firmness and justice, 
during the years 1759-61, 17(>.*>-tf4, and 17b7. 

In 1772, Mr. Hopkins again appeared as the representative of Provi- 
dence in the General Assembly, serving until 1776. In 1774-75 he was 
also a delegate to the General Congress, and having, in 1775, l>een a 
second time appointed chief justice of the superior court, he at this time, 
presented the singular spectacle of one individual holding the three high 
offices of member of Asserablv, delegate to Congress and chief justice. 

The act of the Assembly of Rhode Island, passed in June, 1774, prohibit- 



ing the importation of negroes for slaves into the colony, was drafted bv 
Mr Hopkins, and owed its passage mainly to his influence. He had, in the 
preceding year, emancipated all those whom lie held in slavery. 

May 4, 1776, he was for a third time elected to the Continental Con- 
gress, and departed, bearing with him the most absolute instructions from 
the colony he, in conjunction with Mr. Ellery, represented, empowering 
them to go to any extreme in defense ot the rights and liberties of the 
colonists. Thus authorized, and with his natural ability, it may well be 
assumed that Stephen Hopkins bore no unimportant or uncertain part in 
the debates which preceded the ratification of the Declaration, and that his 
voice always was heard on the side which maintained that "these colonies 
are, and of right ought to be, free and independent State.-.'' 

It was with a Arm heart and unshaken faith in the future of these 
States that he appended his signature to the Declaration. An examination 
of that signature will show that his penmanship at that date was very 
peculiar. This was owing to the fact that he had been for some vears 
subject to a nervous affection, so that when he wrote at all he was obliged 
to wuide his right hand with his left. 

In 177H, Mr. Hopkins was chosen- commissioner to meet delegates from 
the other New England States to devise ways and means for their joint 
protection ami mutual interests. The following year he presided over a 
meeting of these commissioners, held in Springfield, Massachusetts 
July 30. 

In May, 177S, he was for the last time elected deputy to Congress: and 
during the years 1 777-7^-79. served with untiring zeal in the Rhode Island 
Assembly, although then more than seventy years old. 

Stephen Hopkins was one of the earliest and best examples of the self- 
made men who are the glory of America. With the smallest amount 
of school training, he came to be one of the greatest and most profound 
cholars of his day. He was a member of the American Philosophical 
Society and for many years chancellor of the college of Rhode Island. 
Of his scholarly attainments, we may judge by this generous tribute, paid 
him by Mr. Adams, with whom he was on the Naval Committee in Con- 
gress, 1774-7* : 

"Governor Hopkins, of Rhode Island, above 70 vears of age, kept 
us all alive. Upon business his experience and judgment were verv 
useful. But when the business of the evening was over, he kept us in 
conversation until 11, and sometimes 12 o'clock. His custom was to drink 
nothing all day until 8 P. m., then his beverage was Jamaica spirits and 
water. It gave him wit, humor, anecdote, science and learning. He had 
read Greek, Roman and British history; was familiar with English poetry, 
especially Pope, Thomson and Milton, and the flow of his soul made all his 
reading our own. * * * Hopkins never drank to excess, but all 
he drank was not only immediately converted into wit, sense, knowledge 
and good humor, but inspired us with similar qualities." 


Stephen Hopkins was twice married, his first wife, Saiah Scott, with 
whom he was united in 1726, dying September 9, 17-3'J. Their children 
were seven, six sons, who died unmarried, and one daughter, Ruth, who 
married in Providence, and left a large family of descendants. 

His second wife was Anna, widow of Benjamin Smith, whom he married, 
according to the ceremony of the Society of Friends, of which she was u, 
member, January 2, 1755. 

Mr. Hopkins was a devout believer in the Christian religion, although 
so far liberal in his views for the time in which he lived, that he was. by 
many considered an infidel. His principal point of difference with his 
co-temporaries was that he utterly rejected the doctrine of predestination. 

In 1785, seized with a lingering illness that wasted his life slowly 
without impairing his faculties, being now in his seventy-ninth year, he 
tranquilly awaited the end of a useful and honorable life, and on the loth 
of July, "he fell on sleep." The judges of the courts: the president, 
corporation and students of the Rhode Island college ; distinguished repre- 
sentatives from different parts of the State, and a large concourse of 
mourning friends and relatives laid him in his last resting place, Julv 15, 


Second of the two Signers of the Declaration of Independence on the part 
of Rhode Island, was born in that colony, at Newport, on the 22d of 
December, 1727. 

His father, also named William Ellery, and descended from a family 
who came from Bristol, England, in the early part of the 17th century, 
was a man of liberal education, and as Ins sun advanced in years, was 
himself his tutor until he reached the age and understanding which quali- 
fied him for admission at Harvard. 

He passed through his collegiate course, graduating in 1747. and having, 
at the age of twenty, the reputation of a scholar, and of remarkable apti- 
tude in mastering the Latin and Greek tongues. He immediately entered 
upon the study of law in his native town, where, upon admission to the 
bar, he o;>ened an office, and practiced twenty years. 

Mr. Ellery appears not to have held any position of public trust before 
his election to the Continental Congress of 177(5, but that he was so elected 
is in itself proof that he occupied no unknown grounds upon the question 
of the people's rights. For the little colony of Rhode Island had already 
put herself upon record as independent of the British government, and 
had withdrawn her allegiance from the kinir of Great Britain, and her 
delegates to the Congress of 1776, ex-Governor Stephen Hopkins and 
William Ellery, were sent there with no uncertain instructions. They 
were to carrv the record of the decision of Rhode Island, and to announce 

jn*/w*do<y 6>/ 


"^fi&S. 4y"^/^ 



her readiness to enter upon any alliance with the other colonies that Con- 
gress might adopt. 

William Ellery took his seat in this Congress in May, 1776, and when 
the hour arrived voted for the passing of the Declaration, to which, on the 
2d of August, 177b, he appended his signature. He was a representative 
for Rhode Island in the Continental Congress for every succeeding year 
up to and including the year 1785. 

In committee work he was an excellent coadjutor, his legal training and 
his ability to master details, doing good service. Marine affairs received 
Ins special study, and he was active in promoting all measures for the good 
of the navy. In June, 1778, he ratified the Articles of Confederation of 
the States on behalf of Rhode Island. In the same year Mr. Ellerv was 
called home to concert measures for the Rhode Island colonists by which 
they should repel a threatened invasion of British troops, and that duty 
accomplished, he returned at once to his Congressional labors. During 
the remainder of his term he served on many important committees, and 
in various diplomatic relations, among the rest, serving, in 1784, as one of 
a committee on a treaty of peace with Great Britain. During his last 
month in Congress, he seconded a motion whose object was the abolition of 
slavery in the United States. 

In 1786 Congress made him commissioner of the Rhode Island conti- 
nental loan office, and President Washington appointed him collector of 
customs for Newport, an office which he retained over thirty years, to the 
close oi his life. 

William Ellery was a constant reader of the Bible, whose inspiration he 
accepted, and through life retained his fondness for Greek and Latin 
classics. The morning of his decease he gave an hour's reading to Tully, 
and, later in the day, placed on the bed in a sitting posture, he called for 
a copy of Cicero, from which he read for some time. A little later, his 
attendants discovered that he was dead, still sitting with the book in his 
hand. His death was on the 15th of February, 1820. 


Was the great grandson of John Sherman, who came from Dedham, Eng- 
land, and settled at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1635. The father of 
Roger Sherman was William Sherman, who made his home in Newton, 
Massachusetts, where Roger was born, April 10, 1721. In 1723, the 
family moved to Stoughton, in that colony, where the father died in 1741, 
after which the support and care of the family devolved upon Roger, at 
that time only nineteen years old. He had received only such education 
as a common school of that day afforded, and was then apprenticed to the 
shoemaker's trade. 

After receiving the care of the family, Roger Sherman divided his time 
between his trade and the cultivation of the farm on which thev lived, 


until, in 174-S, the family moved to New Milford, Connecticut Mr. 
Sherman made the journey between the two places on foot, carrying hw 
kit of tools with him. In New Milford he followed his trade for a short 
time, and then entered the mercantile business in company with a brother 
who had settled in that town some years before. 

Determined to do his duty by those dependent on him, and at the same 
time to acquire some of that knowledge which he ardently desired, Roger 
Sherman availed himself of every opportunity of acquiring knowledge. It 
is related of him, that when at work on his shoemaker's bench, he would 
have a book so placed that he could read all the time his eyes were not of 
necessity fixed upon his work. He made himself so familiar with the 
science of .mathematics, that, in 1748, he began making astronomical 
calculations for an almanac published in New York, giving such satis- 
faction that he was for several years employed to do the same work. 

While he was thus employed in business and study, Roger Sherman 
became* an oracle of law among his neighbors, and at length, urged by 
those who were interested in hisremarkable talents, without having had any 
special training, he successfully passed the necessary examination and was 
admitted to the bar in December, 1754. 

In 1755, Mr. Sherman, then thirty-four years of age, was chosen to 
represent New Milford in the Connecticut Assembly, and was returned 
again and again through the successive years until 1761, when he removed 
to New Haven. He was also commissioned justice of the peace in 1755, 
and in May, 1759, was appointed judge of the Litchfield county court. 

He had no sooner established himself in New Haven, than all the honors 
he had left were again bestowed upon him in the county where he had 
settled. He was also chosen treasurer of Yale College, and in 1765 this 
college bestowed upon the self-taught shoemaker the honorary degree of 
master of arts. 

After settling in New Haven. Mr. Sherman was united in marriage 
with Rebecca Prescot, of Danvers, Massachusetts, and the children of their 
marriage were eight. He had buried his first wife, who was Elizabeth 
Hartwell, born in S tough ton, Massachusetts, in 17H0. Their children were 

The honorable record of the remaining years of the life of Roger Sher- 
man, may be well presented in the closing words engraved upon the tablet 
that covered his grave. 

"He was nineteen years an assistant, and twenty-three years a Judge of 
the Superior Court, in high reputation. He was a delegate in the first 
Congress, signed the glorious Act of Independence, and many years dis- 
played superior talents and ability in the National Legislature. He was 
a member of the General Convention, signed the Federal Constitution, 
and served his country with fidelity and honor in the House of Representa- 
tives and in the Senate of the United States. He was a man of approved 


integrity; a cool, discerning Judge ; a prudent, sagacious politician; a true, 
faithful and tirm patriot. He ever adorned the profession of Christianity 
which he had made in youth, and, distinguished through life for public 
usefulness, died in prospect of a blessed immortality." 

He was mayor of the city of New Haven from it* corporation until his 
death, which occurred July 23, 1793. 


Eldest son of Nathaniel Huntington, a farmer residing in Windham, Con- 
necticut, was born July 3, « 732. Like his coadjutor in the Congress ot 
1776, Roger Sherman, of whom we have just read, Samuel Huntington's 
school education was so limited that he may be said to have been entirely 
self-educated; like him, too, he rose, by his own exertions, to great emi- 
nence at the bar. 

In 1760, he removed from Windham to Norwich, in the same State, 
having at that time, although he had not attained his thirtieth year, 
obtained a considerable celebrity as a lawyer and advocate. 

In 1762 he was joined in wedlock with Martha, daughter of Rev. Eben- 
ezer Devotion, a clergyman of Windham. Their domestic life was most 
happy, although no children blessed their union. 

In 1764 Mr. Huntington began his political career, as representative 
from Norwich in the General Assembly of Connecticut. The duties ot 
this official position he ably discharged until 1774, when he was appointed 
associate judge in the Superior Court, and in the following year he was 
made a member of the Council of Connecticut. 

The General Assembly of that colony, relying on his talent and patri- 
otism, and on his thorough understanding of the rights of the colonists. 
in October, 1775, appointed him as delegate to the Continental Congress, 
and he took his seat in the following year, January 16, 1776. In the fol- 
lowing August he affixed his signature to the Declaration of Independ- 

From 1776—80, he represented Connecticut in Congress, was prominent 
in all movement* by which the rights of the people were maintained, and 
zealously and faithfully served on many important committees. Septem- 
ber 2'S, 177!*, he was made president of that body, then the highest posi- 
tion in the nation, and he was again appointed to the position in 17#0. In 
1781 he returned to his native State and resumed his seat uj>on the bench 
and in the council. 

In the spring of 17S2 he was once more elected to Congress, but did 
not take his seat until the following year, when, again elected, lie repaired 
to the scat ot government, and served until the November following. 

The appointment of chief justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut 
was then bestowed upon him, and when he had held the office one year he 
was chosen lieutenant-governor. In 1786 he succeeded Governor Griswold 

ft* m!ti*t*A°+y /£ / 

t/torruKj oCyn>c-fi *fas*/^ 

/*y- vb*y^Q.U< Jl j&*H/r 


In the chief magistracy of the State, and to that position was annually 
re-elected until his death at his home in Norwich, January 5, 1796. 


Born in Lebanon, Windham county, Connecticut, April 8, 1731, and 
one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence in behalf of that 
colony, in the Congress of 1770, was of Welsh descent. He was the 
fourth son of the Rev. Solomon Williams, for more than fifty vears pastor 
of the First Congregational Church in the town where William Williams 
was born. His father's father was also a clergyman for many years in 
Hatfield, Hampshire county, Massachusetts colony, and his crreat-grand- 
ither emigrated from Wales to America about 1630, settling in Koxburv, 

In 1747, William Williams entered Harvard, at the age of sixteen, and 
was graduated thence with distinction, class of 1751. On leaving college he 
entered upon a course of theological reading with his father, which he dil- 
igently pursued until 1755, when, for a time, he turned his attention to the 
using of weapons of the flesh, serving through the "French war" on 
the staff of his uncle, Colonel Ephraim Williams. 

This campaign closed, Mr. Williams returned to his native town and 
embarked in a mercantile career, which he successfully- followed until the 
opening of the Revolutionary war. 

In 1756 William Williams was chosen town clerk of Lebanon, and 
from that time— he was then in his twenty-fifth year— until his death at 
the good old age of eighty-one, he was always active in the people's inter- 
ests, and he served those interests with undeViating singleness of purpose, 
sound judgment, and the courage the day ami need demanded. 

A little later he was chosen representative to the Connecticut General 
Assembly, ami for more than ninety sessions of the State legislature he was 
a member of one or the other of its branches, and, except when called to 
perform more important duties on the bench, or in the Continental Con- 
gress, when he^ was a member of that body, he was seldom absent from 
his seat in the State legislature. 

In 1780 he was chosen an associate judge, and for twenty-four successive 
years he was annually re-chosen to that office. For forty years he was 
judge of the County Court for Windham county, and probate judge for 
the district of Windham. 

In October, 1775, the General Assembly appointed him one of Con- 
necticut's representatives to the Congress of the colonics which convened 
in Philadelphia, and the year following he was again a member of that 
august body. 

At the opening of the Revolutionary war, when he had put aside his 
Vrsonal business tor the public good, William Williams had been criven 


ommand of a regiment of militia, and this command, with the title of 
colonel, he retained up to the time he took his seat in Congress, when he 
resumed the command, but the title of Colonel \\ dliama remained lu, cus- 
tomary and favorite honorary appellation, although he was equally entitled 

to that of judge. , ,. . . . . 

Colonel Williams seems to have had a natural disposition towards unpefr 
uousness that not even the rigid discipline of restraint to which as a devout 
believer in the Puritanical creed, he subjected himself, was able to quite 

subdue. , ■ . i tt vsrmi 

On one occasion, while entertaining in Ins own house the Hon. William 
Hillhou^e and Judge Benjamin Huntington, the conversation turned upon 
the probable future of the colonies, and the fate of prominent colonists 
should the Revolution be subdued by force of arms on the part ot the 
English government. This was during the darkest days of the war, some 
time after the Declaration had been passed, and Colonel Williams spoke 
of bein^ comfortably certain of hanging, should the war end in the defeat 
of the Continental army, as he was one of the signers of the Declaration, 
an act he knew England would never pardon. 

Judge Huntington opined that as he had not put his name to that instru- 
ment nor ever written anything against the British, he was reasonably safe. 

Forgetting the good the Judge had done, and the laws of hospitality as 
well, Colonel Williams sprang to his feet, and emphatically exclaimed : 

"Then sir, you ought to be hanged for not doing your duty. 

Colonel Williams' wife was Mary, second daughter of Governor 
Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, and they were the parents of three 
children: Solomon, Faith and William Trumbull Williams. 

The sudden death of the oldest son. in October, 1810, greatly affected 
Colonel Williams, then 80 years of age, and he never rallied from the 
shock, dying the following summer, August 2, 1811. 


Was a descendant of Henrv Wolcott. who came from Somersetshire, 
England, and founded the town of Windsor, Connecticut, in 1636. Henry 
Wolcott was elected the first magistrate among the people who gathered 
in his little colony, and continued to his death to exercise the prerogatives 
of that office. His eldest son, Henrv, succeeded him in office, but his 
youngest son, Simon, who was the grandfather of Oliver Wolcott, was 
also a man whose statesmanship was held in high esteem, and whose advice 
was much cmueht in public matters. He died in 1687, leaving a large 
family of children, of whom the youngest son was Roger, born at W indsor, 
Jnuuarv 4. Itl7i». . . 

Thin 'am, the father of Oliver Wolcott, rose to the lughest civil and 
military honors within the gilt of the people of Connecticut. During 
the French war he was commander-in-chief of the Connecticut forces, and 


when they were joined with those of the other colonies, and Colonel 
Peperell vested with the command, Roger Wolcott was second in com- 
mand, with rank as major-general. 

He was at that time lieutenant-governor of the colony, and after that 
served as member of the Assembly, judge of the county court, chiex 
judge of the Superior Court, and governor from 1751 to 1754. He died 
May 17, 1767, in his 89th year. 

From such illustrious ancestry was Oliver Wolcott born, and he, in 
turn, was his father's youngest son. His birth was in Windsor, Novem- 
ber 26, 1726. At an early age he entered Yale College, and was grad- 
uated with distinction at the age of 21. 

In the same year, 1747, he was commissioned captain in the army, but 
the regiment disbanded with the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. and he returned 
to his native province, where, for a time, he pursued the study of medi- 
cine with his brother, Dr. Alexander Wolcott, a distinguished practitioner 
of that day. 

In 1751 the county of Litchfield was organized, and he was appointed 
its first sheriff*. His next public appointment appears to have been in 
1774, when he was made councilor, a position to which, whatever were 
bis other duties, he was annually re-elected until 17H6. 

During these years, he was also hief judge of the county court of com- 
mon pleas, and judge of probate court for Litchfield county. He was 
also an officer in the militia in every rank from captain to major-general. 

On all questions which agitated the public mind preliminary to the Rev- 
olutionary war, Oliver Wolcott was a firm advocate of the rights of the 
colonists, and he was one of the commission appointed by Congress to 
endeavor to induce the Indians to remain neutral during that war. 

In January, 1776, he took his seat as one of Connecticut's representa- 
tives in the Continental Congress, and remained until the Declaration had 
been adopted and signed. 

August 15, 177B, Governor Trumbull appointed him to the command of 
fourteen regiments of the Connecticut militia, and he was ordered with 
his troops to the defense of New York. 

In November, 17/6, he resumed his seat in Congress, and spent the 
winter of 1776-77 as a member of that body during its memorable session 
in the city of Baltimore. 

The following summer he devoted to his military duties, constantly 
superintending movements of the militia, and conducting military cor- 
respondence, and again, in February, 1778, attended the session of Con- 
gress, then convened at Yorktown. 

He remained in attendance at this Congress until July, 1779, when, 
Connecticut being threatened with an invasion of the British troops, he 
took the field at the head of a division of militia, to defend her sea-coast. 
v 17Hl-s:>, he was again a representative in Congress; 17^4—85, he was 

I UtiiAmu 


one of the commiasionera of Indian affairs; in 1786, he was elected lieu- 
tenant-governor, and to this office was annually re-elected until 1796, 
when he was chosen governor, which office he held until his death. 

In 1755, Laura Collins, of Guilford, Connecticut, became the wife of 
Mr. Wolcott, and thev enjoyed forty years of wedded happiness, her death 
occurring in 1795. She is" described as a model of fortitude, prudence 
and intefligence, who, by her wise management of their small patrimony, 
her exclusive control of their domestic concerns, and superintendence of 
the education of their children, left her husband free to devote his ener- 
gies to the public interests. 

It is likely this may be said of many of the wives of the patriots and 
statesmen whose public record is given in these pages. No illustrious 
matron of Borne, whose name is immortalized on classic pages, was more 
deserving of homage than the plain, practical, but heroic and self-sacri- 
ficing women whom we should remember as the Mothers of the 
Republic, while we are paying tribute to its "fathers." 

Governor Wolcott survived his wife two years, dying December 1, 
1797, at the age of 71. 


Whose name is inscribed upon the Declaration of Independence _as one 
of the Signers on behalf of New York, was born December 17, 1734, in 
Suffolk countv, Long Island, eldest son of Nicoll Floyd, a wealthy farmer. 
*nd grandson of Richard Floyd, who emigrated from Wales, and settled 
at Scadket, on Long Island, about 1680. 

William Flovd received an academic education, and his school-days 
were closed bv the early death of his father, which left him with the 
management of the familv estates. 

He managed his business affairs successfully, and discharged to the 
satisfaction of the people the duties of several minor offices which he was 
chosen to fill. 

The controversev between Great Britain and the colonies early engaged 
his attention, and" his opinions were given utterance with no uncertain 
voice, so that when the New York Assembly chose its first delegates to the 
Continental Congress, his was the first name mentioned, and he was the 
first representative chosen, and he took his seat in that Congress when it 
convened in Philadelphia, in 1774. 

He represented New York in the Congress for three consecutive years, 
1774-76, during which time the momentous steps toward independence 
were discussed and adopted, and after the New York convention, duly V), 
177(5, endorsed the action of Congress in adopting the Declaration ..t 
Independence, the name of William Floyd was the first one affixed to that 
document on behalf of that State. 

In his Congressional work, Mr. Floyd was thorough in detail and prompt 


in execution, and he rendered important services on the numerous eom- 
mittees of which he was a member. Previous to his appointment to Con- 
gress, he had been given the command of the militia of Suffolk county, 
with rank of General, and by that title is usually written of. And when 
in attendance on the Congress of 1774, news reached him of a threatened 
invasion of Long Island by the British, he hastened home, put himself at 
the head of Ins .troops and marched to the scene of danger. The prompt* 
ness with which he carried out this movement, disconcerted the British 
commander, and he abandoned the enterprise. 

About two years later, however, while General Floyd was in attendance 
at Congress, the British did effect a landing on the Island, which the 
colonial forces were obliged to evacuate, ami General Floyd's fine planta- 
tion, well wooded and stocked with an abundance of fine fruit trees, hi* 
splendid mansion, and the stock on his farm, fell into the hands of his 
vindictive foes, who did not fail to remember their debt of hate. His 
family were exiled, his produce and stock seized, and his house made the 
rendezvous for a troop of British horse, and it was seven years before he 
regained possession of any part of his ancestral lands. All of which he 
accepted with philosophy,. as "the fortunes of war," and without abating 
his ardor for and attention to the public needs of the day. 

After the Declaration had been accepted by New York, a convention 
was called to form a constitution for the government of tliat State as an 
independent sovereignty, and General Floyd was elected to the Senate in 
the first legislative body which convened under the new constitution. 

Two months before his term of service as State Senator expired, he was 
again elected a delegate to Congress, and he took his seat in January, 177U, 
where he served until the June following, when his presence was again 
required in the State Legislature. 

The paper currency of the country had become so greatly depreciated, 
that, in the words of a forcible, if not accurate, writer of the time, "it 
took thirteen hundred dollars to buy a pair of second-hand boots." The 
financial condition of the young Republic, was indeed alarming, and called 
for immediate and wise action. And in Xew York the difficult subject 
was referred to a joint-committee of the two houses, of which committee 
General Floyd was one of the members from the Senate. 

He reported to the Senate, in September, 177!*, and his report embodied 
sound financial principles, and such a suggestion of a course of action as 
soon produced a beneficial change. 

General Floyd now passed his time in active service, either in Congress, 
or in the Senate chamber of New York, for a period of twenty years. 
Although often warned by increasing ill health that he should refrain from 
active duty, and often endeavoring to disassociate himself from public 
affairs, the demand of the people upon his energies was incessant, and never 
refused. It was during this time that Congress appointed him upon two 


if the most important boards then existing in the country, the treasury 
and the admiralty. 

In 1800, he was appointed an elector of president and vice-president or 
the United States, and he continued a presidential elector for New York 
up to and including the year 1*20. 

In 1801 he was a 'member of the convention which was called to revise 
the constitution of New York. In 1803. he removed his residence to a 
tract of land on the Mohawk river, which he had purchased in l/"8i, and, 
at the age of 69, began to build a new house, and found a new settlement 
in the wilderness. 

Notwithstanalng the continued demand of the public upon his time, 
and his increasing physical infirmities, he lived to see the beginning of 
the end of his plans, dying August 4, 1821, at the age of 87. 


Robert Livingston, who was of Scotch birth, but whose father, John 
Livingston, was a clergyman settled in Rotterdam, emigrated from 
Rotterdam to America about 1680. He obtained a grant of the manor of 
Livingston, in the colony of New Y'ork, which at his death he left to his 
oldest son, Philip. This son gave to his fourth son, the subject of this 
sketch, his own name, Philip. 

This Philip Livingston was born in Albany, New York, January 15, 
1716. He received such preparatory education as his native colony 
afforded, and entered Yale college to complete his studies, and was gradu- 
ated from that institution with honor in 1737. 

He then established himself in the mercantile business in New York 
City, and was highly successful in all his commercial pursuits. 

His political life began in 1754, when he was elected an alderman of 
the east ward of the city, and to that office he was annually re-elected 
nine consecutive years. At that time New York City contained less than 
11,000 inhabitants, and the whole colony of New York did not number 
100,000 in population. 

January 31, 17.")!), Philip Livingston took his seat as a member of the 
New York Assembly, and we find his vote recorded in the journal of that 
year as that of alderman Philip Livingston, to distinguish him from 
another of the same name. In this body, Mr. Livingston for several years 
represented the Whig element among the colonists, which grew so strong 
that in October, 17(58, Mr. Livingston was made speaker of the Assembly 
by twenty votes, when the House consisted, if all were present, of only 
twenty-seven members. 

In 1774, Philip Livingston was oppointed delegate to the first Congress, 
and during that session was one of the committee to draw a petition ti> 
the people of Great Britain. Tins Congress adjourned in October, 1774. 
to meet in the May following, when Mr. Livingston again represented 

fpji HfJlAsUU 


New York, as he did in the Congress of 1776, when the Independence of 
the thirteen States was declared, to which declaration he affixed his signa- 

July 15, 177G, Philip Livingston was appointed a member of the 
treasury board; in April, 1777, he was made one of the marine com- 
mittee; and when New York had adopted its first State Constitution, he 
was chosen to its first senate. The first business of this senate, at its first 
meeting, September 10, 1777, was to appoint delegates to the Congress, 
and by that appointment Mr. Livingston again took his seat in Congress. 
October 2, 1777. His coadjutors from New York were: James 
Duane, Francis Lewis, William Duer, and Governeur Morris. 

In 1778, Philip Livingston found himself with broken health, and only 
the gloom and despondency of the people, then seeing the darkest days of 
their desperate struggle, could have prevailed upon him to continue in 
public. Moved by the situation, Mr. Livingston consented once more to 
repair to the seat of government, but on taking his departure from bis 
family, he took, as he well knew, his final farewell of them. 

He repaired to Congress in May, 1778, and in less than a month, on 
the 12th of June, he died at his post of duty. 


Was born in Landaff, Wales, in 1713, the only son of an Episcopal cler- 
gyman of that town. He lost both his parents by death when he was 
between four and five years of age, and for his early training and educa- 
tion he was indebted to an unmarried sister of his mother. 

When too old for her charge he was taken to London by an uncle who 
was dean of St. Paid's, and in his care received a classical education in 
the famed Westminster school. He then served as clerk with a London 
merchant, qualifying himself for a mercantile career. 

Coming into possession of some means at the age of twenty-one, he 
invested in merchandise, and left England for New York, where he set- 
tled in business, entering largely into foreign commerce. In the interests 
of his business he visited nearly all the European ports then open to 
American shipping. 

In the French war he took an active part, was captured while serving 
as a volunteer aid at Fort Oswego, taken to Canada, and then sent as a 
prisoner to France. He was exchanged after a time, and at the close of 
the war received from the English government 5,000 acres of land as 
compensation for his losses and recompense for his military services. 
After Pitt became minister in England, and the encroachments upon the 
colonists began Francis Lewis identified himself with the interests of the 
people among whom ne had chosen to live, and at their solicitation entered 
upon a public lite. 


In 17(55, he was a delegate for New York to the Congress in New York 
City, where measures were taken to antagonize the enforcement of 
the" stamp act, and when that odious measure was put into operation, Mr. 
Lewis retired from business rather than to conform to the law. 

April 22, 1775, he was appointed delegate from New York to the Con- 
tinental Congress, and again in the following year. 

When the representatives of New York met in May, 1777, at Kings- 
ton, a vote of thanks was tendered Francis Lewis for his services in behalf 
of the interests of the colony and State of New York, and in the Octo- 
ber following he was again chosen congressional delegate. A year later 
this honor was bestowed upon him for the fourth and last time. Return- 
ing from Congress he was appointed a member of the board of admiralty. 

During the long conflict of the colonists with Great Britain, Francis 
Lewis was called upon to sacrifice much in the maintenance of his convic 
tions. His lands were wasted, his property destroyed, his commerce bro- 
ken up, and — the greatest affliction of all— the wife whom he devotedly 
loved, was made prisoner by the British troops, and kept a close prisoner 
for months, without bed or proper change of clothing. She was rinally 
exchanged through the special interposition of General Washington, but 
with health so shattered that she did not long survive. 

She became the wife of Francis Lewis about 1737, and was Elizabeth 
Anneslev, sister of his partner during his mercantile business. She bore 
him seven children, three of whom lived to maturity, and were the pro- 
genitors of some of the most noted families of New York. 

In December, 1802, Francis Lewis, then in his 90th year, having hon- 
orably discharged all the obligations of a long and busy life, paid the debt 
of nature, and departed to his reward. 


Among those who served the cause of the colonists from^motives of pure 
patriotism, the name of Lewis Morris stands eminent. With large landed 
estates to be confiscated, with ties of relationship and friendship to be 
broken, with much to venture and perhaps all to lose, he was one of the 
Hrst of those far-sighted patriots who looked beyond the alternate aggres- 
sions and attempts at conciliation on the part of the British parliament, 
beyond the efforts of the colonists to retard the march of events, and 
calmly decided : " We must fight." 

Lewis Morris was born in 1720, at Morrisiana, in the colony of New 
York, and. as tlw - 1 u -t son, on his father's death, became the proprietoi 
of the manorial estate bearing As family name. 

lie was graduated from Yale at the age of twenty, and turned his atten- 
tion at once to the improvement of his land, which was the favorite occu- 
pation of al 1 his after life, and which he left only at the imperative cai> 
of duty. 


194 Presidents, soldiers, statesmen. 

In April, 1775, he was chosen one of the representatives of New York in 
the Continental Congress, and took his seat in May following, serving 
through that session and the succeeding one, and so participating in the 
debates which ended in the Declaration of Independence, and to that doc- 
ument he set his name in August, 1776. 

After remaining in Congress through the session of 1777, Lewis Morris 
•was succeeded by his brother, Governeur Morris, while he turned his 
attention to the service of his State in the legislature and on the field, 
where he commanded a body of militia, his rank being that of major-generaL 

The determination of character with which General Morris faced the 
situation at the beginning of the colonial troubles, and said : " We must 
fight," now again brought him to the front, where, in the days of doubt 
and disaster, his unvarying word was: "We must conquer." 

His three oldest sous took up arms and entered upon the dangers of mil- 
itary life ; his beautiful home and farm were laid waste; his cattle con- 
fiscated; his "forest of a thousand acres" despoiled ; his family driven 
into exile. With the courage of his convictions he only altered the form 
of his adjuration, for now he said: "We shall conquer." 

When peace had crowned his prophecy with fulfillment, he returned to 
his farm and spent the remainder of his days in the restoration of its 
beauties. Here he died, in January, 1798, and was laid to rest in the 
family vault, within the limits of his loved MorrLsiana. 


Was born in Princeton, Somerset county, New Jersey, October 1, 1730. 
He was the oldest son of John Stockton, a large landed proprietor, and 
on his father's death, in 1 757, he inherited the larger part of the family estates. 

Richard Stockton was graduated from New Jersey College, Newark, 
in 1748, and at once began to read law. He was admitted to the bar in 
1754, and in 1758 received the grade of counsellor-at-law. In 1763 he 
received the degree of sergeant-at-law, a distinction first established in 
English courts, and for some time observed among the American colonists. 
At this time Richard Stockton was the fir-t lawyer in New Jersey, but, 
not satisfied with his own acquirements, he turned from the employment 
that sought him, and in June, 1766, embarked from New York for Lon- 
don, and spent more, than a year in observing the operation of the courts 
in the three kingdoms of Great Britain. 

When he returned to America, in September, 1767, he brought with 
him not only the knowledge pained by observing the laws, but a settled 
conviction, founded upon his observation of the evils resulting from the 
subjugation of Ireland to England that no country could be prosperous 
while sustaining a colonial relation to Great Britain. 

In 1768 his public life began, he in that year receiving a seat in the 





" Supreme Roval Legislative, Judiciary and Executive Council of the pro- 
vince of New Jersey." In 1774 he was appointed judge of the Supreme 

Court. . 

in June, 1770, he was elected to the Congress then convened in rhil- 
arlelphia, and during that session he signed his name to the Declaration of 

In September, 1776, under the new constitution of New Jersey, 
Richard Stockton and William Livingston were competitors for the 
office of governor. On counting the ballots it was found the vote 
was a tie, and the friends of Mr. Stockton, at his request, concurred in 
the election of Mr. Livingston. 

By a unanimous vote Richard Stockton was immediately chosen chief 
justice of the State, but he declined the office. The next month he was 
returned to Congress. , 

Here he served until duty called him home. A detachment of British 
troops were making a triumphant march through New Jersey, and as no 
opportunity was foregone, on the part of the British, to punish those who 
had signed their names to the Declaration, Mr. Stockton was alarmed for 
his family, and the event proved his alarm well founded. 

His family were indeed unharmed, owing to his forethought and prompt 
action in removing them into Monmouth county, but he himself was cap- 
tured while spending the night at the house of a friend, about thirty miles 
from his own residence. 

His friend, a Mr. Covenhoven, and himself were dragged from their 
beds, subjected to great indignities, robbed and maltreated, and then sent 
to New York. He was first taken to Amboy, where, in the midst of win- 
ter weather, partly clothed, and subdued by harsh treatment, he was thrust 
into a common jail. Thence he was taken to New York City, and 
endured like treatment, being denied even the necessities of life, whenever 
the caprice to so conduct themselves seized his jailors. At one* time he 
was twenty-four hours without food. 

His condition engaged the attention of Congress, and General Howe 
was notified that unless a different course was pursued toward Mr. Stock- 
ton, he must look for practical retaliation. 

While in captivity, the blow Mr. Stockton anticipated fell upon his 
beautiful home, and" when he was released it was to find that the "for- 
tunes of war " had left him fortuneless. 

He never recovered either his health or his material resources. A can- 
cer upon the neck further exhausted his strength, and he died on the 28th 
of February, 1781. 


Wliose name is enrolled among the signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, was born in Yester, near Edinburg, Scotland, February •> 


1722. He was a direct descendant of John Knox, the leader of 
the Reformation in Scotland. He attended school at Haddington until, 
at fourteen years of age, he entered the Edinburg University. 

He took the theological course of training at the University, and left it, 
at the age of twenty-one, a licentiate preacher of the gospel. He settled 
in Beith, in the west of Scotland, and there labored several yean, when 
he was transferred to the manufacturing town of Paisley. "While minis- 
tering to the people of that town he received an offer of the Presidency 
of Princeton College in the colony of New Jersey, and a visit from 
Richard Stockton about that time induced him to accept the honor. 

In August, 1768, accompanied by his family, Doctor Witherspoon 
arrived at Princeton, and on the 17th day of August the^ board of trus- 
tees, with due ceremonv, inaugurated him President of Princeton College. 
He devoted his entire energies, talent and knowledge to the building up 
of this University, and an era of prosperity dawned upon it under his 
care. But undej: the incursions of British troops in 1776, the college 
was temporarily broken up, and then Doctor Witherspoon did not hesi- 
tate to give his services to his adopted country. 

In that year he assisted in framing the constitution for the government 
of New Jersev as a State, and also sat as one of the New Jersey delegates 
in the Continental Congress, there signing the Declaration of Independence. 
How gladly he appended his name to that document may be inferred 
from his caus"tic answer to a member of Congress who was objecting to its 
passage on the ground that the people were "not ripe for a Declaration of 

"In my judgment, sir," observed Doctor Witherspoon, "we are not 
only ripe, but rotting." 

Doctor Witherspoon continued to represent New Jersey in Congress 
- from 1776 to 1782, with the exception of the year 1780, seldom permit- 
ting any circumstance to cause his absence for a single day, and exercis- 
ing his sound judgment and scholarly gifts on many committees of great 
importance. He was also during this time a member of the board of war 
and of finance. 

In 1783, soon after peace was declared with England, Doctor Wither- 
spoon, against his own judgment, was induced to visit England in an 
endeavor to raise funds to re-establish Princeton College. He was absent 
six months, and, as he predicted, returned unsuccessful. 

Through all his busy life. Doctor Witherspoon never neglected what bo 
considered his first duty, to "preach the gospel to all men." His manner 
in the pulpit was solemn and deeply impressive; his speech that of an 
ambassador of the Highest; his doctrine severely orthodox. His sermons, 
in many volumes, have been published, and he is the auther of nianv 
ecclesiastical works. 

Bodily infirmities at length betokened the presence of old age. Fat 


two years before lie censed preaching, Doctor Witherspoon was totally 
blind, and under accumulated weakness his general health gave way. 

He met death as he had mastered life, with a grave, sweet wisdom, and 
welcomed serenely his release. from the bonds of mortality, November 15, 


The incident.- of the public life of Francis Hopkinson are few. In 
1776 he was one of the representatives of New Jersey in Congress, and 
eo became one of the signers of the Declaration. He discharged with 
fidelity for some years the duties of loan otiicer, and he was appointed by 
Congress judge of admiralty for Pennsylvania, which office he ably filled 
until, in 1790, he received from President Washington the appointment 
of district judge in the same State. 

The influence of Francis Hopkinson upon his time was principally felt 
through his political satires, which were considered, in their day, to have 
been very brilliant. Some of them have passed away as entirely as the 
occasions which evoked them, but of others enough remain to give 
the student of to-day a curious glimpse of the taste in literature on the 
eighteenth century. "The Battle of the Kegs," and an "Essay of the 
Properties of a Salt Box," are the titles of two of these works. 

Francis Hopkinson was born in Philadelphia, in 17o7, a son of Thomas 
Hopkinson. His mother, whose maiden name was Johnson, was a niece 
of the Bishop of Worcester. Thomas Hopkinson died when Francis was 
fourteen years of age, but his mother continued to oversee his education 
with great wisdom. He was a graduate of the first class from the CoL 
lege of Philadelphia, read law, was admitted to the bar, spent two years 
visiting English relatives, and, on his return to America, in 1768, was 
united in wedlock with Ann Borden, of Bordentown, New Jersey. At 
his death, May 9, 1791, he left seven children to mourn with her the loss 
of a kind father and loving companion. 


Known among his coadjutors by the honorable appellation of "Honest 
John Hart," was born in New Jersey about the year 1715. and was, 
therefore, over sixty years of age, and one of the oldest members present, 
when the Congress of 1776 adopted the Declaration of Independence. 

He was born the son of a New Jersey farmer, received only the limited 
school education of his day, and, marrying early in life, settled on a farm 
of his own in Hopewell township. Here he devoted his time to the culti- 
vation of the soil and the rearing of a large family of children. The 
only public office ever held by him previous to his appointment as a del^ 
gate to Congress, was that of a justice of the peace. 


c/fl< jA^t — . 


The duties of this office he discharged in Hopewell township for mure 
than a decade of years, so wisely and so fairly, that the distinction which 
has descended to us as the appellation of Aristides, was voluntarily 
bestowed upon him by all who had occasion to avail themselves of hi3 

"Just and honest," therefore, in the time tl*at "tried men's souls" he 
was naturally confided in by his associates to represent their interest-. 

He was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress in July, 1774, 
and represented New Jersey in that body until after the Declaration of 
Independence had been given to the world, with his name as one of its 

In the year 1776, New Jersey became the battle ground of the Conti- 
nental and British armies, and the happy pastoral life of the family of 
John Hart was rudely broken in upon by the marauding Hessian hirelings 
who were the disgrace of His Majesty's troops. 

His family fled from their home and his farm was laid waste, its build- 
ings destroyed. John Hart himself, an old, grey-haired man, wandered, a 
hunted fugitive, from cottage to cottage, never daring for a number of 
months to stay for two successive nights in the same place, lest he should 
be captured and vengeance taken on those whose kindness was bestowed 
on him. During this time the wife who had shared his years of happi- 
ness sank under the disasters which had overtaken them, and died ; and 
the infirmities of age, together with illness resultant from the exposures to 
which he was subjected, began to press heavily upon him. 

When the terrible winter of 1776 had set in, we may picture this old 
man wandering, another King Lear, apostrophising the winter winds, his 
only listener; and that the picture may not want the outlines that shall 
bring it in relief, we give the description of his appearance in his earlier 
and happier life : 

In personal appearance he was decidedly prepossessing — handsome. 
His height was five feet ten inches; his form straight and well propor- 
tioned ; his hair very black, his eyes blue, and his complexion dark. His 
smile was irresistible. 

In December, 1776, Washington drove the Hessians from New Jersey, 
and John Hart returned to his home and entered upon the work of its 
restoration. This lie did not live to accomplish, nor did he see the suc- 
cessful ending of the conflict to which he had sacrificed so much, his death 
occurring in 1780. 


Was born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, February 15, 1726, and was 
descended from a family of that name who were among the earliest settlers of 
New Jersey. The land upon which they settled descended through three 
generations to the subject of this sketch, who was an only child. 


Upon reaching manhood, having received an academical education, 
Abraham Clark employed himself in the business of surveyor and con- 
veyancer. In this connection he acquired so great a knowledge of the 

law, which knowledge was so freely imparted to any neighbor seeking his 
advice, that it procured him the title of "the poor man's counsellor/ 

Under the colonial government, Mr. Clark held the offices of sheriff of 
Essex county, and clerk of the General Assembly. But when the spirit 
of opposition began to awaken the colonists he omitted no opportunity to 
increase it, and was early considered an "incorrigible rebel" by the repre- 
sentatives of the royal government and their tory adherents. 

In 1776, Abraham Clark was one of the four representatives of New 
Jersey in the general Congress, and was annually returned to that body 
until 1788, with the exception of one term when personal affairs engrossed 
his attention. . 

After peace was declared in 1783, he served in the State Legislature ot 
New Jersey, where he maintained a leading influence until, in 1788, he was 
again returned to Congress, taking his seat in the second Congress under 
ihe Federal Government. To this office he was annually re-elected, 
serving until the adjournment of the Congress of 1794, in June of that 

In the earlv autumn of 1794, Mr. Clark received a sunstroke from which 
be died after only two hours' illness, in his 69th vear. His tomb is still 
pointed out in an ancient grave yard at Railway, New Jersey. 


The great financier of the Revolution, and one of the most ardent support- 
ers ot the rights of the colonists, was a native of England, born in Lan- 
cashire, in January, 1733. While he was a child his father, who had 
been engaged in the mercantile business in Liverpool, came to the New 
World, and established himself in Oxford, on the eastern coast of Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

Whtn Robert Morris was thirteen years old, his father sent for him to 
come to America, and on his arrival placed him in a school in Philadel- 
phia. This school appears to have been a poor one, even for those days 
of limited educational facilities, since, at the age of fourteen, young 
Morris complained of his teacher: "1 have learned all that he knows." 

At the age of fifteen Robert Morris was left an orphan, and he entered 
the counting-room ot Charles Willing, one of the tiist merchants of Phil- 
adelphia, where he remained until, in 17C>4, he entered into a partnership 
with Thomas Willing, and began what promised to be a successful busi- 
ness career for himself. 

It' he entertained that hope, it was to be speedily ended by the war 
against Great Britain, and the stand he was called upon bv his sense 0. 


light to take in that struggle. The following is a description of the hou* 
of his decision : 

"It was at a scene of conviviality when he, with a number of gentle- 
men, was celebrating the anniversary of St. George's day, that the infor- 
mation of the Lexington battle arrived, and was communicated to the 
members of St. George's society. From a scene of cheerful festivity, the 
change was instantaneous and universal. An electrical shock could 
hardly have been more sudden. The company left the board instantly. 
* * * It was there in that hall, that Robert Morris, Richard Peters, 
and their associates, vowed an irrevocable determination to support revo- 
lutionary measures, and promote, by every means, the liberty of the 
American colonies. The decision then made, he adhered to. * * * 
When others trembled with apprehension he stood firm, and his cheerful- 
ness never forsook him." 

November 3, 1775, the legislature of Pennsylvania appointed Robert 
Morris delegate to the second Continental Congress, where he served on 
many important committees, and his ability to manage financial matters 
was conspicuous. In July, 1776, fourteen days after the Declaration 
of Independence had passed, he was again returned from Philadel- 
phia to Congress, and on taking his seat in that body the second time, 
he appended his name to the Declaration. 

When Congress, fleeing before the approach of the enemy, retired to 
Baltimore, Morris was left in Philadelphia, one of a committee with almost 
unlimited powers to act for the people. Again and again, with this power 
and his own high record for ability and personal integrity, Mr. Morris was 
able to lighten the financial depression upon the young States, and furnish 
money and munitions for the continuance of the struggle. 

He was returned to the Congress of 1777, and pursued the same list 
of action with like good results to the people served. 

In 1780 Robert Morris, with other patriotic citizens, instituted the Bank 
of Philadelphia. In 1781, the life of no man in America was of so much 
value to its people as the life of Robert Morris. In that year he assumed 
the superintendence of the finances of the United States. The public 
accounts were in a state of utmost disorder ; the public debt was enormous ; 
the military stores were exhausted ; the credit of the government pros 

To bring order out of chaos, to replace gloomy forebodings with confi 
dence in the nation, to give value to the depreciated currency, was his 
undertaking, and his success is one of the brightest pages of American 
history. Yet this great work was accomplished by one simple principle 
of conduct, which he was enabled to embody in a single sentence, as 
expressed by him before a committee of Congress : 

"To raise the public revenue by such modes as may be most easy and 
equal to the people, and to expend them in the most frugal, fair and 
upright manner.'' 






In contemplating the success at arms by which independence was 
attained, the more prosaic details of such work as that of Robert Morria 
are often overlooked; but it is certain that without the exercise of thai 
financial talent which he devoted to Ids country's service, the military 
ability of Washington, and the patriotism of the army he commanded, 
could never have achieved the independence of these United States. 

After the close of the war, Mr. Morris represented Philadelphia in the 
Pennsylvania legislature, and he was a member of the committee which 
prepared the Federal constitution. Upon its adoption he was chosen a 
member of the first Senate of the United .States for Pennsylvania. 

In 1769 Mr. Morris was united in marriage with Mary White, who was 
of a distinguished family, and a sister of Bishop White, of Pennsylva- 
nia. Many American families to-day trace, with pride, their ancestral 
line back to this marriage. 

Worn down by vears of public labor, the life of Robert Morris wa9 
ended on the 8th'of May, 18<>6. 


The great-grandfather of Benjamin Rush was an officer in the army of 
Oliver Cromwell, who, on the death of his leader, emigrated to the colony 
of Pennsylvania about the time of its settlement under William Penn. 

Benjamin Rush was born in Berberry, about twelve miles from Phila- 
delphia, December 24. 1745. His father died when he was six years old, 
and his mother, determined to give him an education beyond the means 
afforded by the income from their small farm, removed to Philadelphia, 
and entered upon a commercial life in a small way. By economy the 
fruits of her business accomplished her design, her son entered Princeton 
College, and from that college took his degree in 1766. He then began the 
study of medicine and his success as an eminent practitioner and as an 
instructor in medicine justify his choice of a career. It is, however, with 
his political life we shall deal in this brief sketch. 

As soon as he reached manhood, Dr. Rush began his record as a lover 
of liberty by using his pen in the defense of the colonists against the royal 
government. His style of writing was easy and pleasant. "and he clothed 
his thoughts with his own clearness of perception so that the minds of the 
people did not fail to receive the force of his arguments and to comprehend 
the justness of his conclusions. 

He was appointed to Congress in 1776, although not until after the 
Declaration of Independence had passed upon record. But as his prede- 
cessor in Congress had withdrawn without signing, Dr. Rush had the 
honor of appending his signature to that document. 

In 1777 he received from Congress the appointment to the office ct 
physician-general of the military hospitals for the middle department 


"When the Federal Constitution was submitted to the .States fur their 
consideration, Dr. Rush was a member of the Pennsylvania convention by 
which it was adopted for that State. 

After that he retired from political life, the only office which he filled 
being that of president of the mint, which he held for the term of fourteen 

His long and benevolent professional career, and especially his heroic 
stand in refusing to leave Philadelphia when that city was stricken with 
yellow, fever in 1793, had greatly endeared him to the people. 80 that 
when, in his sixty-eighth year, "he was stricken with an illness which 
terminated fatally* April 19, 1813, his house was thronged with sorrowing 
people, rich and poor, who mourned his death as though he had been to 
each one a loving father. 


The circumstances of the early career of this eminent philosopher and 
statesman are well known to all readers of general history. His early 
apprenticeship in Boston to the printing trade ; his journey on foot from 
New York to Philadelphia ; his arrival in that city on a Sabbath morning, 
and his picturesque appearance on the streets of the Quaker City, with a 
roll of bread under each arm, and his whole wardrobe upon his back, or 
conveyed in the handkerchief he carried in one hand. 

He Was then about seventeen years old, having been born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 17, 1706. He worked some months at his trade in 
one of the two printing establishments then existing in Philadelphia, vis- 
ited England, and under the patronage of Sir "William Keith, governor 
of the province of Pennsylvania, there attempted some independent pub- 
lication, in which he failed ; he then worked at the trade in London until 
he had acquired the means to return home, having been eighteen months 

Soon after his return, in company with another journeyman printer, 
Franklin set up the establishment from which were issued, for a number of 
years, his voluminous writings. Among these writings was the "Poor 
Richard's Almanac," which he began in 1732, and published annually 
until 1757. This almanac was a remarkable production for the time, and 
was very popular. From the series are culled the many sayings of "'Poor 
Richard," which, to this day, are quoted to show the proverbial wisdom of 

In 1729, Franklin published a pamphlet on the nature and necessity of 
paper currency, and a little later began the publication of a newspaper, 
and by these means was brought before the public as a thinker upon the 
political questions of the day. He also received the public printing or 
the province. 


In 1736 he was made clerk of the General Assembly, and in the fol- 
lowing year was made postmaster of Philadelphia. lie now engaged in 
several schemes for the public good ; organized tire companies, reformed 
the city watch, devised and procurer 1 means for paving and lighting the 
city streets ; founded the "American Philosophical Society," the "Phila- 
delphia University," and the " Pennsylvania Hospital f established the 
militia of the province, and founded the "General Magazine." All of 
these labors were accomplished between 1730 and 1742. 

In 1742 he invented the well known stove which bears his name, which 
was then far in advance of the age, as it continued for many years to be. 
From this invention he received no profit, giving it to the public. 

During this time he had been appointed a justice of the peace, ond an 
alderman of the city, and chosen member of the common council. In 
1744 he wad elected to the Provincial legislature, to which position he was 
annually re-elected for ten years. 

In 1747 his attention was called to electricity, by some experiments he 
saw tried in Boston, and of his discoveries and their practical results in 
regard to this before uncertain fluid, the world is well informed. 

In 1758 he was one of a committee who concluded a treaty for the gov- 
ernment with the Indians at Carlisle. In 1759 he was appointed deputy 
postmaster-general, and under his control the government, for the first 
time, realized a revenue from that source. After this he was five years 
absent on a colonial embassy to England, during which time he also "is- 
ited Scotland. Returning to America, he spent some time in "■-arious 
public affairs, and in November, 1764, for the third time embarked for 
England. In the following year he visited Holland, Germany and 
France, and in the last named country was presented to Louis XY., and 
entertained at the French court. 

Notwithstanding his want of school training, and the multiplicity of the 
duties of his daily life. Franklin had found time to acquire, without a 
teacher, a knowledge of the Latin, French, Italian and Spanish languages, 
and this knowledge was now of practical benefit. Everywhere his fame 
had preceded him, and the interests of the colonies were advanced by his 
distinguished appearance and high scholarship. 

The odious "Stamp Act" had been passed in 1764, and on the 3d of 
February, 1766, Franklin appeared by summons before the House of 
Commons, and in answer to interrogatories there propounded, he plainly, 
logically and unequivocally set forth the rights, interests and feelings of 
the American colonists upon the question of taxation. 

Franklin's sojourn in England was of lengthened duration, and having 
the best interests of the colonies at heart, and being in constant corres- 
pondence with the leading men among the colonists, he was able to be of 
great service there. But in May, 1775, finding himself marked out for 
ministerial vengeance, he sailed for home. Immediately upon his return 
he was elected to a seat in the General Congress, and "by that Congre* 

• • . '■'■•■' 

^^5^%1 4 



was appointed general postmaster. In 177H, as a member of Congress, 

he was zealous tor the passage of an act of separation, served on the com- 
mittee which reported the Declaration of Independence, and on its adop- 
tion was one of its signers. 

In 177(5, Congress appointed him commissioner to the court of France, 
and he sailed in October of that year. Arrived at Paris, he found his 
embassy not unfavorably received, nor yet openly accepted, and it was 
not until after the capture of Burgoyne's army, in 1777, that a treaty was 
effected, and the American ambassador openly recognized. 

Although now 72 years of age, the services of Dr. Franklin in behalf 
of the United States were arduous and of the utmost importance. In 
addition, to his duties as minister to France, he was consul, judge of admi- 
ralty, and superintendent of shipment. 

During this time he was sent on an embassy to the Spanish government, 
with whose temporizing he became so impatient that he wrote: "'They 
have taken four years to consider whether they would treat with us ; give 
them forty, and let us mind our own business." 

Having secured and held the treaty with France on behalf of the 
United States until after the victorious peace of 1783, and in the mean- 
time negotiated treaties with Sweden and Prussia. Franklin solicited per- 
mission to return, and end his days among his friends and in his own 
country. He was not relieved, however, until 1785. 

He then spent about a year in arranging affairs, taking leave of the 
king and court, and of the country where he had lived fourteen years, 
and in making a short visit to England. When he set sail for America 
he was in his 80th year. 

For three succeeding years he was president of the Pennsylvania con- 
vention, and in 1787 was a member of the committee which framed the 
Federal constitution. 

He died in Philadelphia, April 17, 1790, and was buried with great 
ceremony, notwithstanding his injunction that his interment should be 
simply conducted. He also by will forbade the erection of any monu- 
mental inscription over his grave. But his name is inscribed in the hearts 
of all who love liberty, ami in every land where that liberty is exercised 
are monuments erected to his honor. A statesman of France has thus 
epitomized his work : " He wrested thunder from heaven and the sceptei 
from tvrants." 


A signer of the Declaration on behalf of Pennsylvania, was born in Ridley 
township, Delaware county, then a part of the province of Pennsylvania. 
in 1724. He was descended from Swedish ancestors who settled ii 
America nearly a century before. 


The early employment of John Morton was surveying new lands and 
the cultivation of his own patrimonial acres. His first official employ- 
ment he received after he had attained the age of 40, being made a justice 
of the peace in 1764. 

He was soon after chosen representative to the General Assembly, and 
re-elected to that position ;or z series of years ; for a number of years he 
was speaker of the Assembly h.: 7/as a delegate to the conventior of 
colonists in 1765, which me'" in ISew York, and in 1766 was appointed 
high sheriff for his county, holding the latter office three years. 

He was one of Pennsylvania's delegates tc the first Continental Congress, 
appointed July 22, 1774, and he continued in that position until after the 
adoption of the Declaration of Independence. He was in these years 
employed on many important committees, and was chairman of th t 
distinguished committee which reported the system of confederation. 

He died in April, 1777, leaving a wife and eight children. He h^J 
been a member of St. James Church, town of Chester, and his remains 
were interred in the cemetery attached to that church. 


The father of George Clymer was born in Bristol, England, and sought 
his fortunes in the ^NeAV World when he attained the years of manhood. 
In Philadelphia he married a Miss Coleman, of excellent colonial family, 
and their son George, the subject of this sketch, was born in Philadelphia, 
in 1739. The death of both parents left George Clymer an orphan at the 
age of seven years. But a maternal uncle, William Coleman, supplied a 
parent's place to him in his childhood, and superintended his educatior 

At the age of 27, George Clymer was united in marriage with Elizabeth 
Meredith, and inheriting much of the property of the uncle to whom he 
was already indebted, he entered upon a commercial partnership with his 
wife's father and her brother, which was continued, after the father's 
death, by the two brothers-in-law, until 1782. 

From the time of the passage of the "Tea Act," Mr. Clymer gave much 
attention to the future of the country, and was outspoken in his denunci- 
ations of the tyrannical course of George III., his Parliament and nis sub- 
servient instruments who enjoyed official patronage in the colonies to the 
detriment of the interests of the colonists. 

In 1776 Pennsylvania was represented in Congress by delegates who 
hesitated to sign so radical a document as the Dechu-ation, as otiered, was 
meant to be. July 20, George Clymer was one of those appointed to 
succeed the?e hesitating statesmen. The Declaration of Independence as 
passed had his unqualified approval, and when he had affixed his signature 
thereto, which he hastened to do as soon as he was qualified, the most 
ardent desire of his i.eart was fulfilled. 

Mr. Clymer served the remainder of the 1776 session of Congress, and 


through the session of 1777, in each year acting on an appointment as one 
of a committee of inspection of the northern army. 

As may be supposed from his outspoken sentiments, he was very obnox- 
ious to the British and the tories, and in 1777, he removed his lamily tor 
safety into Custer county. By domestic traitors their place of retreat was 
betrayed to a band of the enemy who went to the house, and sacked it, 
demolishing the furniture and drinking all they could of his stock of liquor 
and destroying the rest. And when the British troops took possession of 
Philadelphia, one of their first acts was to raze to the ground the house 
pointed out as his. They had, however, fallen upon a house belonging to 
another of the same name as Mr. Clymer, and so his escaped. 

In this year Mr. Clymer was one of a committee who endeavored to 
persuade the Indians to refrain from hostilities, and in 1778, while acting 
on the same mission, Mr. Clymer narrowly escaped death by au Indian's 
tomahawk; again another person, this time a stranger resembling him i.i 
features, meeting the fate revenge had planned for him. 

Iu 1780, Mr. Clymer took his seat in Congress for the third time, and 
from then until the close of 1782 was only two weeks absent from Congress, 
except when on Congressional business. 

In 1782 he was chosen representative to the State Legislature, and 
while a member of that body endeared himself to the humanitarian of 
all ages by a zealous advocacy of a penitentiary system of punishment for 
criminals instead of the sanguinary and barbarous penalties inflicted by 
the then existing code of laws. 

While serving in the State Legislature, Mr. Clymer was appointed to 
the committee which prepared the Constitution, and when it had been 
adopted he served two terms under its provisions in the legislature, 
declining a re-election. 

President Washington then appointed him supervisor of revenue for 
Pennsylvania, and in 1796 he was appointed commissioner to negotiate a 
treaty with the Cherokee and Creek Indians in Georgia. Tins service 
closed the political career of Mr. Clymer, which had extended over twenty 

His life was ended January 23, 1813, at the residence of his son, in 
Morrisville, Berks county, Pennsylvania. 


By far the most eccentric character concerned in the deliberations and 
acts of the Continental Congress of 1776, was James Smith, one of the 
signers of the Declaration on behalf of Pennsylvania. Indeed we may 
safely assume that eccentricity of wit, if not all other forms of lighthead- 
edness, were sternly discountenanced by the large majority of the sturdy 
14 Fathers of the Republic." 




<si<H£*T^ </fusrm,<&ru^ 


James Smith, whose residence in manhood was in York county, Penn- 
sylvania, was a native of Ireland, brought to this country by his father 
while a child, and receiving an academic education in the province of 
Pennsylvania. It is to be regretted that an invincible repugnance to 
telling his age was one form of Mr. Smith's eccentricity, but such was the 
fact. It is believed that not to his dearest friend, not even to the wife 
whom his letters show he dearly loved, didhe ever reveal thedate of his birth. 

Mr. Smith pursued the occupation of surveyor for a few years, and 
was then a successful practitioner of law in York county during the 
remainder of his life, giving to that profession all the time that couid be 
spared from public duties. 

He married Eleanor Amor, of Newcastle, Delaware, and they had a 
large family of children, of whom only one son and one daughter were 
living at the time of the death of Mr. Smith. 

In January, 1775, Mr. Smith was one of three delegates from York 
county to the Pennsylvania convention which met to decide on the action 
of that province in the matter of separation from Great Britain. He was 
largely instrumental in arousing the military spirit in Pennsylvania, and 
received the rank of colonel, with a regiment of militia. 

While a member of a convention called July 15, 1776, in Philadelphia, 
to form a constitution for Pennsylvania, Colonel Smith was appointed one 
of the nine new delegates to Congress, who were in her name to subscribe 
co the Declaration of Independence. Continuing his work with the con- 
vention, he did not take his seat in Congress until the October following, 
»vhen he signed the Declaration. 

During the remainder of that session he threw himself into the work 
>f Congress, acted upon committees, and was a most efficient coadjutor of 
the statesmen who composed that body. But his individuality of char- 
acter prevented his foiling into that gloom which sapped the life of many 
>f them. We transcribe a note sent his wife about the middle of Octo- 
ber, 1776, as showing better than any other than James Smith himself 
:ould do, what he was like. It reads : 

If Mr. Wilson should come through York, give him a flogging. He should 
have been here a week ago. 

This morning I put on the red jacket under my shirt. Yesterday I dined at 
Mr. Morris's, and got wet coming home, and my shoulder got troublesome. But 
by running a hot smoothing iron over it three times, it got better, — this is a new 
and cheap cure. My respects to all friends and neighbors, my love to the children. 

I am your lovin? husband whilst 

Congress Chamber, 11 o'clock. J AS. Smith. 

Colonel Smith continued to occupy his seat in Congress by re-election 
until 1778, when his resignation was accepted. He then served, in the 
vear 1779, in the Pennsylvania legislature. 

After that year he devoted his time to professional engagements and 
■ereonal affairs until his death, which occurred July 11, 1806. 



Among the names which are appended to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence that of George Taylor appears as one of the representatives from 
Pennsylvania. His connection with the national politics is limited to 
the time which elapsed between July 20, 1776, when he took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, and the close of that session. 

He was somewhat longer conspicuous in the local politics of Pennsyl- 
vania, although at an earlier date, serving in the provincial assembly ol 
that province from 1764 until 1775, with the exception of one or two terms. 
He was also one of the "Committee of Safety," of Pennsylvania, and in 
other ways helped to forward the interests of the colonies. 

After independence had been achieved, he appears not to have taken 
further part in public affairs, either in local or general politics. 

George Taylor was a native of Ireland, born in 1716, who sought his 
fortunes in the provinces when but a young man. He entered the service 
of an iron manufacturer, a Mr. Savage, in Durham, Pennsylvania, where 
he mastered the details of that business. Some years later, Mr. Savage 
having died, his widow became the wife of Mr. Taylor, who continued the 

He purchased a considerable tract of land on the Lehigh, in Montgom- 
ery county, and removed his business there, building for his residence a 
spacious stone mansion. It was as a representative of Northampton 
county that he appeared in public life. 

He lived only four years after his service in Congress, which time was 
given to his business concerns, his death occurring February 23, 1781. 


Who was prominently connected with the public affairs of Pennsylvania 
during the period of the Revolution, was born in Scotland, and came to 
this country when about twenty-one years of age. He remained a short 
time in New York, and in 1766 took up his residence in Pennsylvania, 
obtaining employment as teacher in the Philadelphia College and 

His own education had been thorough, so far as an academical course of 
training went, before he left Scotland, and he had further enjoyed the 

Erivilege of a training in rhetoric under the teaching of the celebrated 
>octor Blair himself. He had added to his duties as teacher the study of 
the law, and after two years reading entered upon the practice of that 
profession. He first established himself in Carlisle, then in Reading, and 
from Reading went to Annapolis, Maryland. After remaining in Ann- 
apolis one year he returned to Philadelphia, and fixed his residence for 
life in that city. 


From the hour of his landing in America he considered this his home 
and his country, and no American-horn colonist was more determined than 
he to maintain, " with life, honor and fortune," the rights of these colonies. 

In 1774, he was a member of the provincial convention for Pennsyl- 
vania, which met in Philadelphia. In May, and again in September, 
1775, was chosen delegate to the Continental Congress; in July, 1776, 
was re-appointed, during this session signing the Declaration, and in March, 
1777, he once more took his seat in Congress. 

During the years following 1777, while absent from Congress, he was 
made colonel of a regiment of militia raised and equipped in Cum- 
berland county, and the public stores and magazine at Carlisle were put 
in hl> charge. He wa« also one of the commission appointed to treat 
with the Indians. 

November 20, 1782, he was again appointed to Congress, and took his 
seat in the January following, and in 1783 was one of the agents 
appointed to settle the Wyoming land controversy. 

In 1785, he was again returned to Congress, taking his seat in March. 
1786. In 1787, he "was a delegate to the convention which framed the 
federal constitution, and when in that convention, July 23d, a commit- 
tee was appointed to report a constitution, the name of James Wilson 
<tands first on that committee. He was a member of the State conven- 
tion which adopted the constitution for Philadelphia, and when a. conven- 
tion was called to frame a new constitution for the State, he was an active 
member of that convention also. 

By President Washington, at the beginning of his first administration. 
Mr. Wilson was appointed a judge on the Supreme Bench, which office 
he held to the end of his life. 

In . 790 he was appointed the first professor of law in the College of 
Philadelphia, and in 1792, when that college was merged in the University 
of Pennsylvania, this professorship was continued, and was still filled by 
Judge Wilson. 

James Wilson was twice married, and his first wife, Rachel, a daughter oi 
William Bird, of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, was the mother of his six 
children. She died in April, 1786. His second wife was Miss Hannah 
Gray, of Boston, who survived him. 

In 1798, while riding a judicial circuit in North Carolina, Judge 
Wilson was seized with a sudden illness, at the house of his friend and 
colleague, Judge Iredell, in Edentown, and his death speedily tuilowed, 
on the 28th day of August, 1 798. 


B«»rn in Newcastle, Delaware, in 1730, was a son of the Rev. Georg* 
Ross, an Episcopal clergyman of that town. He early manifested an 
ability to acquire knowledge with facility, was a college graduo* , and a 


T&uAth-ns jL,ts>unx%> 



fair linguist at the age of 18, and had completed a course of reading for 
the bar, so that he was admitted to practice in 1751, when 21 years of 
age. He married Miss Ann Lawler, and settled in Lancaster, Pennsylva- 
nia, where he acquired a large practice, and gave his time exclusively to 
the duties of his profession until 1768. 

In that year he first appeared in political life, as member for Lancaster 
in the Pennsylvania legislature, and discharged his legislative duties so 
entirely to the satisfaction of the people that he was repeatedly re-elected 
to represent that town, even during the period when, in answer to the 
choice of the legislature, he was discharging the higher duties of member 
of Congress. 

In the Continental Congress he was one of the representatives for Penn- 
sylvania from the time he took his seat, September 5, 1774, until, in Jan- 
uary. 1777, ill-health enforced his retirement to private life. 

In April, 1779, he was commissioned judge of the court of admiralty, 
for Pennsylvania, but his death, which occurred in the July following, 
prevented his entering upon the duties of this office. 


First «igner of the Declaration in behalf of the province of Delaware, was 
of English descent. His grandfather emigrated from England about the 
time of Penn's settlement of the province named in his honor, and first 
attached his fortunes to those of the settlers in Penn's colony. He soon 
possessed himself of a considerable landed estate in what is now the couuty 
of Kent, Delaware, and there settled for the remaining years of his life. 
His youngest son, Caesar, inherited his property, the older sons having 
died. This son married the daughter of the Rev. Thomas Crawford, a 
noted preacher of that day, and among the children born of their union 
was the subject of this sketch. 

His birth was in Dover, Kent county, Delaware, in 1730, and he 
received in baptism his father's name, Caesar Rodney. 

Aside from the management of his large estates, he seems to have pur- 
sued no calling, except in connection with public affairs. A man of 
genial temperament, generous hospitality, and good education, he was 
early entrusted with official responsibilities, and gave the best years of his 
life to the service of his countrymen. 

In 175S he was high sheriff tor Kent county; at the expiration of that 
term of office was commissioned justice of the peace, and about the year 
1760, was constituted judge of all the inferior courts of Kent county . 

In 1762, he appeared in the Delaware assembly as representative trom 
Kent county, and early in 1763 was appointed to represent Delaware in 
the Congress of Colonies which convened in New York. 

Mr. K"di r, v M 'us a member of the Delaware legislature for a number of 


years, and was always a leader in measures devised for the public interest. 
He was several times on committees, appointed from time to time, to draw 
up, in the name of the people, remonstrances to the king and parliament, 
relative to the grievances to which the colonists were subjected ; and he 
won the hearts of the people, and incurred the persecution of the repre- 
sentatives of Great Britain by his zeal and courage in the discharge of 
these duties. In 1769 he was chosen speaker of the assembly, which 
honor was annually conferred upon him for a series of years. 

He was chairman of the committee of correspondence, on behalf of 
Delaware, and through this channel was thoroughly instructed as to the 
feeling and condition of the people of the other provinces, so that when, 
in August, 1774, he was chosen as one of the representatives from hk 
native province to the Continental Congress, he went thither fully 
informed as to the best course of action to be taken for the general- good. 

He remained a member of Congress until after the passage of the act 
of separation, and having always advocated that measure, considered his 
labors consummated when he had added his name to the roll of signers of 
the Declaration. 

Although active in Congressional measures while in his seat, Caesar 
Rodney was often obliged to absent himself from that body owing to the 
pressing demands at home for his services. He was at this time a com- 
mander in the militia, with rank of general, and a member of the com- 
mittees of safety, of correspondence, and of inspection. 

In the autumn of 1776, he permanently retired from Congress, and 
spent some months with the army. He was appointed judge of the 
Supreme Court under the new State constitution, but preferred retaining 
his military command. Indeed, the services of a popular and powerful 
leader were urgently needed in Delaware, and his duties were of the most 
nctive character. 

Early in 1777 he was ordered into Sussex county, and with his troops 
quelled an insurrection of the tory residents in that county, which accom- 
plished, he hastened to muster all the force he could, and marched to the 
assistance of Washington, who had taken position in the north of Dela- 
ware to repel an invasion of the larger part of the British army. 

After the close ol this expedition he was again chosen representative to 
Congress, but believing he could be ol more service to the people at home, 
accepted, instead, the position of president ot the State. The duties of 
this office in Delaware, at that time, were most unpleasant, owing to the 
strong tory sentiment of a large part ot the people, and the undisciplined 
condition of those who nominally constituted the State militia. (Jf the 
latter cb it is recorded that it was not infrequently the experience of the 
officers of the militia, that men who were mustered in of a morning 
\>uuld "serve" for one day, and, at sunset, singly or in groups, or even in 
large detachments, would lay down their arms, calmly announce that 
they were going home, and — go. 


For four years ftoneral Rodney held the office of president of Dela- 
ware amid these difficulties, and to his labors and cares was added the 
further burden of great physical pain. He had been for years the victim 
of a malignant cancer or the cheek, which now was undermining nis very 
life, and in 1783, death gave him the rest he had longed for nvtny years 
to enjoy, but had been too generous to take while life was making so 
many demands upon his energies. 


The subject of this sketch was of Irish descent, his father, John Read, 
having been born in Dublin, Ireland, a son of a wealthy manufacturer of 
that city. John Read emigrated to America early in the eighteenth 
century, settling first in Maryland, where the birth of his first son, whom 
he named George, occurred in 1734. 

Not long after the birth of George Read, his father took up his resi- 
dence in Delaware, on the headwaters of Christiana river. Here the 
childhood and youth of this son was passed, until he was sent to Chester, 
Pennsylvania, to attend school. His scholastic education was finished in 
New London, under the tutorship of the Rev. Dr. Allison, before he 
reached the age of 17. He then read law two years, with John Moland, 
an eminent barrister of Philadelphia, and was admitted to practice at the 
early age of 19. 

Even at this age George Read had reached a decision of character and a 
firmness in judgment men rarely attain at any age. Although, according 
to the laws of primogeniture, then as rigidly observed in America as in 
England, he was entitled to the succession to the family estates, he insisted 
on relinquishing that right in favor of his five younger brothers, asserting 
that the expenses of his education were his share in full of all his father 

in 1754, George Read established himself in Newcastle, Delaware, and 
entered upon the practice of his profession there and in some of the adjoin- 
ing counties of Maryland. He soon obtained a full practice, and, in 1763, 
was appointed attorney-general for three counties of Delaware, which 
position he filled until elected a representative to Congress, in 1774. 

The office of attorney-general was held under royal favor, hut this did 
not deter Mr. Read from taking the colonial side in the struggle between 
the crown and the people. In October, 1765, he represented Newcastle in 
the Delaware Assembly, and was continued a member for the next twelve 
years. During these years his loyalty to the people's rights and his refusal 
to sacrifice principle to interest was consonant with the impulse of early 
manhood which led him to decline availing himself of the unjust law oi 

In August. 1774, he was appointed the colleague of Caesar Rodney and 


Thomas M'Kean, to represent Delaware in the general Congress called tor 
the next month in Pennsylvania. 

The following year, again a member of Congress, he appended hia 
signature to the Declaration of Independence, answering one who warned 
him of the temerity of the act : 

" It is a measure demanded by the crisis, and I am prepared to meet 
any consequence that may ensue." 

Mr. Read was president of the convention which formed the first consti- 
tution of Delaware. This convention met in 1776. 

In 1777, he was vice-president of the State under the new Constitution, 
and when, in October of that year, President McKinley was made 
prisoner by the British, upon Mr. Read devolved the duty of the execu- 
tive toward the State, which, combined with the responsibilities he had 
already undertaken, began to impair his health. 

In August, 1779, he was obliged to resign all public duties for a time, 
and in rest and retirement seek to repair a shattered constitution. But 
the next year the solicitations of the people who trusted him induced him 
to again take up a part of the burden, and he once more took his seat in 
the State legislature. 

Near the close of 1782, Congress appointed him a judge of the court oi 
appeals ; in 1785, he was special judge of a court appointed to settle a 
controversy between New York and Massachusetts concerning territory ; 
in 1786, he was a delegate to a convention assembled in Annapolis, Mary- 
land, to form a system of commercial relations ; and he was a prominent 
member of the convention which, assembled in Philadelphia in 1/87, 
formulated the Constitution of the United States. In the first Congress 
convened under the new Constitution he took his seat in the Senate as 
member from Delaware. 

He occupied this position until 1793, when he was made chief justice of 
the supreme court of Delaware, and the duties oi this office he periormed 
with ability and integrity until his death. 

In the autumn of 1798, a sudden illness ended the long and useful lile 
which he had given to the service of his country. 


Was the son of Irish parents, who emigrated to America and settled in 
New London, Chester county, Pennsylvania, where Thomas M'Kean was 
born in 1734. Like his colleague, Ceorge Read, he was educated under 
the tutorship of Dr. Francis Hopkinson, and like him he chose the pro- 
fession of law, and entered early in life upon its practice. 

In 1756, he was appointed deputy attorney-general for Sussex county; 
in 1757 was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court ot Pennsylvania, 
in the same year was elected clerk of the House ot Assembly, and in 
the same office was again assigned him 


In 1762 Thomas M'Kean and Csesar Rodney were appointed by the leg- 
islature to revise and print the laws of the province enacted from 1752 to 

In 1762 Mr. M'Kean was elected delegate from Newcastle county to the 
General Assembly, and was returned from that county as their represent 
ative for seventeen consecutive years, and this often against his personal 
wishes, and with his residence for the last six years that he served in 

Mr. M'Kean was sent to the Congress ot colonial delegates which con- 
vened in New York in 1765, and went there as the representative of those 
counties which were set off to constitute the province^ of Delaware. 

In the same year the governor appointed Mr. M'Kean sole notary for 
the counties on the Delaware, and the further offices of justice of the 
peace, justice of the court of common pleas and quarter sessions, and of 
probate court for Newcastle county, were added to his duties. In the term 
of the common pleas and general sessions court held in November, 1765, 
and in the February term following, Judge M'Kean ordered the use of 
•unstamped paper, thus putting on record his opinion of the "Stamp Act" 
In 1774 Judge M'Kean was sent to the first Congress as a representa- 
tive from Delaware, and was regularly re-elected to the position until after 
peace was declared in 1788. 

While thus representing Delaware, in whose behalf he signed the Dec- 
laration of Independence, Judge M'Kean continued to reside in Philadel- 
phia, and after the month of July, 1777, he added to his duties the impor- 
tant office of chief justice of Pennsylvania. During 1781 he was repre- 
sentative in Congress for Delaware, chief justice of Pennsylvania, and 
president of Congress.. 

Of his work on committees there was no end during his years of public 
service. Among these committees was that which prepared the Confed- 
eration ; that which determined appeals from the courts of admiralty; that 
tor importing arms and ammunition ; that for establishing the claims and 
tccounts against the •government; that for superintending the finances of 
the State, and the emission of bills of credit. 

Ir 1776 Judge M'Kean placed himself at the head of a regiment of 
Philadelphia troops, who had chosen him for their colonel, and reported 
/or service to Washington, then in New Jersey. The regiment was kept 
in readiness for action until October of that year, when it was disbanded, 
and Judge M'Kean resumed his seat in Congress. As he did not sign the 
Declaration of Independence until after his return, his must have been 
one of the last of the signatures appended. 

While on military duty, as just recorded, Judge M'Kean was chosen a 
member of the convention for forming a constitution for Delaware. In 
two days he was at the place of meeting, accepted the appointment to 
prepare the constitution, and when the convention assembled the nex' 



morning he presented a draft so complete and satisfactory that it was 
adopted as the constitution by the unanimous vote of the members, and 
before evening M'Kean was on his way back to his troop3. 

From July 28, 1777, until 1799, Thomas M'Kean \va3 chief justice of 
Pennsylvania, a period of twenty-two years. In 1799 he was elected gov- 
ernor, and in this office he served three successive terms, or nine consecu- 
tive years ; after which he was, under the constitution, ineligible to an 
immediate re-election. 

A man of such great executive ability, and with force enough to carry all 
measures before him, must always create enemies among the weak and 
unsuccessful, and also incur the strongest opposition from those who have 
honest differences of opinion with him. 

Two attempts were made to impeach Mr. M'Kean; one in 1778, while 
he was chief justice, and again in 1807-08, when the action was brought 
in the house of representatives to impeach him for maladministration in 
his office of chief magistrate, the resolution reading: "That Thomas 
M'Kean, governor of the Commonwealth, be impeached of high Crimea 
and misdemeanors." Both attempts were unsuccessful. 

Thomas M'Kean died June 24, 1817, at the age of 83 years. 


When the "Stamp Act" was about to be put in operation in Annapo- 
lis, Maryland, a company of youthful rebels assaulted the public offices, 
seized and destroyed the stamps, and burned in effigy "his majesty's stamp 
distributor." The leader of this band of "Sons of Liberty" was Samuel 
Chase, a young man whose ability as a lawyer was just becoming known 
in Annapolis, and who was already looked upon in the provincial legisla- 
ture of Maryland as a member of talent, but sorely lacking in prudence. 

Samuel Chase was a native of Maryland, born in Somerset county, 
April 17, 1741. His father, an Episcopal clergyman, settled in Baltimore 
when Samuel was about three years old, and himself superintended his 
son's education. At the age of 18, Samuel Chase began the study of law, 
and was in due time admitted to the bar, establishing himself in Annapo- 
lis. He was made a member of the legislature soon after reaching the 
age of 20, where he continued to serve until called upon to represent 
Maryland in the Continental Congress of 1774. 

He served in the Continental Congress until the close of 1778, his con- 
duct ever distinguished by the aggressiveness that had been its character- 
istic in the assembly. He was for the most decided measures of defense, 
the most uncompromising defiance of consequences, and could never listen 
with patience to any half-way measures, however politic such measures 
might be. Upon one occasion during the early session of 1776, the Con- 
gress had an opportunity to see how terrible he could be in the presence 
of absolute treason. A representative from Georgia, a Rev. Dr. Zubly, 


was discovered to have been in secret correspondence with the royal gov- 
ernor of Georgia. Upon his first appearance in Congress after his treach 
ery was- known to Air. Chase, that gentleman rose in his place and 
denounced him before his colleagues as a traitor, a blood-seller, and a 
Judas. The assailed man sat and trembled beneath the scathing torrent 
of rebuke that fell from Mr. Chase's lips, and in the silence that followed 
the anathemas, fled from the hall, where he never again appeared. 

After Mr. Chase left Congress he spent a number of years in the prac- 
tice of his profession, removing to Baltimore in 1786. In 1788 he was 
made chief justice of the criminal court for the county and town of Bal- 
timore, and in the same year was chosen member of the State convention 
to which the new constitution for the Federal Union was submitted. 
Under that constitution he was appointed chief judge of the highest court 
in the State, an appointment he held fifteen years. 

In 1796, President Washington nominated him for judge of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, and the Senate confirmed the nom- 
ination. A few years later, when party feeling was running high, Judge 
Chase, like Judge M'Kean, having enemies strong in proportion to his 
own strength, was impeached before the Senate for misconduct on the 
bench. He was tried and acquitted, and retained his seat in the Supreme 
Court until his death. *+ 

This event occurred June 19, 1812. He had been twice married, and 
two sons of his first marriage, two daughters of his second, survived him . 


Was the intimate friend of Samuel Chase, of whom we have just read. 
He was one year the senior of Chase, having been born in 1740; was a 
law student with him in the same office; they appeared simultaneously 
in public life in 1761, when both were chosen as members of the provin- 
cial legislature ; and they were coadjutors in the Continental Congress, 
appending their names on the same clay to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Their intimacy continued uninterrupted until an early death ter- 
minated Mr. Paca's career. 

The instructions with which William Paca and his colleagues departed 
for the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774, must have been 
pleasing to the ardent spirit Mr. Paca always manifested in public allairs. 
They were " to agree to all measures which might be deemed necessary to 
obtain a redress of American grievances." 

But the growth of feeling toward independence was much more tardy 
in Maryland than in some of the other colonics, and in the early part of 
1776, a majority in the legislature passed a vote "that Maryland would 
not be bound by a vote of a majority of Congress to declare independ- 
ence." The restriction thus laid ii|x>n their delegates was exceedingly 


irksome to Mr. l'aca, a> i<» the other menijeis rrom Maryland; out the 
delegates held their seat-, confident that some new aggression on the part 
of the stubborn and shortsighted ministry would soon come to their aid, 
and help to drive the people where they were not disposed to go of their 
own will. Nor had they long to wait. Urged by the pressure of events, 
on the 28th of June, 1776, Maryland recalled her instructions, leaving the 
delegates unrestricted, to vote as they saw fit. What, in their eyes, it was 
expedient to do, wa3 shown by the enrollment of their names upon the 
parchment of the Declaration, as soon as it was engrossed and ready for 
their signatures. 

William Paca continued to serve in Congress until 1778, when he was 
appointed chief judge of the Supreme Court of the State. This office he 
filled with honor and justice until 1782, when he accepted the office of 
governor. After serving one year as chief magistrate of the Common- 
wealth, he for a time retired to private life. 

He was a member of the convention which, in 1781, ratified the consti- 
tution on the part of Maryland, and under its laws he was appointed by 
President Washington judge of the district court for the district of Mary- 

This office Judge Paca held until his decease, which occurred in the 
first year of the nineteenth century. 


One of the representatives of Maryland in the Congress of 1776 wa^ 
Thomas Stone, then a young man of thirty-three years, and like his col- 
leagues, Chase and Paca, of too ardent a temperament, and too warmly 
interested in colonial matters to be suited with the cold prudence and 
vacillating policy of the majority of the people of Maryland. 

Thomas Stone did not take his seat in the Continental Congress until 
the latter part of 1775, nor does he appear to have held any important 

Erovincial office previous to that date. When the delegates from Mary- 
ind were left free to act in the matter of approving the passage of the act 
of separation, and had recorded f heir votes in favor of that measure, they 
were at once re-elected to retain their seats another term by the very 
assembly that had so long held them back. 

In the next Congress Mr. Stone was a member of the committee for 
i iepaiing and reporting articles for a confederated government. This com- 
mittee was composed of one delegate from each State in the Union, and 
the work was the most arduous and intricate of any ever brought before 
the Continental Congre-ss. Nothing but the knowledge that the nation 
could not exist long without such a union, made it possible to effect the 
union. It was accomplished with extreme difficulty, the committee mak 
ing many reports which were, again and again, after discussion, committe-: 
for further reconsideration. It was uot until after the lapse of several 


months, on the 15th of November, 1777, that a report was accepted and 
the committee dismissed. On this committee Mr. Stone worked with 
great fidelity and industry. 

Having served through the session of 1777, Mr. Stone declined a 
re-election to the national legislature, but consented to serve in the State 
legislature, where he continued to act until, in 1783, he was induced to 
once more represent the State in the Congress. He served in 1783 and 
1784, and then resolutely retired to private life and the practice of his 

Thomas Stone was born at Pointon Manor, Marvland, in 1743, and 
was lineally from William Stone, governor of Maryland during the 

f>rotectorate of Oliver Cromwell. He received a classical education, read 
aw, and was admitted to the bar. In all the time not given to public 
demands he was actively and profitably engaged in his profession. 

He died at Port Tobacco, Maryland, in the autumn of 1787, leaving 
no descendants. 


Of the fifty-six men in whose names it was announced to the world that 
a Nation was born, July 4, 1776, three lived to see the opening of the day 
when that nation, waxed strong and mighty, celebrated the fiftieth anni- 
versary of its birth. At sunset, July 4, 1826, Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton was the sole surviving signer ; during the day John Adams and 
Thomas Jefferson, yielding up life, had "gone over to the majority." 

Charles Carroll, surnamed Carrollton, was bora in Annapolis, Marvland, 
September 20, 1737, a son of Charles and Elizabeth (Brook) Carrollton, 
and grandson of Daniel Carroll, of Littamourna, County King, Ireland. 

In 1(591, Daniel Carroll was appointed to several provincial offices of 
Maryland under the patronage of Lord Baltimore, and sailed for that 
province, which was his home for the rest of his life. Here his son Charles 
was born in 1702. This son was also appointed to many prominent official 
positions, and that at a time when the Catholic religion, to which the family 
adhered, disqualified a citizen of the colonies from almost every right 
enjoved bv his fellow-citizens. The deatli of Charles Carroll occurred in 

In 1745, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, then eight years of age, was 
taken to France and placed in the English Jesuits' College at St. Omers. 
After remaining there six years he was sent to the French Jesuits' College, 
at Rheims, and after one year's study there, to the college of Louis Le 
Grand. Two years later he began the study of law at Bourges, then in 
Paris, and, in 1757, he took apartments in the Inner Temple. London, to 
complete his study for the bar. He returned to Maryland in 1765, just 
about the time the British ministry entered upon those measures which ulti- 
mately drove the colonists into rebellion and independence. 


Mr. Carroll at once entered upon a newspaper war in defense of the rights 
of the colonists, signing his letters "The First Citizen." Who this writer was, 
was then unknown, but his antagonist was known to be Daniel Dulaney, 
the provincial secretary of Maryland, and when Mr. Carroll had triumphed 
and succeeded in silencing his opponent, the people ot the colony returned 
public thanks to their unknown defender through a newspaper letter, signed 
by "William Paca and Matthew Hammond, in behalf of the free and 
independent citizens of Annapolis, the metropolis of Maryland." 

A little later, when "The First Citizen" was known to be Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, the people of Annapolis went in a body to his house to 
return their thanks to him for his exertions in their behalf. 

But Mr. Carroll too clearly apprehended the graveness of the situation 
to be elated over a temporary victory. 

To Samuel Chase, when that patriot had said " You have completely 
written them down !" Mr. Carroll gravely said: "And do you think that 
will settle the question between us?" 

" To be sure ! " answered Mr. Chase ; " what else can we resort to ? " 

"The bayonet," was Mr. Carroll's sad but firm answer. 

As this was said in 1771, when we remember the backward position of 
Maryland in 1776, the statesmanship of Mr. Carroll is established by these 

In January, 1775, Mr. Carroll was elected to represent Anne Arundel 
county in the provincial legislature. In February, 1776, he was one of a 
commission appointed to visit Canada and endeaver to prevail upon that 
province to unite with the thirteen colonies in resisting the oppressions of 
Great Britain. 

On his return from this unsuccessful embassy, Mr. Carroll resumed his 
seat in the Assembly and bent his whole energies upon forcing on the 
fainthearted people of his province a knowledge of the necessity of their 
withdrawing the instructions by which they were restricting the action of 
their delegates in Congress. On July 2, 1776, the efforts of Mr. Carroll 
and his colleagues in this behalf were successful, Maryland empowered her 
delegates to act in her name with the other colonies, and two days later, on the 
day the Declaration was acted upon, the Maryland legislature, engaged in 
appointing a new list of delegates, for the first time placed upon the list 
the name of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

He took his seat July 18, 1776, and was one of the first to affix his 
name to the Declaration when it was laid upon the table of the House, 
duly engrossed and ready for signatures. 

"There go a few millions." said one who stood by as he signed. And 
certainly in point of fortune no other signer of the Declaration had as 
much to lose as Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Mr. Carroll continued a member of Congress until the close of the ses- 
sion of 1777, acting as a member of the Board of War and on variouj 


Vt JuA 'alci , cy&fT^ry c ^tt' 

,^/^tW JyAty<rt'-&< / 


important committees; and also retaining his seat in the Maryland legis 
lature. In 1776, he was a member of the convention which prepared the 
Constitution for the State of Maryland, and he was the first senator chosen 
under that Constitution. He served in the State Senate twelve years until, 
in 1788, he was chosen United States Senator for Maryland, immediately 
after the adoption of the Federal Constitution. 

In 1791, Mr. Carroll vacated his seat in the Senate of the United States, 
and was at once re-chosen to the State senate, where he served until 1801, 
when he retired from public life, at the age of 64. 

In 1825 he had the pleasure of knowing that one of his granddaughters, 
Miss Caton, who had married the Marquis of Wellesley, viceroy of Eng- 
land, reigned as queen in the land from which, for religion's sake, his 
father's father became a fugitive. 

The last link connecting the struggling days of colonial America with 
the free and mighty nation of the United States wa3 broken by the death of 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, at his home in Baltimore, Maryland, Novem- 
ber 14, 1832. 


" The honor of his own, and the model of future times," was the eulogy 
pronounced upon George Wythe at his death, by Thomas Jefferson, who in 
youth had been his pupil at law, and in later years his coadjutor in Con- 
gress, and a warm personal friend. 

George Wythe was born in 1726, in Elizabeth City county, Colony of 
Virginia. His father was a Virginia gentleman of the old school, amiable, 
courteous, a lover of his family, a good manager of his large estate, but with 
more fondness for outdoor life than for his study, and a better acquaintance 
with the denizens of field and forest than with his classics. From his 
mother, George Wythe inherited his intellectual tastes and mental vigor. 
She was a woman of great strength of mind, and was possessed of singu- 
lar learning for her day, among her accomplishments reckoning a 
thorough knowledge of Latin. 

Under the tuition of his mother, George Wythe attained an excellent 
education, pursuing with her the study of grammar, rhetoric and logic, 
mathematics, natural and moral philosophy, civil law, Latin and Greek. 
Of the latter tongue Mrs. Wythe had no knowledge, but she assisted her 
son in his acquisition of it by reading an English version of the works 
which he studied and so testing the accuracy of his translations. 

This devoted mother died before her son attained the years of manhood, 
and his father dying about the same time, George Wythe entered upon the 

[>ossession of a large fortune. For some time he abandoned study, and 
ed a life of dissipation. He was thirty years of age when he shook otf 
youthful follies, and entered upon the life of honor and usefulness which 
has perpetuated his name. Thenceforth, for fifty years, it was his privi- 


lege to pursue, with unremitting ardor, all the noble purposes of life, but 
at its close he looked back upon the wasted years of his young manhood 
with deep regret- 
Under the instructions of Mr. John Lewis, a noted practitioner in the 
Virginia courts, George Wythe read law and fitted himself for practice. 
His success in his chosen profession was equal to his desert. As a pleader 
at the bar his extensive learning, fine elocution, and logical style of argu- 
ment, made him irresistible. But his distinguishing characteristic was 
his rigid justice. The dignity of his profession was never prostituted to 
the support of an unjust cause. In this rule he was so inflexible that if 
he entertained doubts of his client's rights, he required of him an oath as to 
the truth of his statements before he undertook his cause, and if deception 
were in any manner practiced upon him, he would return the fee and 
abandon the case. Such a stand as this early called attention to Mr. 
Wythe's fitness for administering justice in important causes, and ultimately 
led to his appointment as chancellor of Virginia, the important duties of 
which position he discharged with the most exact justice until the day of 
his death. 

Early in life Mr. Wythe was elected to represent Elizabeth City county 
in the House of Burgesses, a position he filled for many years. Novem- 
ber 14, 1764, he was appointed a member of a committee of the House to 
prepare a petition to the king, a memorial to the House of Lords, and a 
remonstrance to the House of Commons, on the "Stamp Act," then a 
measure before Parliament. 

The paper was drawn by Mr. Wythe, but its language was so vigorous 
and his utterances so abounding in plain truths that must give offense to 
his majesty, that the draft was considered treasonable by his hesitating 
colleagues, and was materially modified before the report was accepted. 

The "Stamp Act" was passed, and the news was received in the 
House of Burgesses of Virginia, as an intimation on the part of king and 
Parliament that the rights of the colonists were to be deliberately disre- 
garded. Before the session of 1765 closed, in Mav, Patrick Henry 
offered resolutions of defiance that received the cordial support of Mr. 
Wythe, and, after a stormy debate and some alterations, were carried, 
although so close was the contest that the fifth, and strongest resolution, 
only passed by a single vote, and the following day, during Henry's absence 
from the convention, this resolution was expunged from the journal. The 
repeal of the "Stamp Act," and other conciliatory measures on the part 
of England, now left a few years of quiet legislation, during which Mr. 
Wythe attended to his professional duties. But his stand was taken upon 
the justness of the demands of the colonies, and when events tended 
toward independence, he early favored the movement, and exerted his 
influence among his colleagues in that direction. In these efforts he had 
the assistance of Thomas Jefferson; and the two, who had been preceptoi 


and pupil, now stood friends anj oounselora, noble examples of self-sacri- 
ficing patriots, in the very fron't A danger. 

In 1775, Wythe joined a corps of volunteers, believing a resort to arms 
the only hope of the colonists. But his services as a statesman were of more 
importance, and he left the army in August, Yll'\, to attend the Continental 
Congress as one of the delegates of Virginia. He held this position until 
after the Declaration of Independence had become a matter of record, with 
his name as one of its fifty-six attesting witnesses. 

November 5, 1776, he was one of a committee of five appointed by the 
State Legislature to revise the laws of Virginia. Of this committee two 
members, George Mason and Thomas Ludwell Lee, were prevented from 
serving, and the remaining three, Wythe, Jefferson and Edmond Pendle- 
ton, worked so industriously and so ably that on the 18th of June, 1779, 
they reported to the General Assembly one hundred and twenty-six bills. 

In 1777, Mr. Wythe was chosen speaker of the House of Burgesses. In 
the same year he was appointed one of the three judges of the high c i irt 
of chancery of Virginia, and on a change in the form of the court was con- 
stituted sole chancellor. 

In December, 17S6, he was one of the committee who prepared the con- 
stitution of the United States, and in 1787 was a member of the Virginia 
convention which ratified the constitution on behalf of that State. He 
was subsequently twice a member of the electoral college of Virginia. 

His political record now closes, unless to it is added ids indirect influence 
exerted through the distinguished pupils whom he trained for the bar and 
for public life. Some of the most noted sons of Virginia at the bar 
and in the Senate were his pupils, and in the list we find one chief justice 
and two presidents of the United States. 

The death of George Wythe is the saddest record of these pages. 
Already past his eightieth year, and with his days still filled with useful 
and benevolent deeds, he died the victim of poison, administered, it seems 
but too evident, by the hand of one who was a near kindred, and who 
should have been bound to him by the ties of gratitude for daily kindnesses 
and tokens of love. 

In the midst of the lingering hours of agony produced by the slow actioD 
of his death potion, Wythe thought of others and not of himself. As long 
as he retained his senses, he gave his mind to the study of the cases pend- 
ing in his court, and his last regret was that his fatal illness would cause 
delay and added expense to those who had appeared before him. 

Mr. Wythe had been twice married, but had no living children, and at 
his death his estate passed to the children of a sister, his last act of justice 
being to add, upon his deathbed, a codicil to his will which revoked all 
benefits which would have accrued to the nephew who had hastened his 

He expired on the morning of the 8th of June. 1806. 


Like many great minds who cannot accept of a formulated creed, Mr. 
Wythe was considered an infidel by his co temporaries. The student of 
to-day will, however, more willingly believe of such a life that, in the 
words of Jefferson, "while neither troubling nor perhaps trusting anyone 
with his religious creed, he left to the world the conclusion that that religion 
must be good which could produce a life of such exemplary virtue." 


Who was born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 20, 1732, was 
descended from a family eminent in public life and of high socia standing 
in that colony. The grandfather whose name he bore, was Richard Lee, 
a member of the King's council, and his father, Thomas Lee, was for a 
number of years president of that council. His maternal grandfather, 
who was a son of Governor Ludington, of North Carolina, was also a 
member of that body of statesmen. ■ 

Richard Henry Lee was sent to England, and attended school at \\ ake- 
field in Yorkshire. At the age of nineteen, he returned to his native 
colony, and having ample means and no desire to pursue a professional 
life, he gave himself up to his love of books, for a number of years pursu- 
ing with ardor the study of ethics and the philosophy of history. 

In 1754, he was rudely awakened from his student's dreams by the 
encroachments of Indians upon the border counties of Virginia, and the 
appeal of the frontier settlers to be protected from their atrocities. In his 
twenty-third year he was called on by the Westmoreland \ olunteers to 
place "himself at their head nnd lead them to protect the living and avenge 
the dead. Reporting with his troops to General Braddock, at Alexandria. 
Virginia, that vain-glorious general, who was to pay with his life for his 
ignorance, decided that "the British troops could quell a handful of 
savages without the help of the provincials," and the young volunteers, 
with their young leader, were sent home. 

In 1757, Mr. Lee was appointed justice of the peace for Westmoreland 
county, and in the same year was elected to serve that county as its repre- 
sentative in the House of Burgesses. 

The first few years of service in that body rendered by Richard Henry 
Lee, who was vet to be stvled "the Cicero of America," have lcit little 
record of his action, save that he was too diffident to take the prominent 
position his merits warranted. Before the contest between the colonists 
and the roval government was begun, Mr. Lee's most prominent act in the 
House of 'Burgesses was the discovering and bringing to light and 
punishment of defalcations on the part of the treasurer of the colony. 

The holder of this important trust was a Mr. Robinson, a leader of the 
aristocratic party in the House, and a man so surrounded by powerful 
family associations, that even those best convinced of his guilt, and upon 
whom should have rested the duty of his punishment, shrank trom the task 


as being one impossible of fulfillment, and which would only bring odium 
and defeat upon any one who attempted it. 

Richard Henry Lee, regardless of such base motives for inaction, entert.i 
upon this task, ncr desisted from its prosecution until his object was 
attained and the colony secured from heavy loss and pecuniary embarrass- 
ment. When the evidence necessary had been secured and Lee rose, in 
the presence of the man accused and of his collegues who were to be his 
judges, the candor of Lee's countenance, which was stamped with sorrow 
at the painful necessity of his words, and the persuasive eloquence 
accompanied with scathing denunciations with which he spoke, absolutely 
silenced those who expected by sophistry to turn aside the evidence, and 
by sarcasm and intimidation to silence the truth. 

When the British ministry entered upon the system of taxation of the 
colonies without their consent, Lee was one of the first to see whither the 
action would tend. Writing to a friend in London, May 31, 1764, he 
said: "Possibly this step, though intended to oppress and keep us low, 
in order to secure our dependence, may be subversive of this end. Poverty 
and oppression, among those whose minds are filled with ideas of British 
liberty, may introduce a virtuous industry with a train of generous and 
manly sentiments, which, when in future they become supported by num- 
bers, may produce a fatal resentment of parental care converted into 
tyrannical usurpation." 

Mr. Lee, in 1764, was one of the committee who prepared theremon- 
strance of Virginia presented to the king and parliament, and in 1765 
he supported the famous resolutions of Patrick Henry. Both the remoc 
strance and the resolutions are more fully spoken of elsewhere in the 
volume. [See sketch of Wythe a-nd of Harrison.] 

Liberty-loving Virginia found a fit representative in Richard Henry 
Lee in the dark years which followed. Under his lead men of all parties 
and of all social grades united in opposition to the "Stamp Act/' binding 
themselves to each other, to God, and to their country to resist its action. 
In Westmoreland county, a resolution was framed by Lee, and written in 
his hand as follows : 

"As the stamp act does absolutely direct the property of the people to 
be taken from them without their consent, expressed by their representa- 
tives, and as in many cases it deprives the British-American subject of his 
right to be tried by jury, we do determine, at every hazard, and paying no 
regard to death, "to exert every faculty to prevent the execution of the 
stamp act in every instance, within this colony." 

The repeal of the "Stamp Act" did not for a moment blind Mr. Lee as 
to the future troubles awaiting the colonies, and for his clear understand- 
ing of the position and intention of Parliament at all steps of the struggle 
that ensued, he was largely indebted to his brother, Dr. Arthur Lee, who 
was then in London, and with whom he was in constant correspondence. 


These remarkable sons of Virginia must have been brothers in thought and 
mind, as well as of blood, so closelv were their feelings allied. At one time 
Dr. Lee wrote: "Let me remind you that no confidence i3 to be reposed 
in the justice or mercy of Britain, and that American liberty must be 
entirely of American fabric." 

Through all the intermediate steps between the resistance to the " Stamp 
Act" and the meeting of the first Continental Congress, in 1774, Richard 
Henry Lee was conspicuous for his talent, his energy, his couraire and his 
patriotism. When the royal displeasure dissolved the House of Burgesses, 
the representative men of Virginia met in private houses and continued 
to formulate their defiance to oppression, and the sanction of the people was 
the only authority they had, or desired to have. 

August 1, 1774, the first Assembly of Virginia was convened at the 
call of the people. By this Assembly Lee was deputed, with Washington 
and Henry, to represent Virginia in the Congress of Colonies at Philadel- 

This body met in that city, September 5, 1774, and when in its first 
session a sense of the responsibility of the situation fell upon the repre- 
sentatives so that "a silence, awful and protracted, prevailed," it was a voice 
from Virginia that broke the spell. Patrick Henry spoke first, followed 
by Lee. The sweetness of Lee's voice and the harmony of his language 
soothed, subdued and yet strengthened the souls of his associates, while with 
eloquence which none could rival or resist he showed that there was now 
but one hope tor their country and that was in the vigor of her resistance. 

Serving now on many important committees, and largely engaging in 
the. spirited colonial correspondence which filled those vears, Richard 
Henry Lee continued to represent Westmoreland county in "the Assembly, 
and the Assembly in the Continental Congress until in the Congress of 
1776, on the 7th of June, he offered the memorable resolution, from which 
the Declaration of Independence was formulated, that "These united 
colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States." 

This motion Mr. Lee introduced in words of ringing eloquence. In 
concluding, he said: " Why, then, sir, do we longer delay? Why still 
deliberate? Let this happy day give birth to an American "republic." Lei 
us arise not to devastate and to conquer, but to re-establish the reign oi 
peace and of law. The eyes of Europe are fixed upon us. * * * Ii 
we are not this day wanting in our duty, the names of the American 
legislators of 177G will be placed by posterity at the side of Theseus, 
Lycurgus, and Romulus, of the three" Williams of Nassau, and of all those 
whose memory has been, and will be, dear to virtuous men and good 

Three days later, while Lee's motion was still under discussion, he 
received news of the serious illness of his wife, and hastened to her side, 
leaving others to carry out the work he had so well begun. 

The absence of Mr. Lee from Congress continued until August, 1776, 


when he again took his seat, appended his signature to the Declaration, 
and resumed his arduous committee work. In this work he also continued 
through the session of 1777, takiug a prominent part in preparing a plan 
if treaties with foreign nations. 

During this time he was the mark of British malicrnity; his person 
itantly in danger if he returned to his home ; that home itself broken in 

jn by British troops ostensibly seeking to effect his capture, and his 
•ns, then at school at St. Bedes, subjected to the insolence of the royalists, one 
of whom assured these boys that he hoped to live to see their father's head 
on Tower Hill. Yet the" ingratitude of republics," even at such a time, 
fell upon Lee, many friends of the new government loudly proclaiming 

His first' act on returning home was to demand of the Assembly an 
investigation of his conduct as its representative, and that body not only 
exonerated him from blame, but through the venerable George Wythe 
passed him a vote of thanks for his able services, freely rendered. 

In 1778-79, Mr. Lee was again a representative in Congress, although 
his failing health forced him often to be absent from its sessions. 

During the latter year the British troops were turning their attention 
more largely to the Southern States, and were harassing the coast of 
Virginia with predatory incursions, and Mr. Lee, as lieutenant of the 
county, was appointed to the command of the Westmoreland militia. In 
the field his energy, activity ami good judgment were as conspicuous as in 
the councils of the nation, and the protection he afforded Westmoreland 
countv is conveyed in the complaint of the commander of the British 
troops" in that vicinity : " We cannot set foot in Westmoreland without 
having the militia immediately upon us." 

November 1, 1784, Mr. Lee again resumed his seat in Congress, and on 
the 30th of November was unanimously chosen to fill the presidential 
chair, then the highest office in the nation. When his term of service 
expired, he sought the repose of private life, which he enjoyed until, op 
the adoption of the Federal Constitution, he consented to serve his 
beloved Virginia once more in a public capacity, and took his seat as her 
first Senator under the new Constitution. This important position he 
filled until 1702, departing then to his home honored with a vote of 
thanks for his services, passed unanimously by the Senate and House of 
Delegates of Virginia, October 22, 1792. 

In his home life Richard Henry Lee abounded in those courtesies and 
graces which mark the gentleman. His hospitable mansion was open to t 
all; the poor and the afflicted frequented it for help and consolation; the 
young for instruction, and all ages and classes for happiness. His large 
family of children, the offspring of two marriages, were happy in his lov« 
and grew to noble womanhood and manhood under his instructions. 

He died June 19, 1794, in his G-Jth year, at Chantilly, Westmoreland 
county, Virginia. 


[The life of Titomas Jefferson, third President of the United 
States, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence in 
behalf of Virginia, will be found on another page.] 


The name of Harrison has been prominent in the annals of American 
history, since in 1640, the first Harrison settled in the county of Surrey, 
province of Virginia. At the present day, one of that name and race 
occupies an honorable position among our legislators. 

It seems fitting, therefore, that one of the name should be a Signer of 
the Declaration, and this honor was reserved for Benjamin Harrison, bom 
in Berkeley, Charles City county, Virginia, about 1740. He was the 
oldest son of Benjamin Harrison, born also at the family mansion in 
Berkeley, and himself a son of a Benjamin Harrison, who was the oldest 
born in his father's family. It seems to have been the custom of the 
family that the first born male representative in each generation should 
have the name of Benjamin, as we trace it back through several genera- 
tions where the oldest son was always so named. 

The representative of the name of whom we write, was the grandson, on 
his mother's side, of Mr. Carter, King's surveyor-general in his day ; so 
that we see he was a fitting representative of the Virginian families in whose 
interest he voted for the independence of the colony. 

He entered public life in 1764, becoming a member of the House of 
Burgesses of Virginia, where his abilities, family prominence and social 
gifts soon made him a leader. He had before this proved his executive 
ability by managing the family estates from the death of his father, while 
he was yet a student in William and Mary College, so that their value was 
greatly increased. 

The representatives of the British ministry, pursuing their usual course 
toward a colonist who seemed of prominence and likely to lead the people, 
endeavored to purchase his influence in the interest of England, by solicit- 
ing him to become a member of the governors executive council, the 
highest office open to one born in the colonies, the governor being alwayB 
a native of Great Britain. Benjamin Harrison, closely noting the course 
of events, and sympathizing with the position of the colonists, refused to 
bind himself to work against their interests, or even to remain neutral, and 
declined the honor. 

November 14, 1764, he was one of the members of the House appointed 
to prepare an address to the King, a memorial to the House of Lords, and 
a remonstrance to the House of Commons ngainst the Stamp Act. 


During the next ten years he was constantly a member of the Horwe of 
Burgesses, and was one of those illustrious Virginians, among whom were 
Randolph, Wythe, Jefferson and Lee, who fought, step by step, in the 
interest of their colony, against the accumulating encroachments of the 
tyrannical representatives of the British crown. 

In August, 1774, Benjamin Harrison was one of seven delegates 
appointed" to represent Virginia in the Congress of Delegates, called to 
meet in Philadelphia, to discuss the mutual interests of the colonic?, and on 
September 5, 1774, he took his seat in the First Continental Congress, 
convened in Carpenter's Hall in that city, where he had the pleasure of 
seeing a Virginian occupy the first presidential chair in that body ; 

March 207 1775, the second Virginia convention assembled in Rich 
mond, of which convention Benjamin Harrison was a member. Before 
the convention adjourned, they elected delegates to the second General 
Congress, and Mr. Harrison was among those returned, and in May, 1775, 
he acain repaired to Philadelphia, to take his seat in the second Congress. 
Here, in a house he had taken with his coadjutors, George Washington 
and Peyton Randolph, he entertained his friends with true Southern hospi- 
tality and prodigality, often exceeding his means. 

During this Congress, Randolph, then presiding officer, was recalled to 
Virginia, by public duties there, and Hancock, of Massachusetts, was 
unanimously elected president in his stead. While he was hesitating as to 
his ability to fill the position as his predecessor had done, Harrison caught 
him in his athletic arms and forcibly seated him in the presidential chair, 
crying aloud: "We will show Mother Britian how little we care for her, 
by making a Massachusetts man our president, whom she has excluded 
from pardon by a public proclamation." 

June 24, 17^5, Mr. Harrison was made chairman of the board of war. 
August 1, Congress adjourned, and on the 11th of August, the Virginia 
convention a third time returned Mr. Harrison as their representative, and 
on September 13 he took his seat. 

In that month he was one of a committee of three sent to consult with 
Washington, the commander-in-chief of the army, and with the governors 
of several colonies, regarding the interests of the Continental army. 
November 29 he was made chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
and three davs later was sent to help the people of Maryland to raise some 
naval force with which to meet Lord Dunmore who, driven from Virginia, 
had gathered a band of desperadoes and renegades, and was laying waste 
the coast of the Chesapeake. 

During the troubled days for the Continental Congress with which the 
year 1776 opened, Benjamin Harrison was busy in the interests of the 
colonists. January 17, he brought in a report regulating the recruiting 
service; on the 24th he was placed on a committee to establish a general 
war department; on the 26th he was one of three sent to New i ork to 
arrange with Lee a plan for its defense ; and immediately upon hi? return 


he was named on a committee for arranging military department* in the 
Middle and Southern colonies. March 6, he became chairman of the 
Committee of Marines. In May he was chairman of the committee on the 
Canada expedition; May 25, was appointed chairman ot a committee of 
fourteen whose arduous duty it was to arrange a plan for the coming cam- 

Through the first days of that stormy year Benjamin Harrison was ever 
at his post, working indefatigably for the interests of the people, until 
August 11, when his term of service expired and he returned to Virginia, 
having 'first had the pleasure of affixing his signature, as one of Virginia's 
representatives, to the Declaration of Independence, and the honor of 
presiding over the Committee of the Whole who discussed the question 
through its most momentous days, June 8-12, 1776. 

During the remainder of 1776, Benjamin Harrison was one of the eight 
counselors of State, whose duty it was to guide the political affairs of 
Virginia. In the fall of 1776, Thomas Jefferson resigned his seat in the 
senate, and Mr. Harrison, on the 10th of October, was chosen to fill out 
his term, and took his seat November 5, having been absent from Congress 
less than three months. By resolution of Congress he was immediately 
restored to his former place on all standing committees. 

Through the dark days of the terrible winter of 1776-7, he was always 
active and hopeful in the interests of the colonies, and on May 22. 1777, 
by joint ballot of both houses, Virginia returned him first of her delegates 
to Congress, and for the fourth time he took his seat in that body, and, as 
before, was actively engaged on committees, and presiding over the delib- 
erations of the house. 

Toward the close of 1777, Benjamin Harrison permanently retired 
from Congress, leaving behind him the character of one who was ardent, 
honorable, prudent and persevering in the interests of those who entrusted 
cheir rights in his keeping. 

Again in Virginia, he was immediately returned by his county to the 
House of Burgesses, and elected speaker of that body, which office he held 
uninterruptedly until 1782. During this time he was chief magistrate in 
his county, and commander of the militia, bearing the title of " colonel," 
by which title he is generally spoken of in the records of his State. 

In 1782, Benjamin Harrison was elected governor of Virginia, on the 
resignation of Thomas Nelson, and through the arduous duties of the try- 
ing times which accompanied the close of the Revolution, tilled the exec- 
utive chair with wisdom and to the best interests of the people. 

After being twice re-elected governor, Mr. Harrison became ineligible 
by the provisions of the constitution, and in 1785 returned to private life. 
In 1790, against his wishes, he was again brought forward as a candidate 
for the executive chair, "and was defeated by two or three votes. 

In the spring of 17U1, Mr. Harnjjou was attacked by a severe fit of the 

jJcLAYif ^tdan?u) 


/rout, from which, however, he partially rallied. In April, 1701, he was 
unanimously elected to the legislature, and in the evening following the 
announcement of his success, he entertained his friends at a dinner party, 
receiving their congratulations, and assurances that he was to be the next 
governor of Virginia. . 

During the night following, a dangerous return of his illness seized him, 
and his death speedily followed. 

The wife of Benjamin Harrison was Elizabeth, a daughter of Colonel 
William Bassett, of Eltham, New Kent county, Virginia, and a daughter 
of the sister of Martha Washington. She was a very beautiful woman, 
remembered as being as good as she was beautiful, and survived her hus- 
band only one year. They had many children, of whom three sons and 
four daughters lived to mature years. Their third son, William Henry 
Harrison, was ninth President of the United States. 


Was the eldest son of William Nelson, an English gentlemen who settled 
at York, province of Virginia, in the early part of the eighteenth century, 
and engaged for a time in a mercantile business. Acquiring a fortune, he 
invested it in large landed estates, and gradually withdrew from commercial 
pursuits. In the interval between the administrations of Lord Botetourt 
and Lord Dunmore, William Nelson filled the office of governor oi Vir- 
ginia. After retiring from this office he presided over the supreme court 
of the province, and was regarded as the ablest judge of his time. He died 
a few years before the Revolution, leaving five sons. 

Thomas Nelson, jr., "the worthy son of such an honored sire," was born 
at York, December 26, 1738. In the summer of 1753 he was sent to Eng- 
land to receive a collegiate education, and after attending private school 
was entered at Trinity College. Here he distinguished himself by honora- 
ble conduct and good scholarship until his return to America, in the winter 
of 1761. 

In August, 1762, he was joined in wedlock with Lucy, daughter of 
Philip Grymes, of Middlesex county, Virginia. They established them- 
selves at York in such a home as their abundant means justified, and lived 
in a style of great elegance and hospitality. 

Thomas Nelson's public record begins in 1774, when we find him a mem- 
ber for York of that House of Burgesses which the wrath of Lord Dunmore 
dissolved, on account of their resolutions censuring the Boston port bill. 
Mr. Nelson was one of the eighty-nine delegates who assembled themselves 
the next day at a friendly tavern, and formed the celebrated association 
which resolved at all hazards to defend their rights and maintain their lib- 

Mr. Nelson was elected from his county a member of the first Virginia 
Convention, which met at Williamsburg, August 1, 1774. In March, 


1775, he was again a representative to the Virginia convention, and was 
prominent in the debate of that session on the arl visibility of a military 
force, Mr. Nelson asserting that such a force was necessary to the interests 
of the colonists and so putting his vote upon record. 

The third Virginia convention assembled at Richmond, Virginia, July 
17, 1776, and again Thomas Nelson, jr., was the representative of York. 
The work of raising colonial troops was now being actively pursued, and 
Mr. Nelson was made colonel of the second regiment raised, the command 
of the first regiment having been given Patrick Henry. 

August 11, 1775, Virginia appointed among her delegates to the Conti- 
nental Congress in Philadelphia Colonel Nelson, and he, believing the post 
of danger and of duty was there, resigned his military command, _ repaired 
to Phifadelphia, and took his seat in Congress September 13, 1775. Here 
he was one of the first to advocate an absolute separation from Great Brit- 
ain. Writing to a friend February 13, 1776, Colonel Nelson said : "In- 
dependence, confederation, and foreign alliances are as formidable to some 
of the Congress (I fear a majority) as an apparition to a weak, enervated 
woman. Would you think we have still some among us who expect honor- 
able proposals from the administration ! By heavens, I am an infidel in pol- 
itics, for I do not believe, were you to bid a thousand pounds per scruple 
for honour at the court of Britain, that you would get as many as would 
amount to an ounce. If terms should be proposed, they will savour so much 
of despotism that America cannot accept them. * * * What think 
you of the right reverend fathers in God, the bishops? One of them re- 
fused to ordain a young gentleman who went from this country, because he 
was a rebellious American; so that, unless we submit to parliamentary op- 
pression, we shall not have the gospel of Christ preached among us." 

Through the opening of the session of 1776, Colonel Nelson maintained 
this advanced position on the question of independence, and in that spirit 
signed his name to the Declaration. During the remainder of that term, 
and the beginning of the term of 1777, he served on many important 
committees, and took part in all measures that advanced the general wel- 
fare of the new States. 

A severe indisposition seized him while in his seat in Congress, May 2, 
1777, and a recurring trouble of the head warned him for a time to cease 
his labors, and he returned home, leaving his term to be filled by another. 
In August, 1777, the British fleet appeared off the coast of Virginia 
again, and again Colonel Nelson was called to the field. He was appointed 
by the governor brigadier-general and commander of the forces of the 
commowvealth of Virginia, and at once entered upon the discharge of 
all the important duties of that command, while refusing to take from the 
impoverished nation any remuneration therefor. 

In the October following, General Nelson, as a member of the State leg- 
islature, had another opportunity to show his sense of the honorable in 


money matters. An act was introduced and passed by the assembly for 
the sequestration of British property. Such an act could, and would, of 
course, be construed so that all debts owed those who were known to be 
loyal to England would be considered outlawed. General Nelson vehe- 
mently opposed the passage of the bill, and in closing a speech supporting 
his position, said: "I hope the bill will be rejected ; but whatever its fate, 
by God, I will pay my debts like an honest man." The breach of order 
into which his feelings had betrayed him was overlooked, but the bill 
became a law. 

General Nelson continued in active service with the army until his 
health was restored, when, on the 18th of February, 1779, he took his 
seat in the State Assembly. Again the same illness attacked him, and, 
yielding to the expostulations of his physician, and the entreaties of his 
friends, he returned to his home for rest. But in the following month he 
again took the field. 

During the gloomy days of financial depression and disastrous defeats 
that followed, no man's influence in Virginia was more widely felt or more 
generously given to the American cause than that of General Nelson. 

In the spring of 1781, he was elected governor of the Commonwealth, 
but after performing the arduous duties of that office until the November 
following, constant and increasing illness forced him to resign. 

Retiring now permanently from public and political life, Mr. Nelson 
passed his time alternately between his two estates, one called Offly, situ- 
ated on the left bank of South Anna river, in Hanover county, and 
the other in York county. Surrounded by friends and relatives, he now 
passed several years in comparative quiet, though with always failing 

Death ended his sufferings Sunday, January 4, 1789. 


The fourth son of Thomas and Hannah (Ludwell) Lee, was born Octo- 
ber 14, 1734, in Westmoreland county, province of Virginia, and was 
named Francis Lightfoot Lee. He received his education at home under 
the tuition of a Scotch clergyman named Craig, and having at his com- 
mand a valuable library collected by his father, afterward the property of 
the oldest son of the family, Philip. 

About the time he reached manhood his three older brothers, Philip, 
Thomas and Richard Henry, returned from abroad, where they had been 
educated, and in their society he attained that polbh and refinement of 
manner which was in after life one of his distinguishing characteristics. 

In 1765, Francis LightfootLee took his seat in the House of Burgesses, 
as member from Loudoun county, in which county he was possessed of a 
considerable estate. He continued a member of the House for Loudoun 
county until 1772. In that year he married Rebecca, second daughter of 


Colonel John Tayloe, of Richmond county, and took up his residence in 
that county. In the same year he was returned to the House of Burges3e* 
for Richmond county. 

August 15, 1775, the convention of Virginia elected him to a seat in the 
Continental Congress, which position he filled so as to receive three succes- 
sive re-elections: June 20, 1776 ; May 22, 1777; May 29, 1778. 

His work in Congress, faithfully performed, was not of the brilliant 
character of his elder brother's work, as he was no orator. But when- 
future generations remember the name of Richard Henry Lee, as that oi 
the gallant Virginian whose voice was first raised in advocacy of our inde- 
pendence, it will not be forgotten that among the devoted sons of that State 
who supported his position was one, his brother in blood, and his colleague in 
principle, Francis Lightfoot Lee. 

In the spring of 177!), Mr. Lee retired from Congress, and was imme- 
diately elected to the Senate of Virginia under the new constitution of that 
State. He did not long remain in public life, however, all his inclina- 
tions being toward home life and rural occupations, and the state of the 
country no longer demanding from him the sacrifice of his private tastes. 

Reading, farming, and the entertainment of triends and neighbors filled 
his remaining days with quiet happiness, until his death, which occurred 
in April, 1797. His beloved wife died within a few days of his own 
demise, and they left no children. 


Seventh signer of the Declaration of Independence in behalf of the pror- 
ince of Virginia, was born at Newington, King and Queen countv, Vir- 
ginia, September 10, 1736. His father was George Braxton, a wealthy 
planter, and a member of the House of Burgesses. His mother was 
Mary, daughter of Robert Carter, who was a member of the King's council, 
and in 1726, its president. 

Carter Braxton received a liberal education at William and Mary Col- 
lege, and upon leaving college entered at once upon the possession a large 
property, having lost both his parents, his mother when he was seven day9 
old, and his father during his school days. 

At the early age of nineteen he married Judith, daughter of Christopher 
Robinson, of Middlesex countv. She was possessed of uncommon beautv 
as well as a large fortune, and they enjoyed two years of wedded happi- 
ness when the lady died, in giving birth to a second daughter, December 
30, 1757. 

Soon after his wife's death Mr. Braxton visited England, returning in 
1760. May 15, 1761, he married Elizabeth Corbin, eldest daughter of 
Richard Corbin, of King and Queen county, receiver-general of customs 
for the colony of Virginia. The orlspring of this marriage were sixteen. 


six of whom died in infancy. Mrs. Braxton survived her husband, dying 

in 1814. 

It is believed, but cannot be absolutely ascertained, that Carter Braxton 
was a member of the House of Burgesses as early as 1761. It u cer- 
tain he took an active part in the eventful session of 1765, supporting 
the celebrated resolutions of Patrick Henry. He was also a member of 
the House in 1700. which was dissolved by Lord Botetourt. 

But this dissolution of the House d'id not change the material of 
which it was composed. The indignant people returned the same mem- 
bers, without one change, and Mr. Braxton, among the rest, was present 
at the opening of the session of November, 1709. He continued a mem- 
ber of the House until the dissolution of the assembly of 1771. Accept- 
ing then the office of high sheriff of his county (then King William), he 
was ineligible to act as representative. 

The first Virginia convention was assembled at Williamsburg, August 1. 

1774, and to this convention Mr. Braxton was elected by King William 
county. The convention met again March 20, 1775. 

The last and most important meeting of the House of Burgesses was 
convened by Lord Dunmore, June 1, f775. Mr. Braxton was an active 
member of this house, serving on three of the regular and on several of 
the special committees. This assembly, however, was in session only fifteen 
days. They had met on the 1st of June, and on the night between the 
7th and 8th, the governor, Lord Dunmore, lied from his palace to the 
"Fowey." No entreaties or assurances on the part of the House could 
induce his return, and as they very properly refused to convene on board 
his frigate, it was impossible to transact further business. ' On the 15th 
the session was adjourned until October, but it was never re-a--sembled.^ 

The Convention of Virginia, however, again assembled July 17, 1775, 
and continued in session until August 20th. It met again in December, 

1775, and on the 15th of that month appointed Carter Braxton to succeed 
Pevton Randolph, lately deceased, in the national council. He repaired 
to Philadelphia, and continued in his seat until the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence had received his signature. 

In 1770 Mr. Braxton was elected to the House of Delegates of Virginia, 
and in that House he served during the sessions of 1877, '70, '80, '81, 'S3 and 
*85. In the last year he was one of the supporters of the act for estab- 
lishing religious freedom in Virginia, an act penned and proposed by 
Jefferson and advocated by Madison. 

In January, 1780, Mr. "Braxton was appointed a member of the coun- 
cil of State, "and continued to act with that body until March 30, 1791. 
In 1793, he was again appointed to the executive council, and taking up 
the duties of the office May 31, 1794. he continued to perform them until 
bis death, meeting fur the "last time with the council October 0, 1797, only 
four days before his death. 


Signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

(Never before published or enyraved.) 
From a miniature in the possession of his family. 


The last years of his life were distressed by great pecuniary embarrass- 
ments. Of the large fortunes in his possession when he was twenty-one, 
nothing remained. His personal property had passed into the hands of 
the sheriif ; part of his vast estates had been sold from time to time, the 
remainder, with his slaves and household goods, was heavily mortgaged; law 
euits accumulated on him, until the court of chancery groaned under the 
weight of suits in which he was party, either as plaintiff or defendant, and 
many of his friends and relatives had become involved in his disasters. 

Under these accumulations of embarrassments, his heart broke, his 
strength failed, he experienced two paralytic shocks in succession, the sec- 
ond one removing him from earth and its troubles, October 10, 1797. 


A delegate to the Continental Congress of 1776 from the colony of North 
Carolina, was born in Boston, province of Massachusetts Bay, June 17, 
1742. He was of Scotch descent, a son of William Hooper, born in 1702, 
who was educated at the University of Edinburgh, and shortly after emi- 
grated to America, settling in Boston, where he married a daughter of 
John Dennie, a merchant of that town. 

William Hooper, the son, attended the free grammar school of Boston, 
until at the age of fifteen he was sent to Harvard University. In this col- 
lege he studied three years, and was graduated in 1760 with the degree of 
bachelor of arts, leaving college high in rank and reputation. 

His father intended him for the church, but his own inclination was to 
the bar, and he began reading law in the office of James Otis, of Boston. 
It may well be assumed that under such leadership, and among such asso- 
ciates as always surrounded Otis, young Hooper learned as much of the 
duties of rebellion as of legal lore. 

He established himself in practice, in 1767, at Wilmington, North Car- 
olina, where he had influential friends, and married a lady of that city, 
Anne Clark, sister of Thomas Clark, afterward a well-known general in 
the Continental army. He prosecuted his professional duties with such 
ardor that, in 1768, at the age of twenty-six, he was spoken of as one of 
the leading members of the bar. 

In 1773, he was chosen to represent Wilmington in the General Assem- 
bly of North Carolina, and again, in 1774, he represented the county of 

August 25, 1774, at a general meeting of deputies from the entire 
province, held at Newbern, William Hooper was chosen one of the dele- 
gates to represent the province in the Continental Congress to be assembled 
in Philadelphia that year. 

He took his seat September 12th, and was immediately put upon two 
important committees ; one was to draw up a general statement of the 
rights of the colonists, and the other to inquire into the state of trade an<1 


manufactures in the colonies. Through the sessions in 1775-76, Mr. 
Hooper continued to act as representative, and was often engaged, with 
the most illustrious members of the Congress, in important and arduous 
committee work. 

He was again elected to Congress, December 20, 1776, but his personal 
affairs had become so involved during the three years his time had been 
given to the service of the public, that he was obliged to ask leave to ab- 
sent himself from his seat in Congress. He withdrew from that body, on 
temporary leave of absence, February 4, 1777, and shortly after resigned 
his seat. 

During the remaining years of the Revolutionary war he exerted him- 
self in North Carolina in keeping alive the hope of the people, and in 
inciting them to further patriotic sacrifices. His own beautiful dwelling 
house, which stood near the river, was a target for the British fleet, and 
was destroyed by them. His family were removed to a plantation inland 
but their retreat was raided by the British forces, and he was compelled to 
send them back to Wilmington, and insure their safety by seeking his 
own asylum elsewhere. He did not rejoin them until, .in 1781, the British 
troops had evacuated Wilmington, and been driven from the North Caro- 
lina coast. 

Returning then to the duties of his profession, he gave his time to pri- 
vate affairs until 1786. In that year he was constituted one of the judges 
of a Federal court convened to settle a territorial dispute between New 
York and Massachusetts. 

For the few remaining years of his life he continued to hold a high rank 
in the legislative councils of the State, and fully sustained his reputation 
at the bar, although his health was failing, and his life rapidly drawing to 
its close. 

He died at Hillsborough, North Carolina, in October, 1790, leaving a 
wife and three children, two sons and one daughter. 


Born in Kingston, New Jersey, in 1730, was the son of Quaker parents, 
who had emigrated from Connecticut and settled in that province in the 
early years of their wedded life. 

He was educated at Princeton, and then entered upon a mercantile 
career in Philadelphia, for some years dividing his time between that city 
and New York, and conducting large commercial interests in both cities. 

About 1760, he removed to North Carolina, settling at Edentown, were, 
by his business abilities and honorable dealings in all personal alfairs, he 
early won the esteem and confidence of the people of that town, a regard 
which he merited and received to the close of his life. 


He was elected to ihe General Assembly while yet a comparative 
stranger in the province, and the appointment was repeatedly given him, 
and its duties faithfully discharged. Pie was one or the three delegates 
from North Carolina to the first Congress in Philadelphia, and entered the 
session, September 14, 1774. He served through the momentous years 
1775-76, and again in 1779. Eminently a man of business, with large 
brain, and habits of great industry, he was always one of the useful, 
working members of that body, although less conspicuous in its annak 
than those who possessed the talent of oratory. 

His unremitting labors, indeed, taxed too severely a constitution never 
strong, and his last vote was recorded October 29, 1779. The duties of 
that day ended, he betook himself to a sick chamber, where death found 
him, November 10, 1779. 

His funeral was attended by Congress in a body, and by many distin- 
guished citizens of Philadelphia, who desired to pay the last tribute of res- 
pect to one who was universally mourned as an earnest patriot and honest 


Another honorable instance of the self-made men of early American 
history, was John Penn, third signer of the Declaration of Independence 
on benalf of the province of North Carolina. 

Born in Caroline county, Virginia, May 17, 1741, John Penn was the 
son and only child of Moses Penn. His father was a man of considerable 
means, but probably of very narrow views, since at his death, which 
occurred when John Penn was eighteen, his son had received no education 
except what could be obtained by two or three winters' attendance at a 
country school. 

But John Penn was possessed of a mind that would thrive and not 
starve, in spite of circumstances. Finding himself now possessed of 
some means, he applied to Edmund Pendleton, one of Virginia's dis- 
tinguished patriots, for advice and assistance. This gentleman, who was 
distantly related to Penn, kindly placed the use of a fine library at his 
disposal, and young Penn settled down to an energetic course of reading 
by which he soon redeemed lost time. 

At the age of twenty-one he was admitted to practice at the bar of his 
native county, prepared only by the exercise of his own judgment in read- 
ing and study. By close application, and natural and cultivated powers 
of eloquence, he soon rose to eminence in his chosen profession. 

In July, 1763, he married Susan Lyme, and joy and sorrow visited 
their domestic hearth, of the three children who were born to them only 
one surviving infancy. 

In 1774, John Penn took up his residence in North Carolina, where he 
attained the same professional distinction that had rewarded his efforts in 
Virginia. After only one year's residence in the province, so highly was 
he esteemed, and so widely had his fame become recognized, he was elected 


as one of North Carolina's representatives in the Continental Congress of 
1775, taking his seat on the 12th of October. . , , " 

Again a member in the following year, when the 'crisis of colonial affaire 
was reached, he was one of the immortal fifty-six who attached their 
names to the daring document with which the colonies met that crisis. He 
sustained his office with credit to himself and honor to North Carolina for 
three successive years, and then returned to his professional duties. 

In 1784, Robert Morris appointed him receiver of taxes for North 
Carolina. It was then an office of high trust and honor, but one very un- 
popular with the people. Accustomed to their regard and reverence, bis 
feelings would not permit him to act against their approbation, and he 
resigned after a few weeks' trial of it. 

His death occurred in September, 1788. 


This son of South Carolina was of Irish parentage, his father, Dr. John 
Rutledge, having emigrated from Ireland in 1735, and settled at Charles- 
ton. Here Edward Rutledge was born, in November, 1740, the youngest 
of seven children. 

Of his early life, little is known, save that he attained sufficient educa- 
tion to qualify him for entering upon the study of law. He was a law 
student under the instruction of his eldest brother, John, who was 
established in practice at Charleston, and rapidly advancing to the head of 
his profession. With this brother, Edward Rutledge continued his studies 
until 1769, when lie was sent to England, and entered as a student at the 
Temple. He spent the required term there, and then, returning to 
Charleston, was admitted to practice in 1773. 

In 1774 he was elected to represent South Carolina at the first conven- 
tion in Philadelphia of the Congress of the united colonies, and was 
annually returned to that body until he had served to the close of the 
session of 1777. It will be remembered that the people of South Caro- 
lina were unprepared for accepting so absolute a declaration as that passed 
by Congress on July 4, 177b. In this their representative was not in 
sympathy with them, he believing the measure right and politic, and 
appending his signature with alacrity when the opportunity was given. 

In 1779 Mr. Rutledge was again made a delegate to Congress, and 
started to resume his seat. lie was arrested by sickness while on the 
journey, and obliged to return home, nor did he again appear in the legis- 
lative halls. 

In 1 80 he was made prisoner by the British, and sent to St. Augus- 
tine, Florida, where he was detained nearly a year. He was then 
exchanged and, after the enemy had evacuated Charleston, he returned to 
his native city, meeting with joy the friends and relatives from whom he 


had been separated. Among the rest was his mother, who had also been 
for a year a close prisoner of the British, who thought her too dangeroua 
an enemy to be left at liberty. 

Edward Rutledge now passed seventeen year3 in the practice ot his pro- 
fession, and as member, for much of the time, of the State legislature. 
When General Pinckney retired from the United States Senate, where he 
had represented South Carolina, Mr. Rutledge was chosen to fill his seat, 
and, in 1798, he was elected governor of the State. 

He did not live to serve out his term as chief magistrate, his death 
occurring January 23, 1800. He had been twice married, his second 
wife surviving him, and left one son and one daughter to continue his line, 


Son of Colonel Dane Hey ward, one of the wealthiest planters of South 
Carolina, was born in that province, St. Lukes parish, in 1746. Under 
the supervision of his father, a man of learning, he attended the best 
classical school in the colony, and attained great proficiency as a student, 
particularly of the Latin tongue, whose historians and poets he delighted 
to read in the original. 

As was customary in the southern provinces, he was sent to complete hia 
education in England, where he pursued his studies diligently. While 
residing in England he became impressed with the difference there made 
between the English born at home and those from the colonics, the latter, 
indeed, being treated as though they were of an inferior class. He 
returned home strengthened in his love for his native land, and not likely 
to forget the slights which, for her sake, he had received abroad. 

He entered upon the practice of law, and was united in marriage with 
a Miss Matthews, a South Carolinian of good family, whose delight it was 
ever in their wedded lives to make his home a place of retreat where he 
might forget the toils and perplexities of his public life. 

The superior education, warm patriotism, and genial temperament of 
Thomas Heyward, early in his professional life drew about him a circle of 
friends, and by the people he was soon recognized as a fitting person to be 
their representative in public affairs. 

He was returned to the Continental Congress for the province of South 
Carolina in 1775, and took his seat in season to listen to the discussions on 
the proposed Declaration of Independence. In the following session he 
had the pleasure ot affixing his name to that document in the interests of 
South Carolina. 

In 1778, he accepted a seat on the bench of the civil and criminal 
courts, in his native province, and showed his patriotism by his conduct 
there. With a large fortune to lose, with liberty and life itself at stake, 
with the British Heet at anchor within gunshot range, he presided at the 
trial of persons charged as traitors for holding correspondence with the 

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(fju^S $s£*$<s~ 


enemy, and condemned them to death, their execution, in plain view fron> 
the British lines, following. 

At thesame time he was judge of court he was holding a military commis- 
sion, and he participated in the engagement at Beaufort, receiving a gun- 
shot wound. The town fell, and Heyward, with Rutledge, was made 
Erisoner, and sent to St. Augustine, Florida. During his imprisonment 
is plantation was laid waste and his slaves seized by the British. The 
slaves were sent to cultivate the sugar plantations of Jamaica, and although 
some were recovered after peace was declared, 130 were never restored. 
Before he returned home he felt, too, the anguish of knowing that death 
had taken his loved wife, and left their children alone. 

On his return to South Carolina he entered at once upon the service of 
the public, and in discharging these duties his peace of mind was in a 
measure restored. He resumed his seat on the bench, acting as judge 
until 1788. In 1790 he assisted in the framing of a State constitution, 
and in the following year he retired from public life. 

He entered upon a second marriage, of which three children were born 
to his old age, and a few years of tranquil happiness were given him. 
Thus, after a stormy and eventful life, he died in peace, at his own coun- 
try seat, surrounded by his many children, in March, 1809, at the age 
of 63. 


Was descended from an excellent family, for many generations residents 
in Linz, province of Upper Austria. One branch of this family left 
Germany, and settled in the county of Kent, England, and from thence 
emigrated to Connaught, Ireland. The great grandfather of Thomas 
Lynch left Ireland and came to South Carolina in the earliest days of the 
settlement of that colony, taking up vast tracts of wild land. By this 
speculation his descendants were enriched, and Thomas Lynch, the elder, 
father of the subject ot this sketch, was one of the wealthiest planters of 
South Carolina, at the time of his son's birth. 

The event occurred at the family plantation, on the North Santee river, 
Prince George county, August 5, 1740. On his mother's side, Thomas 
Lynch, jr., was connected with the Alston family, one of the be^t known in 
South Carolina. 

When about thirteen years old, young Lynch was sent to England, and 
placed at school at Eton, where he remained until he was ready for 
Cambridge. From that university he was graduated with honor, and at 
his father's desire, commenced the study of law. His vast wealth, how- 
ever, as well as his inclination, deterred him from desiring to enter upon 
active practice. 

He returned home in 1772, after an absence of eight years, and soon 
after attaining his majority. He was happily joined in marriage with 


Elizabeth Shu brick, who had been the love of his childhood, and all 
circumstances seemed to promise a happy and tranquil life for the young 

In 1775 he received a captain's commission in the first regiment of pro- 
vincial troops raised in South Carolina. The exposures incident upon a 
soldier's life, to which was added an attack of hilious fever, so undermined 
the health of Captain Lynch as to unfit him for dutv. About the same 
time his father, who had been a member for South Carolina in the Con- 
gress at Philadelphia, was obliged to resign his seat and return home on 
account of ill health, and the son wa3 immediately appointed by the South 
Carolina Assembly to succeed him. 

Captain Lynch hastened to Philadelphia, and was in season to partici- 
pate in the deliberations of 177G, which preceded the adoption of the 
Declaration, and to vote for and affix his name to that measure. His health 
now rapidly declined, and the two invalids, father and son, determined to 
leave Philadelphia and return to South Carolina. 

They proceeded slowly, and had reached Annapolis when a paralytic 
shock ended the life of the elder Thomas Lynch. 

The son reached home at last, but so broken in health that all his friends 
united in urging upon him a season of rest from all public labors. After 
remaining at home for nearly two years, without visible improvement In 
his condition, a sea voyage to the south of Europe was determined upon. 

Accompanied by his loved and loving wife, he set sail in 1779. The rest 
is a blank. No news of the vessel on which they sailed was ever received 
from the day she left port. It is likely she foundered at sea, and that all 
on board, including Thomas Lynch, jr., and his beautiful wife, were lost. 

"They were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in their deaths they 
were not divided." 


Arthur Middleton, son of Henry Middleton, a wealthy planter of South 
Carolina, was born at Middleton Place, a town in that province which 
had been settled by his ancestors His birth occurred in 1743. 

At an early age he was sent to England, attending school first at Hack- 
ney, whence, at the age of fourteen, he was sent to Westminster. At 
Westminster he remained four years, and then entered Cambridge Uni- 
versity. He took hi3 degree at the age of twenty-two, and spent some 
time visiting various places in England, after which he passed over to the 
Continent, and spent two fears visiting the cities of Southern Europe. 

Returning to South Carolina, he was united in marriage with a Miss 
Izard, of that province, and a year after their marriage they sailed for 
Europe, and spent some time happily wandering among die cities oi 
France and Spain. In 1773 they .eturned to America. 

In the following year, both Henry and Arthur Middleton, father and 


•on, entered upon public life as. agitators in their province of the cau3e of 
independence. From this time forward Arthur Middleton was actively 
engaged in promoting the cause of the colonists in all possible ways and 
upon all occasions. 

He was a member of various committees, among others the " Committee 
of Safety" for South Carolina, and in 1776, was elected by the Assembly 
to serve the province as their representative in the Continental Congress of 
that year. There he appended his signature to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and performed such other duties as the occasion demanded. 

He continued a member of Congress until the close of the session of 
1777. In 1778 he was chosen first governor of South Carolina under the 
new State constitution. He declined serving, having doubts of the legal- 
ity of the constitution. 

In 1779, when the British invaded South Carolina, Mr. Middleton left 
his own vast property interests to the ravages of the enemy, and devoted 
his time entirely to the public interests. In the following year he was 
taken prisoner, and with his illustrious colleagues, Lynch and Heyward, 
sent to St. Augustine. 

On his exchange, he was elected again a representative to Congress, 
and again in 1782. In November of that year he returned to his family, 
from whom public duty and the vicissitudes of war had long separated 

After that, except for service in the State legislature, he remained in 
private life. 

In 1787 he contracted an intermittent fever, and neglecting to call in 
medical aid, relying on the " power of nature," so undermined hi3 consti- 
tution that he died from its effects in January, 17S8. 


Was born in England in 1732, and educated for a commercial life. He 
became a resident in America in 1770, when, with his wife and family, 
he settled in Charleston, South Carolina. There he engaged in mercantile 

{mrsuits for two years, and then, purchasing a number of slaves, and a 
arge tract of land on St. Catherines Island, Georgia, he took up his resi- 
dence there, and followed a planter's life. 

In the beginning of 1775 Mr. Gwinnett warmly espoused the cause of 
the colonists in their contest with Great Britain, and in February, 1776, 
he was appointed by the General Assembly of Georgia one of the repre- 
sentatives from that province to the Continental Congress, and he was the 
first member from Georgia to sign the Declaration as amended and 

The representatives appointed from Georgia to attend this session of 
the general Congress were six : Button Gwinnett, Archibald Bullock, 
Lyman Hall, John Houston, George Walton, and the Rev. Dr. Zubly 


Mr. Bullock never took his seat, remaining in Georgia where he had 
been appointed president of the provincial congress; thcRev. Dr. Zubly 
proved a traitor, as narrated in these pagcsin the sketch of the life of Mr. 
Chase, of Maryland ; and John Houston was sent by the Congress in pur- 
suit of the reverend traitor, who had fled from the wrath of his colleague! 
to his native province. The Signers of the Declaration on behalf of 
Georgia were, therefore, only three: Gwinnett, Hall and Walton. 

Gwinnett served until the following year, and in February, 1777, wa» 
one of the convention who framed the State constitution of Georgia. In 
this month, he was also elected president of the provincial council. He had 
now attained the highest station in the province, within one year from 
the time of his first appearance in public life, and within seven years of 
his becoming a citizen of America. 

But this rapid promotion of a " native Englishman," to positions of trust 
and power, raised against Mr. Gwinnett many enemies. Among these 
one of the most powerful was a General MTntosh, who had been his 
successful rival for the position of brigadier-general. A challenge passed 
between the two men, and in the encounter which followed both were 
wounded, Mr. Gwinnett fatally, and his death followed, on the 27th of 
May, 1777. 

Thus died in his forty-fifth year, and in his greatest usefulness, Button 
Gwinnett, a victim to the laws of false honor and of mortified pride. He 
left a widow and several young children, none of whom long survived 
him, and none of his direct descendants ever blessed the land of hi* 


Born about 1731, in Connecticut, passed his boyhood in that colony, and 
there received his classical and professional education, choosing the 
benevolent and responsible calling of doctor of medicine. 

He married a lady of good social standing and some fortune, and, in 1752, 
they left Connecticut to make their home in some one of the mo/e Southern 
provinces. Settling first in South Carolina, in less than a year they 
removed to Georgia, and established themselves in Medsvay district, in 
Sunbury. Here about forty New England families settled about Dr. 
Hall, among whom he foi.'owed his professional duties until the opening of 
the Revolutionary war. 

He first appeared prominently in public affairs in July, 1774, when he 
attended a general meeting of citizens of Georgia which convened in 
Savannah. This convention was twice assembled during that year, but 
so great was the attachment of the people to the mother country of which 
they still fondly spoke as "home," that they deferred decisive action until 
another year, hoping against hope that the unwise ministry of England 
might be changed or so modified and restricted that the colonists might 
retain their allegiance to the crown, and not forfeit self-respect. 


They hoped in vain, and yet deferred action until some sections of the 
province, more determined than the rest, acted independently, and without 
the sanction of the provincial government. In this way the parish of St. 
John delegated Lyman Hall to represent that section of the province in 
the Continental Congress, on the 25th of March, 1775. 

May 13th Dr. Hall presented himself in Congress with his credentials 
from the parish, and asked the pleasure of that body upon the question of 
his admission. Congress, in this unprecedented case, unanimously resolved 
to admit him to a seat, subject to such restrictions a3 they should adopt 
relative to his voting. During that session Dr. Hall listened to the debates 
and participated in them, voting on such measures a3 were submitted to 
individual consideration, and abstaining when the vote was taken by 

Three months from his appointment from St. John parish, Dr. Hall was 
also appointed one of five delegates representing the province of Georgia. 
He presented his new credentials in May, 1776, was admitted to full 
membership in Congress and in the August following, in the name of 
Georgia, appended his signature to the Declaration. 

In 1780 Dr. Hall was again a delegate from Georgia to the Continental 
Congress. In the same year he was compelled to take his family north 
for protection from tory sympathisers who lived about his residence, and 
the existing government confiscated all his property. 

In 1782 he returned to Georgia, and in the following year was elected 
governor of the State. After serving one term he retired to private life, 
settling in Burk county, where a few peaceful years were vouchsafed him. 
In his sixtieth year he buried his only son and his own death followed in a 
few weeks. As he had been respected in life he waa lamented in death. 


The subject of this sketch was a native of the p<ovince of Virginia, born 
• in Frederick county about 1740. His parentage is obscure, and his child- 
hood and youth seem to have been passed in poverty. At an early age 
he was apprenticed to the trade of carpenter, and during his service under 
the master who taught him his trade he was allowed neither time by day 
nor lights by nieht that he might attain any knowledge of books. 

But George Walton, born to a destiny where knowledge was to be a 
necessity, was able to bear and to overcome an adverse fate. He collected 
pitch-knots for lights, stole time from his sleeping hours, and read and 
studied all the books he could obtain. So good a use did he make of these 
forced opportunities that, self-educated, he passed a successful examination 
and was admitted to practice at the Georgia bar in 1774. 

In the beginning of February, 1770, he was appointed delegate to Con- 
gress from Georgia, and re-elected in October of the same year. The two 



following years he was again re-elected, and again, after one year'3 inter- 
val, he served in the Congress of 1780. During these year3 he was 
actively engaged on many important committees, at one time serving as 
chairman of the marine committee, and he was also a member of the 
treasury hoard. 

In 1778 he received the military rank of colonel and took command of 
a regiment of militia. He appeared at the head of a battalion in Gen- 
eral Howe's army, when Savannah was attacked by the British. In that 
engagement, while gallantly leading a charge, he received a wound through 
his thigh, fell from his horse and was made prisoner. 

He was held at Sunbury nearly a year, and exchanged in season to take 
his seat in the Congress of 1780. He was elected for two years, but with- 
drew in the October following. 

He was subsequently made a judge in the highest court of the State ot 
Georgia, and served one term in the United States Senate as member for 
that State. He was also twice made governor of Georgia, the first time 
by appointment in 1779, when he did not serve, preferring his Congres- 
sional position, and again, under the new constitution, when he was elected 
governor by the suffrage of the people. 

The career of this self-taught carpenter's apprentice may be thus briefly 
summarized : Six times elected to Congress ; twice governor of Georgia ; 
* a colonel of the provincial army ; once United States Senator ; and fifteen 
years judge of the superior court. He also served several years in the 
State legislature, and was one of the commissioners who negotiated peace 
with the Cherokee Indians. 

His eventful life closed in the city of Augusta, Georgia, February 2, 180-i. 




First President of the United States, was born February 22, 1732, and 
died on the 14th of December, 1799, in his 68th year. 

The first of the name of Washington to settle in America were two 
brothers, John and Lawrence, who emigrated from England to Virginia in 
1657, and purchased land in Westmoreland county, between the Potomac 
and Rappahannock rivers. John Washington married Anne Page of 
Westmoreland county, became an extensive planter and a magistrate and 
member of the House of Burgesses. As Colonel Washington he led the 
Virginia militia against the Seneca Indians, and the grateful people whom 
he defended named in his honor that district of Westmoreland county 
which still bears the name of Washington. 

Augustine Washington, grandson of John, was born in 1694 on the 
family estate which he in time inherited. He was twice married, his sec- 
ond wife being Mary, daughter of Colonel Ball, of Virginia, and the first 
born child of their marriage was George Washington, whose birth occurred 
in Westmoreland county. 

Not long after the birth of this son Augustine Washington removed to 
a family estate in Stafford county, and here the childhood of George wa3 
passed, and he received what instructions could be gathered from the lim- 
ited acquirements in reading, writing and arithmetic of one Hobby, who 
was one of his father's tenants, and combined the duties of parish sexton 
with the swaying of the birch in the little field school house on the estate. 

But in the home circle young Washington had good example and good 
instruction in all that constitutes gentle breeding, and from his ninth vear 
he had the intimate companionship of his eldest half brother, Lawrence, 
who had been, as was the custom with the eldest son of a colonial gentle- 
man, educated in lingland. There was a difference of fourteen vears in 
the age of the half brothers, but a warm atfection letween them, and 
George naturally looked upon his cultivated senior as a pattern after which 
he should model his own mind and manners. 

The death of Augustine Washington in 1743 left the children of his 
•eoond marriage to the guardianship of their mother. She was equal to 


the trust— prompt to decide and to act, controlled by common sense and by 
conscience, she governed her family with a firm hand, and held their love 
while exacting their obedience. Through his entire life Washington 
acknowledged with love and gratitude how much of what he was he owed 
to his mother. He preserved with tender care a manual of instruction 
from which she was accustomed to read to her fatherless little ones, ar_d 
this manual may now be seen in the archives of Mount \ ernon. 

When about twelve vears of age, Washington went to pass some tune 
with his brother Lawrence, at Mount Vernon, and to avail himself of bet- 
ter «»chool facilities, but his education was confined to plain English 
branches of study. In the autumn of 1747, he took a final leave of school, 
having a good knowledge of mathematics and of surveying, which he put 

to practical use. . ... . , 

In March, 1748, he was sent by Lord Fairfax to survey some wild lands 
in what was then the western borders of settlement, a difficult task, which he 
completed in a month's time. He then received the appointment of public 
surveyor, which office he held three years. 

For some years the French and English governments had been disput- 
ing the ownership of the North American continent, and each, by diplo- 
macy endeavoring to secure the alliance of the Indian tribes. October 
30 1753 George Washington, not yet twenty-two years of age, was sent 
by Governor Dniwiddie, of Virginia, on the important embassy of secur- 
ing terms of friendship with the Indian sachems along the Ohio, and to 
expostulate with the French commander at Venango for his aggressions on 
the territoiy of His Britannic Majesty. The ability with which \\ ashing- 
ton executed his difficult mission, which he accomplished so that he was 
able to report, January 1G, 1754, may be considered the foundation of his 
future eminence. From this date he was the rising hope of \ irgmia. 

French and English alike now began preparations for war, and in Vir- 
ginia three hundred militia was raised, and Washington made second in 
command, with rank of lieutenant-colonel. On the 2d of April he took 
the field at the head of only two companies^ men, about 150 in all. For 
five years following he was in the roval service, and in several battles was 
in command. During the engagement known as "Braddocks Defeat, 
he received four bullet-holes through his coat, and two horses were shot 
under him. The interest of the Virginians in the French and Indian 
war ended with the expulsion of the French from the Ohio Valley, and 
Washington resigned his command. _ 

January 17, 1759, he married Mrs. Martha Custis, and having inherited 
Mount Vernon at the death of his loved brother, Lawrence, July 26, 
1752, they made their home on that estate. 

Earlv "in the year of his marriage Washington repaired to XS llhams- 
burg to take the "seat in the Iluuse of Burgesses to which he had been 
elected. By a unanimous vote the house had agreed to greet his installa- 
tion with a testimonial of their gratitude for his military exertions in 



behalf of Virginia. This was conveyed to him in a graceful speech from 
Mr. Robinson, speaker of tiie House. Washington rose to reply, blushed, 
stammered, trembled — and was dumb. '' Sit down, Mr. Washington," 
eaid the Speaker, " your modesty equals /our valor, and that surpasses 

e force of any language I possess." 

During the next sixteen year3 Washington's time was occupied with hii 
property interests and in attendance on the sessions of the House of Bur- 
gesses, of which he continued a member. His residence was at Mount 
Vernon, and his growing reputation drew about him there many distin- 
guished guests, whom he entertained with true Virginian hospitality. 

His own home life was exceedingly simple. He was an -early riser, 
often leaving his room before daybreak of a winter's morning. He break- 
fasted at seven in summer, and eight in winter, his breakfast usually con- 
sisting of two small cups of tea and three or four "hoecakes." Immedi- 
ately after breakfast he mounted his horse and made a personal inspec- 
tion of the work on his estate. At two he dined, eating heartily, and 
drinking small beer or cider, followed by two glasses of old Madeira. He 
took tea, of which he was very fond, early in the evening, and retired for 
the night at nine o'clock. 

The troubles between the colonists and Great Britain engaged the atten- 
tion of the House of Burgesses during the last years of Washington's 
attendance on that body, and he was a member of that House which was 
dissolved by the royal governor for sympathizing with the colonists of 
Massachusetts in regard to the " Boston Port Bill." 

He was a delegate from Virginia to the first Continental Congress, in 
1774, and continued in his seat until in June, 1775, at the request of his 
colleagues he resigned to assume command of the Continental army. July 
3, 1775, General Washington took up his headquarters at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, welcomed with unbounded enthusiasm by his troops. The 
thoughts of a Crosar, the ambition of an Alexander, might be supposed to 
have swelled his heart that day. But at its close, he wrote to his friend 
and neighbor, George William Fairfax, then in England : 

"Unhappy it is to reflect that a brother's sword has been sheathed in a 
brother's breast, and that the once happy and peaceful plains of America 
are to be either drenched with blood or inhabited by slaves. Sad alterna- 
tive! But can a virtuous man hesitate in his choice?" 

The eight years of the Revolutionary War now ensued, during which 
time Washington was constantly at the post of duty assigned him; now 
commanding the battle on the fields of Trenton, of Princeton and of Brandy- 
wine; now quelling the factious spirit of subordinate officers who thought 
themselves able to command because they could not obey, and anon 
encouraging with kind words and little acts of self-sacrifice the drooping 
spirits and failing hopes of his sorely-tried army; now appealing to Con- 
gress for munitions of' war. for bread for his soldiers, and for soldiers to 


recruit his thinning ranks, and anon, kneeling in the snowy dark- 
ness of the winter's night at Valley Forge, and appealing to the God of 
battles and of right; now rebuking Lee on the field of Monmouth; and 
now seated on his white charger at the head of his victorious troops at 
Yorktown, receiving from the representative of Corn wall is the sword whose 
surrender betokened the downfall of the British cause in America. 
• April 19, 1783, eight years from the battle ot Lexington, cessation of 
hostilities between the two armies was proclaimed, and on the 3d of Sep- 
tember following a definite treaty of peace, as between two equal nations, 
was concluded and signed in Paris, by the representatives of Great Britain 
and of the United States of America. In October, 1783, Congress dis- 
banded the troops enlisted for the war, and Washington put forth his fare- 
well address to the army. 

December 4, 1783, in the public room of a tavern at the corner of Broad- 
way and Pearl streets, New York City, Washington, " with a heart full of 
love and gratitude," to quote his words, took leave of the officers who had 
served under him. Each in turn grasped his hands in farewell, while tears 
fell upon their cheeks, and upon the forehead of each of his companions 
in arms he left a kiss of farewell. 

At noon on the 23d of December, he entered the legislative hall at 
Annapolis, and resigned to Congress the authority with which he had 
been commissioned eight years before. Accompanied by his wife he at 
once set out for their loved Mount Vernon, which they reached on 
Christmas Eve, 1783. 

Washington now participated little in public affairs except to attend as 
delegate the Philadelphia convention in May, 1787, which framed the Fed- 
eral Constitution. He was unanimously chosen to preside over this con- 
vention, which duty fulfilled, he returned to Mount Vernon, and to private 

A few months before the disbanding of the army the " Society of the 
Cincinnati" was toimed, and Washington was made its President-Gen- 
eral, an office which he held until his death. The objects of the associa- 
tion were to promote cordial friendship among the soldiers of the Revolu- 
tionary army, and to extend aid to such members of the society as might 
need it. To perpetuate the association it was provided in the constitution 
that the eldest male descendant of a member should be entitled to wear 
the "Order" and enjoy the privileges of the society. The " Order," or 
badge, consists of a gold eagle suspended upon a ribbon, on the breast of 
which is a medallion, with a device representing Cincinnatus receiving 
the Roman Senators. 

History repeated itself upon the day when, on the 14th of March, 1789, 
Charles Thompson, Secretary of Congress, waited on Washington to 
inform him that he was chosen under the new Constitution as die first 
President of the United States. The soldier-farmer-statesman was tbund 
making the daily tour of his fields. 


Accepting the office, Washington made immediate preparations for his 
journey to the seat of government. His first duty was to his mother. 
Toward evening of the day on which he accepted the highest dignity of 
the nation, he rode from Mount Vernon to Fredericksburg, and knelt 
beside the chair of her to whom he owed the qualities which made him 
worthy of the honor bestowed upon him. 

It was a touching interview, and, as both felt, their last meeting on 
earth, for the venerable lady was now past eighty years of age, and suffer- 
ing from an incurable disease. She gave him a mother's blessing, and sent 
him to fulltil the high destinies to which Heaven had called him. Before 
his return to Virginia her death occurred, in August, 1789. 

April 6, Washington left Mount Vernon for New York, accompanied, as 
far as Alexandria, by a cavalcade of his neighbors and friends. At every 
step of his journey he was greeted with demonstrations of reverence and 
love. At Georgetown he was received with honors ; at Baltimore he was 
feasted ; near Philadelphia he rode under a triumphal arch of laurel, and 
little Angelica Peall, concealed among the foliage, placed upon his head 
a civic crown of laurel, while from the assembled multitude went up a 
shout of: "Long live George Washington 1 long live the Father of his 
Country." When he crossed the -Delaware at Trenton, scene of his victor- 
ies and defeats in his struggle with Cornwallis, he passed under an arch, 
supported by thirteen, pillars, which had been erected by the women of 
New Jersey and bore the words: "The defender of the mothers will be 
the protector of the daughters." At Elizabethtown, he was met by a com- 
mittee from the two houses of Congress, and by a deputation of civil and 
military officers. They had in waiting a magnificent barge manned by 
thirteen pilots in white uniforms. In this the president-elect was conveved 
to New York, where every display had been made in honor of his coming. 

April 30, 1789, the inauguration took place, the chancellor of New York 
State, Robert R. Livingston administering the oath. The bible used was 
then and is now the property of the St. John Lodge of Free Masons of 
New York City. When the ceremony was ended, President Washington 
proceeded at once to the Senate Chamber and pronounced a most impres- 
sive inaugural address, and the new government was ready to enter upon 
its duties. 

In the fall of 1792, he was elected to a second term as President of the 
United States, and served four years longer. Then, declining another 
re-election, he took leave of the people in a farewell address, issued to the 
country September 17, 179G. In this address he appealed to the people 
as the sovereign power in a Republican form of government, to preserve 
the Union as the only hope for the continuance of their liberties and the 
national prosperity. 

His career as President had been a most honorable one, calmlv pursued 
amid trying difficulties, and though often obstructed by the hostile criti- 


cisms of that factious spirit which is yet the curse of American poli- 
tics. Under his administrations the government had been put in motion, 
its financial, domestic and foreign policies established, and its strength, 
fully attested in many emergencies, maintained and augmented. 

The remaining years of Washington's life were passed on his estate at 
Mount Vernon. Here, in 1798, he was found at the time of threatened 
war between the United States and France, when Adams appointed him 
commander-in-chief of the American armies, and the commission was 
borne to Mount Vernon by the secretary of war in person. Washington 
was in the fields, superintending his grain harvest, and thither Secretary 
McHenry repaired. Washington read his commission, and, without hesi- 
tation, answered : "The President may command me without reserve." 
Happily the storm-cloud passed over, and his patriotism did not again call 
him from Mount Vernon. 

December 12, 1799, Washington was exposed to a storm of sleet, and 
took a cold which, on the following day, merged into something like an 
attack of membranous croup. All that love and skill could do to save 
him was powerless, and death ensued between ten and eleven o'clock on 
the night of the 14th. 

Fitted for all the uses of life, this great man was ready for death. To 
his friend and physician, Dr. (Jraik, he said : "I die hard, but I am not 
afraid to go." And his last words were: "Tis well." 


Second President of the United States, was born October 19, 1735 (Old 
Style), and died July 4, 1826. 

A quaint inscription on a tombstone in Quincy churchyard, Massachu- 
setts, records how one Henry Adams "took his flight from the Dragon 
Persecution in Devonshire, England, and alighted, with eight sons, near 
Mount Hollaston." John Adams, a grandson of one of these "eight son3,' ? 
was born in Quincy, Massachusetts colony. He was directly descended 
from John Alden, of Mayflower fame, the secretary of doughty Miles 
Standish and the husband of " Priscilla, the Puritan "maiden." 

From such illustrious and liberty-loving ancestry might well be born a 
son ready to become "a rebel" in the presence of tvranny, and from his 
youth to his death John Adams was an uncompromising hater of oppres- 

His boyish studies were prosecuted in Braintree, and he was admitted to 
Harvard in 1751. He was graduated from that university in 1755, and 
then pursued the study of law in Worrester, supporting himself by teach- 
ing in the grammar school of that town. In 1758 he was admitted to the 
bar, and began the practice of his profession in Braintree and Plymouth, 
attaining the rank ot' barrister in 1761. 


In 1764 Mr. Adams was joined in wedlock with Abigail, a daughter of 
the Rev. William Smith of Weymouth, Massachusetts, and fifty-four 
years of perfect union resulted from this marriage. Not only was his wife 
the companion of his home life, but also the sharer of his wider sympathies 
in the affairs of the colonies, and the letters that passed between them, 
during the many years when affairs of the State kept them apart, are filled 
with mutual counsels on public affairs. 

In 1765, directly after the passage of the "Stamp Act," John Adams 
published his "Essay on the Canon and Feudal Law," in which he 
made a bold appeal to the people to resist the attempt of Parliament to 
establish unlimited control. 

In 1766, he removed to Boston, and hi3 essay and other writings 
brought him so rapidly into general notice that in 1768, Governor 
Barnard thought him worth buying over to the royal cause. The 
appointment of advocate-general in the court of admiralty was tendered 
him, and was promptly rejected, although the office was a very lucrative 
one and he, then in his thirty-third year, was greatly hampered in his 

At the time of the " Boston massacre," March 5, 1770, John Adams was 
one of the committee who prepared and presented a remonstrance to the 
king, calling for the withdrawal of the British troops from the town. In 
this year Mr. Adams was elected a member of the General Assembly, and 
again in 1773 and in 1774. 

In 1774 he was also chosen as- one of the delegates from Massachusetts 
to the General Congress convened at Philadelphia, taking his seat in Sep- 
tember of that year. Here he served during the important sessions of 
1775-76, at the same time, through the public press of Massachusetts, 
instructing and inciting the people to further action by a series of letters, 
printed over the signature "Novanglus." 

Of his influence in the debates in Congress, we may judge by the 
tribute paid him by Thomas Jefferson: "John Adams was our Colos- 
■ns on the floor; not graceful nor elegant, not always fluent in hii 
public addresses, he yet came out with a power, both of thought and 
expression, that moved us from our seats." Again, in speaking of 
the Declaration, Jefferson said: "John Adams was the pillar of its 
support on the floor of Congress, its ablest advocate and defender 
ugainst the multifarious assaults it encountered." 

Mr. Adams was a member of the committee who prepared the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and upon its passage he wrote his wife: "Yester- 
day the greatest question was decided that was ever debated in America, 
and greater, perhaps, never was or will be decided among men. * * * 
The day is passed. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated by succeed- 
ing generations as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be com- 
memorated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to 


Almighty God. It ought to be solemnized with pomps, shows, games, 
sports, guns, bells, bonfires and illuminations from one end of the conti» 
nent to the other, from this time forward forever." 

Through the remainder of 1776 and all of 1777, Mr. Adams gave the 
closest attention to the affairs of Congress, serving also as a member of 
the Council in the now "free and independent" State of Massachusetts. 
In Congress, he was a member of ninety committees and chairman of 
twenty-five. He was also chairman of the board of war and the board of 

In December, 1777, he was appointed commissioner to France, sailing 
in February, 1778, on the frigate Boston. 

Arriving in France, he found a satisfactory treaty had been effected 
during the month of his voyage, leaving him little public business to 
attend to. He did not return to America, however, until in the summer 
of 1779. He was then a member of the convention which framed the 
State constitution of Massachusetts, and while engaged in that labor 
received notification that Congress had appointed him " minister plenipo- 
-entiary for negotiating a treaty of peace and a treaty of commerce with 
jreat Britain." He departed on this embassy in October, 1779, and 
tfter a prolonged and dangerous passage reached Paris in February, 1780. 
During that year no steps were made toward the desired peace with 
England, but in June, Mr. Adams was commissioned to make a treaty 
with Holland, and his negotiations were eventually successful. In Sep- 
tember, 1782, he was able to effect a loan from Dutch capitalists which 
was of great help in the United States, where the most pressing want was 
then for money. 

September 3, 17S3, the definite treaty of peace with Great Britain was 
tigned.John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay representing the 
United States. In 1784 Mr. Adams, still in France, was one of a com- 
nittee, Franklin and Jefferson working with him, to negotiate treaties 
with other foreign nations. In January, 1785, Congress appointed him 
minister to represent the United States at the court of Great Britain. In 
1788, after an absence of nearly nine years, Mr. Adams once more found 
himself in his native land. 

The new Federal constitution was now to take effect, and two persons 
were to be voted for, for president, the one receiving the highest number 
to be declared .president, and the other vice-president. In the autumn of 
1788 the election occurred, and John Adams became vice-president, and 
on the 4th of March following he took his seat in the senate chamber, 
then in New York, as its presiding officer. In 1792 he was re-elected 
vice-president, and in 1796, he received the nomination for the presidency, 
and was elected to that office. 

This was not without opposition and a close contest, as Thomas Jeffer- 
son was running against him, and party feeling was warmlv developed. 
Of the electoral votes Mr. Adams received seventy-one and Mr. Jetiersos 


■ixty-eight. In March, 1 797, they entered upon their offices as president 
and vice-president. 

The administration of President Adams was not a quiet one, the 
Federal party, to which in politics he was attached, being on the wane. 
Neither had he the manners and address to conciliate where he thought the 
right was on his side, nor the tact to conceal his sentiments when their 
expression was not necessary. But if not a happy policy, his was an 
honest one; and if not graceful nor facinating, he was a wise statesman. 
It may be questioned whether any better choice could have been made for 
second President of the United States than the choice of John Adam3. 
And it is beyond dispute that the best interests of America were conserved 
during his administration. 

At the end of his presidential term, in March, 1801, he retired to his 
quiet home in Quincy, where he lived in happy seclusion, an attentive 
spectator but not again an active participant in public events. 

In the autumn of 1818, he lost his loved wife, but he lived to see his 
eldest son worthily fill the chair of the chief magistrate of the nation 
himself had done so much to establish. 

He died on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, 
July 4, 1826, a few hours after his colleague, friend and rival, Thomas 
Jefferson, expired. "Independence forever," were his last words. 


Third President of the United States, was born April 2, 1742, and died 
July 4, 1826, at the age of 84 years. 

Virginia, glorious in the annals of American history as the birth-place 
of a "Washington, a Patrick Henry, a Monroe and the Lees, was also the 
place of birth of Thomas Jefferson, the framer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the third President of the United States. 

He was born at Shadwell, Albemarle county, son of Colonel Peter Jef- 
ferson, a well-known gentleman of means in the province of Virginia, and 
Jane (Randolph) Jefferson, daughter of Isham Randolph of Goochland 
county. He received his collegiate education at William and Mary Col- 
lege, read law with the celebrated George Wythe, afterward chancellor of 
the State of Virginia, and commenced practice in 1767. 

In 1769 he became a member of the House of Burgesses, where he served 
the interests of the colonists until, March 27, 1775, he was chosen one of 
Virginia's representatives in the Continental Congress. In 1774, he pub- 
lished his defense of the colonists, entitled, " Summary View of the Rights 
of British America," wherein he boldly set forth such doctrines that Lord 
Dunmore, then governor of the province, threatened him with a prosecu- 
tion for high treason. June 1, 1775, Lord Dunmore presented to the leg- 
islature of Virginia certain resolutions of the British parliament, to which 


Jetierson, as chairman of ihe committee appointed for that purpose, made 
response in one of the ablest State papers on record. 

Wednesday, June 21, 1775, Thomas Jefferson took his seat in the Con- 
tinental Congress, where he soon became conspicuous, both for his talent 
and the ardor with which it was devoted to the cause of liberty. He 
eerved during the remainder of that year, and through the following year, 
acting on many important committees, and on the 9th of June, 1776, he 
was appointed chairman of that committee to whom was delegated the im- 
portant duty of preparing a draft of a Declaration of Independence. WheD 
£ ne appended his signature to that document, as amended and accepted, the 
•'_ moment was to him the greatest and the gravest of his life. 
- After serving actively in Congress during the summer of 1776, Mr. Jef- 
ferson returned home, and during the remaining years of the Revolutionary 
•war devoted himself mainly to the service of his own State. June 1, 
1779, he was elected governor of Virginia, and as chief magistrate of that 
Commonwealth his patriotism and statesmanship made him an invaluable 
aid to- the harassed and overburdened commander of the Continental 
army, then seeing its darkest days. He remained in constant correspond- 
ence with Washington, and gave a soldier's cheerful obedience to any sug- 
gestions and requests that General made concerning Virginia. His term 
of office expired June 2, 1780, but as a private citizen he continued to 
eerve the State until peace was declared. 

Near the close of 1782, he was appointed minister plenipotentiary to join 
the representatives of the United States already in Europe, but the treaty 
of Paris, in 1783, rendered his services unnecessary, and he remained in 

June 6, 1783, he was again chosen delegate to Congress, and took his 
»eat on the 4th of November following. March 30, 1784, he was chosen 
to preside in Congress, and was chairman of that committee which per- 
formed the important work of revising and getting in proper working 
order the treasury department. May 7, 1784, he was appointed to join 
John Adams and Benjamin Franklin in Paris, and negotiate treaties of 
commerce for the United Slates with foreign nations. Accompanied by 
his oldest daughter, he set sail in July and joined his colleagues in the fol- 
lowing month. 

March 10, 1785, Mr. Jefferson was unanimously chosen by Congress to 
succeed Dr. Franklin as minister to the court at Versailles, and, re-ap- 
pointed in October, 1787, he remained in France until October, 1789, 
in that time successfully conducting many important and intricate nego- 
tiations in the interest of the United States. 

Immediatelv upon his return to America, Thomas Jefferson was 

. appointed by President Washington Secretary of State, and he conducted 

I this department of the new and untried government past many perils and 

by many momentous and statesmanlike decisions through the four years of 


Washington's first administration, resigning the office December 31, 179o. 
Three years of private life ensued, and then again Mr. Jefferson found 
himself in the political arena, this time as the leader of one of the two 
political parties into which the American voters had become divided. By 
the party then calling themselves Republicans, Mr. Jefferson was nomin- 
ated tor" President, and the Federal party nominated John Adams of Mas- 
sachusetts as his opponent. The vote was counted in the presence of both 
houses of Congress in February, 1797, and Mr. Adams receiving the 
majority was declared President, Mr. Jefferson, as was then the law, becom- 
ing vice president. 

March 4, 1797, he took the oath of office, and as presiding officer in the 
Senate, delivered before that body a speech which is yet a model of 
dignity, modesty and statesmanship. Much of the four succeedingyears, 
Mr. Jefferson spent in tranquillity at his country home, Monticello. He had 
married New Year's Day, 1772, Martha, daughter of John Wayles, a distin- 
guished lawyer of Charles City county, Virginia, and their union had been 
blessed with two beautiful daughters." The death of the wife and mother 
occurred about ten years subsequent to her marriage, and toward histwo 
children Mr. Jefferson always manifested a mother's tenderness combined 
with a father's care. 

When the time for another presidential election approached, Mr. Jeffer- 
son was again the candidate of his party, his opponent being Aaron Burr of 
New York. The vote was a tie, and the election devolved upon the 
House of Representatives. After thirty-five ineffectual ballots, a member 
from Maryland, authorized by Mr. Burr, withdrew that gentleman's name, 
and on the thirty-sixth ballot Mr. Jefferson was elected president, Colonel 
Burr becoming vice-president. 

March 4, 1801, President Jefferson delivered his inaugural address 
in the presence of both Houses of Congress, in which, among many wise 
utterances, were the following words,, which embody the only safe princi- 
ples lor the American government : 

"Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, 
religious or political ; peace, commerce and honest friendship with all 
nations, entangling alliances with none." 

In December, 1801, President Jefferson established the custom of send- 
ing a President's annual message to the houses of Congress. Before that 
time the president had in person made the communication, to which the 
Speaker, in behalf of Congress, had at once replied in a formal address. 

Re-elected to the presidency, Jefferson served two terms, his second term 
of office expiring March 4, 18" 09. The record of his administration s is a 
matter of the history of the country. 

At the age of sixty-six, Thomas Jefferson retired to private life at Monti- 
cello, nor did he again engage in public affairs. Here he passed fifteen 
tranquil years, surrounded by friends and admirers, and in the happy con- 


BCiousness of the growing and assured prosperity of the country he loved. 

His last public utterances were embodied in a letter addressed June 24, 
1826, to a committee who desired his attendance at the coming anniversary 
of Independence Day. The letter is marked by that statesmanship which 
characterized all his words to the people. Among its utterances was the 
following : 

"All eyes are opened, or are opening to the rights of man. The gen- 
eral spread of the lights of science has already laid open to every view the 
palpable truth that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles 
on their backs, nor a favoured few, booted and spurred, ready to ride them 
legitimately, ' by the grace of God ! "' 

Two days after this letter was written, an indisposition under which Mr. 
Jeflerson was laboring assumed a more serious form, and his death wa3 
anticipated. But he rallied on the 2d of July, and, on ascertaining the 
date, eagerly expressed a wish that he might live to see the dawn of th* 
fiftieth anniversary of Independence. His wish was granted. He lived 
until one o'clock of the afternoon of July 4, 1826, passing then from thi> 
world to another with the tranquillity with which the philosopher's life » 


Fourth President of the United States, was born March 16, 1751, and 
died June 28, 1836, in his 85th year. 

He was born at King George, King George county, Virginia, h» 
father an opulent planter of that province. The oldest of seven chil- 
dren, he received the best education the times afforded. He was> 
prepared for college under the instructions of a private tutor, Rev. 
Thomas Martin, and entered Princeton, from which university he 
was graduated in 1771, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

The movement toward American Independence was thus well bestir 
when he stepped into the arena of public life. In 1775 he was a member 
of the committee of safety of Orange countv, and in 1776 represented thai 
county in the Virginia Convention. In 1777 the House of Delegates 
elected him to the executive council of Virginia, and of that bodv he = con 
tinued ajeadmg member until the close oH77y. 

In 1779 he was chosen to represent Virginia in the Continental Congress, 
where he took his seat March 20, 1780. He remained in Congress neariv 
four years, or until the rir-t Mondav of November, 1783. He" was thus a 
member of that body during the last years of the Kevolutionarv war, and 
a part of die first year following the peace. During this time he had an 
opportunity to observe the inetHciencv of the confederated form of govern- 
ment, and was active in all the remedial measures that were proposed id 



In 1784, Mr. Madison was elected to the State Legislature of Virginia, 
and by annual re-elections continued a member of that body until 
November, 1786, when, having become re-eligible as a candidate for 
Congress, he was returned to the national legislature, and resumed official 
position there February 12, 1787. 

During his membership in the State legislature he became the champion 
of religious liberty. In 1784 Thomas Jefferson had introduced in the 
Virginia legislature a " Bill for the Establishment of Religious Freedom." 
At that time all colonist"' were taxed for the support of the Church of 
England and its clergy, although many were indifferent to that form of 
worship, and others were earnestly opposed to it on the ground of 
conscientious scruples. The bill failed to pass that year, and in 1785, Mr. 
Jefferson being absent from the State legislature, James Madison took up 
the bill, and urged and achieved its passage, against strong opposition. 

In the same and the following year, as chairman of the judiciary com- 
mittee, he presided over and assisted in the revision of the statutes of 

May 9, 1787, the committee which prepared the Federal Constitution 
was convened at Philadelphia, and James Madison was a delegate from 
Virginia. Four months of anxious deliberation and steady labor enabled 
this committee to report, on the 17th of September, the articles which. 
when amended and adopted, became the Constitution of the United 

In 1789, Madison was elected to the first House of Representatives 
under the new Constitution. He served until the close of Washington's 
administration, and then retired to private life. 

In 1794, he was united in marriage with Mrs. Todd, nee Dolly Payne, 
widow of a distinguished lawyer of Philadelphia. The lady was a Vir- 
ginian by birth, a member of the Payne family, and a sister of the wife of 
George S. Washington. Her marriage with James Madison was consum- 
mated in what is now Jefferson county, West Virginia, at a substantial 
Btone mansion which is still standing in an excellent state of preservation 
This house has many historical associations, having been built in 1752 by 
Samuel Washington, eldest full brother of George Washington, who 
occasionally visited here. Here, too, Louis Phillippe was entertained 
duringhis visit to America, and in the sitting-room where Madison and 
Mrs. Todd were married, is a mantle presented to the family by General 
La Fayette. 

During Jefferson's administrations, 1801-9, Madison was his most inti- 
mate adviser outride of his cabinet, and the friendship between the two 
men continued throughout Madison's administration, where the direction 
of the statesmanship of Jefferson could be often seen. 

March 4, 1809, James Madison assumed the duties of President of the 
United States, to which office he had been elected by a majority of 122 
out of 175 electoral votes. 

-" ^~~r~~- 

CcAv^h *4% ct^lj, 0?^, 


Madison's administration continued through eight years, its most impor- 
tant event being the war of 1812. During this war the British obtained 
possession of Washington, August 24, 1814, and plundered and destroyed 
with fire a large portion of the city. Mrs. Madison, then presiding at the 
White House, was obliged to seek safety in flight. Her carriage stood at 
the door, and her friends were urging her immediate departure, when she 
returned to her drawing-ruom and cut from its frame a full-length picture 
of Washington. "Save it, or destroy it," she commanded the gentlemen 
who were in attendance upon her; " but do not let it fall into the hands of 
■ the British!" Then she entered the carriage which conveyed her, with 
( other ladies, to a place of refuge beyond the Potomac. The treasure she 
took from the White House in her own hands, and held concealed in her 
wrappings as she was driven away, was the precious parchment upon 
which was engrossed the Declaration of Independence, with its fifty-two 

March 4, 1817, Madison's long and useful connection with national 
affairs terminated, and he retired to his farm of Montpelier in Virginia, 
where his life was peacefully ended. Nineteen years of private life pre- 
ceded his death, and the time was largely devoted by him to the produc- 
tion of the voluminous writings which he left to posterity. 

From his earliest years he had been a hard student, with tenacious 
memory; he led a life of spotless virtue upon which the breath of calumny 
never rested; his bearing was both modest and dignified; his speech 
always clear and concise; his public career distinguished by honesty and 
singleness of purpose. 

Some time after his death Congress purchased from his widow, for 
$30,000, all his MSS., and a portion of them have been published under 
the title, " The Madison Papers." 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband some years, dying in Washington, 
July 12, 1849, and they left no children. 


Fifth President of the United States, was born April 28, 1758, and died 
July 4, 1831, in his 74th year. 

His birth was in "Westmoreland county, Virginia, and he was a lineal 
descendant of one of the first patentees of that province. His father was 
Spruce Monroe, a well-known and wealthy planter of Westmoreland 

At the time Independence was declared, James Monroe was a student 
in William and Mary College. Without finishing his course there he en- 
tered the army as a cadet. His military career, though brief, was glori- 


oris, lie gave his young manhood to his country's service in the hour of 
her adversity; he joined her standard when ethera were deserting it; here- 
paired to Washington's headquarters when the array had dwindled to the 
verge of dissolution, and Great Britian was pouring her native troops and 
foreign mercenaries by thousands upon our coasts; he was one of the 
heroes who followed Washington in his perilous mid-winter journey across 
the Delaware; he fought at Harlem, at White Plains, and at Trenton, 
and was wounded in the last named engagement. 

He was promoted for gallantry on the field, and returned to the army 
to serve as aide-de-camp to Lord Sterling, through the campaign of 1777— 
78, taking part in the engagements of Brandywine, Germantown and 

After this campaign Monroe left the army, and engaged in the study of 
law, with Thomas Jefferson. In 1781 he served as a volunteer with the 
Virginia forces, when that State was invaded by the armies of Cornwallis 
and Arnold, and at the request of the governor of Virginia he visited the 
more Southern States, 1780, to collect military information. 

In 1782 he was elected a member of the Virginia legislature, and by 
the legislature appointed a member of the executive council. June 9, 
1783, he was elected to the House of Representatives, where he took his 
seat on the 13th of December following. He continued a member of this 
body until the close of the session of 17S6. 

In the last named year he married a daughter of Lawrence Kortright, 
ot New York City, and took up his residence in Frederickburg, Spottsyl- 
vania county, Virginia. He was elected to a seat iu the Virginia legisla- 
ture, and served three years. 

In 1790 he was chosen United States Senator, and served until 1794. 
He was then appointed to succeed Gouveneur Morris as minister at the 
French Court. The appointment was made upon the recommendation of 
President Washington and one of the first acts of President Adams was to 
recall Monroe. 

" During Monroe's ministry in France, his views upon the question of the 
neutrality ot the United States in the war between England and France, 
then the paramount subject of consideration in America, were not in 
harmony with the administration, and his course of action was severely 
censured, and his national popularity for a time decreased. 

Virginia, however, stood by the son of her soil. His own county, 
immediately upon his arrival home, returned him to the State legislature, 
and the votes of the people transferred him thence to the gubernatorial 
chair. As governor he served three years (1799-1802), the term limited 
by the State constitution. 

In 1802 he visited France, appointed by Jefferson as envoy extra- 
ordinary to act with Mr. Livingstone at the court of Napoleon. He 
assisted in the negotiations for the purchase of Louisiana, and then joined 


Mr. Pinckney in Spain, to assist in the settlement of some boundary ques- 
tions. In 1807 he went from Spain to England, to protest against the 
impressment of American seamen, and with Mr. Pinckney to negotiate 
t treaty with Great Britain. Five years had now been given by Mr. 
Monroe to public duties abroad, and rinding no success attending his efforts 
to ratify a treaty with Great Britain, he returned to America, reaching 
homo in the closing month of 1807. 

At the next State election he was again called to the chief magistracy 
of the Commonwealth ot Virginia, which oiiice he rilled until, in 1811, 
he was called to a seat as Secretary of State, in the cabinet of President 
Madison. This office he held until the close of President Madison's sec- 
ond term, with the exception of about six months, the last months of the 
second war with Great Britain, when he discharged the more arduous 
duties of Secretary of the War Department. 

On the retirement of President Madison, in 1817, James Monroe was 
chosen fifth President of the United States, and in 1821, was re-elected 
without opposition.^ His opponent in the canvass of 1816 was Rufus 
King, of New York, who received only 34 electoral votes, Mr. 
Monroe receiving 183. Only one vote was cast against him at his second 
election, one of the New Hampshire electors voting for John Quincy 
Adams. Monroe's electoral vote was 228. 

The distinguishing act of President Monroe's administration, at least 
that in which posterity is most interested, was the assertion of what has 
since become known as "The Monroe Doctrine." It was first formulated 
by President Monroe in his annual message to Congress in 1824. 

•'The occasion has been judged proper for asserting:, as a principle in 
which the rights of the United States are involved, that the American 
continents, by the free and independent condition which they have 
assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for 
future^colonization by any European powers." 

In popular language, and in the widest sense of the words, this may be 
interpreted as : " America for Americans," including, of course, all who 
choose to become American citizens. 

During his administrations Monroe encouraged the armv, increased the 
navy, protected commerce, and infused vigor and efficiency in every 
department of the public service. March 4, 1825, he retired to his resi- 
dence of Oak Hill, in Loudoun county, Virginia. 

In the winter of 1829-30, he presided over" a convention called to revise 
the constitution of Virginia, but an increasing indisposition necessitated 
his withdrawal from the convention before its" labors were ended, and he 
never again participated in public affairs. In the summer of 1830 his 
beloved wife died, and he was unable to bear the solitude of the home her 
presence had so many years brightened. He removed to New York Citv, 
making his home with his son-in-law, Samuel L. Gouveueur, where the 
few remaining months of his life were passed. 



Mi. ftfontot had been a poor financier in personal matters. Although 
he had inherited considerable property, and his wife had brought him as 
much more, and although he had received $350,000 for public services, in 
his last days pecuniary embarrassments were added to his bodily infirmi- 
ties, and his old age was harassed by debt. 

In 1858 the remains of ex-President Monroe were removed, with great 
pomp, from New York to Richmond, Virginia, and on July 5th were 
re-interred in Hollywood cemetery. 


Sixth President of the United States, was born July 11, 1767, and died 
February 23, 1848, in his 81st year. 

His birth was in the parish of Braintree, since set off* as the town of 
Quincy, in Massachusetts. He was the son of John and Abigail (Quincy) 
Adams, and two streams of the best blood of the colony mingled in his 
veins. He received in baptism the name of his great-grandfather on his 
mother's side, John Quincy, a man who, in his day, had borne a distin- 
guished part in provincial affairs. 

The history of the Revolutionary struggle sank deep into his childish 
mind when, but seven years old, he stood beside his mother on the sum- 
mit of one of the high hills near his home, and listened to catch the sounds 
of conflict from Bunker Hill, and watched the wanton fire with which the 
British troops destroyed Charlestown. At the age of nine he rode daily 
between his home and Boston, eleven miles each way, that he might keep 
his mother informed of the latest war news. 

February 13, 1778, at the age of eleven, he embarked with his father 
on the frigate Boston, and sailed for Paris, whither John Adams had 
been dispatched on diplomatic business. Mr. Adams was recalled almost 
upon his arrival in France, and again, in three months from the time of his 
return, was commissioned to transact further public business in France. 
Again the two travelers set sail, and after a perilous voyage in a leaky 
ship, were landed in Spain, and made their way thence, as best they 
could, to France. During this visit in Europe, John Quincy Adams 
received a little very miscellaneous schooling, first at Paris, next at 
Amsterdam, and then at Lcyden. When he was not quite fourteen 
Francis Dana, afterward chief-justice of Massachusetts, then an envoy to 
Russia from the United States, took young Adams with him to act as his 
private secretary. Six months later he was again in Paris, where his 
father, with Franklin and Jefferson, was negotiating the treaty of peace 
with England. The boy was employed by these gentlemen in the prepar- 
ation of the necessary papers. 

In the spring of 1785. the father was appointed minister to England, 


and the son returned to America and entered Harvard college, where he 
was graduated with honor in 1787. He then entered as a law student the 
office of Theophilus Parsons, and on the 15th of July, 1790, was admitted 
to practice. 

He established himself in Boston, and slowly, in several succeeding 
years, built up a moderate practice. His mind naturally, both by itfl 
inherent qualities and by the influence of association, tended toward pub- 
lic affairs, and his letters upon the political situation soon brought him 
into notice with the administration. 

May 29, 1794, President Washington sent to the Senate the name of 
John Quincy Adams for United States minister to Holland, and the nom- 
ination was confirmed, unanimously, on the following day. He received 
his commission on his twenty-seventh birthday, and presented his creden- 
tials at the Hague, October 31, 1794. 

Who was ruling, or should rule Holland, was a question among Euro- 
pean diplomats and rulers during the entire time of Mr. Adams' ministry, 
and as he wisely maintained, in the interests of the United States, a cool 
.neutrality, he had little public business and much leisure time. This time 
he employed in the acquisition of foreign languages and the_ study of 
diplomacy and statesmanship. He was twice sent to England in a semi- 
official capacity, and during his last visit was united in marriage with 
Louisa Catherine, daughter of Joshua Johnson, then American consul at 
London. Their union was consummated July 26, 1797, and resulted in 
many years of happy wedded life. 

President Washington, toward the close of his second administration, 
transferred Mr. Adams to the court of Portugal, and lest his successor in 
office, John Adams, should feel some delicacy in retaining the services of 
his own son in an important diplomatic capacity, Washington wrote a let- 
ter urging and requesting his continuance in the position. 

President Adams, therefore, only changed his destination from Portu- 
gal to Prussia, both missions being of the same grade. The ministry to 
Prussia, however, was then first established, and on the arrival of John 
Quincy Adams at Berlin, in November, 1797, he met with the rather 
unusual experience of being "questioned at the gate by the dapper officer 
in charge, who did not know, until one of his privale soldiers explained 
to him, who the United States of America were." He remained in Berlin 
until recalled by his father, near the close of the latters administration 
that his successor in office, Mr. Jefferson, might feel no embarrassment 
in dealing with the son of one who was now his bitter political rival. 

Immediately upon his return to Boston, Mr. Adams entered again upon 
the practice of' his profession, which he followed until elected, April 5, 
1802, a member of State senate. In February, 1803, the State legisla- 
ture elected him to the United States Senate, giving him 86 out of 171 
votes on the first ballot. He took his seat in the following October. His 
term of service expired March 3, 1809, but the Federalist party, by whoa 



he had been elected, not being pleased with the independence with which 
he spoke and wrote, elected his successor on the 2d and 3d ot June, 1808, 
and Mr. Adams promptly sent in his resignation on the 8th of June, as 
an answer to the insult of his party. H'i3 service had been little short of 
living martyrdom. Always refusing to answer to the party whip, regard- 
ing every public measure as a matter for individual decision and not for 
party consideration, he early secured the hearty dislike of his colleagues 
in the Senate. He saw the" Federalists trampled on by the Republican 
or Democratic party (the Jeffersonian party then being called by either 
name), and his party in turn trampled on him. He left the Senate amid 
the execrations of those who sent him there, but content to court and 
suffer martyrdom rather than sacrifice a point of principle. 

June 26, 1809, under the Republican administration of President 
Madison, Mr. Adams was appointed minister to Russia. He served four 
and one-half years. He then acted as one of the committee on behalf of 
the United States in negotiating with Great Britain the treaty of peace 
which terminated the 1812 war. 

May 26, 1815, Mr. Adams entered London as envoy extraordinary ano 
minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain. Here he remained honorably 
representing his country, until June 15, 1817, when he bade a last fare- 
well to Europe, closing forever his long and efficient diplomatic career. 

He returned home to take the position of Secretary of State in the cab- 
inet of James .Monroe, then lately inaugurated president. The most 
important act conducted through the Department of State by Mr 
Adams was the treaty with Spain, by which the southern boundary line oi 
Louisiana was fixed, Florida was ceded to the United States, and our 
western boundary line was pushed to the Pacific. 

In 1824 came the election for sixth President of the United States, with 
Adams, Jackson, Crawford and Clay as candidates. In those days of slow 
communication it was not until December that it was everywhere known 
that there had been no election bv the people, the electoral vote standing: 
Jackson, 99; Adams, 84; Crawford, 41; Clay, 37— total, 261 votes. 
Adams received 77 of his 84 votes from New York and New England; 
Maryland gave him 3, Louisiana 2, Delaware and Illinois, each 1. 

The election now lay with the House of Representatives, and intrigue 
and rumor was the order of the day to such an extent, as Webster puts 
it, that "there were those who pretended to tell how a representative 
would vote from the way in which he put on h'i3 hat." However little 
John Quincy Adam3 was gifted with the power of winning or keeping 
friends, and even his warmest admirers are fain to admit that it was an 
effort for him to be tolerably civil to anybody in public affairs, yet all 
must admire the position he held through this long campaign and the 
weeks ot suspense which followed it : " It the people wish me to be prest 
dent. I shall not refuse the office, but I ask nothing from any man, or froBP 

J j 3. , cftctamj 


my body of men," and to promote his election he "should do absolutely 

The election in the House took place February 9, 1825, Daniel Webster 
and John Randolph, tellers. The result was announced: "John Quincy 
Adams, of Massachusetts, thirteen votes; Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, 
seven votes; William H. Crawford, of Georgia, four votes." Thereupon 
the Speaker announced Mr. Adams to have been elected President of the 
United States. 

The administration of President Adams extended over one term of four 
years. Like his father, he was a man ot cold exterior, however warm his 
heart may have been to those he trusted, and he was, like him, unfortu- 
nately prone to distrust, and to give indiscreet expression to that feeling. 
He had few cotemporaneous admirers, fewer friends and many and malig- 
nant enemies. But he was a statesman and a patriot and wisely admin- 
istered the great trust he assumed. It the eye of hatred saw much at 
which to cavil, posterity has given him his meed of praise. 

The election of 1828 gave 178 votes for Jackson and only 83 for 
Adams. Thus, at the age of jixty-two, Mr. Adams found himself what 
has been aptly if sharply styled that melancholy product of the American 
government system — an ex-president. 

In September, 1830, Mr. Adams accepted from Plymouth district a 
nomination to the House of Representatives. The election shows that the 
people of a part of Massachusetts, at least, repented ol former coldness 
toward him. He received 1817 votes out of 2565, with only 373 for the 
next candidate. He continued to represent this district in Congress until 
his death, a period of nearly sixteen years. 

February 21, 1848, he was stricken insensible while in his seat in the 
House, and was removed to the Speaker's room where he lay until the 
evening of the 23d, when he passed quietly away. His last intelligible 
words were : " This is the last ot earth ! I am content." 


eleventh President of the United States, was born March 15, 1767, and 
died on the 8th of June, 1845, at the age of 78 years. 

His paternal grandfather, Hugh Jackson, a resident in County Ulster, 
north of Ireland, was a linen draper in Carrickfergus, about the middle 
of the seventeenth century. 

Hugh Jackson had four sons, the youngest named Andrew. Andrew 
Jackson married Elizabeth Hutchinson, who, like himself, was of Scotch- 
Irish blood, and, like him, of the Presbyterian faith. When they had two 
eons, Hugh and Robert, they emigrated to America, landing at Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, in 1765. From Charleston they journeyed 160 


miles to the northwest, and made their home among the pioneers of Wai 
haw. This district was settled across the boundary line of the Carolina*, 
and the lard tilled by Andrew Jackson lay in the northern Carolina, in 
what was then Mecklenburg (now Union) county. 

After two years of toil in his new home, Andrew Jackson died, early 
in 1767, and a little later his posthumous son was born, and the fathers- 
name was bestowed upon him. His birth was in a small log cabin, a little 
north of the State line, and a few miles from where Monroe, the county 
seat of Union county, North Carolina, now stands. Consequently when, 
in later years, Jackson addressed the nullifiers of South Carolina, as "cit- 
izens of my native State," he was about a quarter of a mile out of the way — 
not so very much, perhaps, for a politician. 

Much of tradition and uncertainty surrounds the school days of "mis- 
chievous Andy Jackson," as he was styled in his childhood, but his- 
opportunities for acquiring knowledge were undoubtedly limited. His 
mother had moved into South Carolina, where she was living with relatives- 
and performing the usual offices of a poor relation, keeping him, her 
youngest child, with her. He learned to read, to write, and to cast 
accounts. He also learned to ride the wildest horse on the plantation, and 
his habit of swearing dates from his earliest childhood. This may account 
for his wonderful mastery of the art, his later years being distinguished 
above those of all other men for the chain-lightning suddenness and force 
of his oaths. He also learned to reverence woman, taking this lesson 
from the cheerful, toiling life of his mother. He always deeply revered 
her memory. 

When the war of the Revolution had been largely transferred to the 
Carolinas, his oldest brother, Hugh, was killed in the Continental service. 
Robert and Andrew, the latter a mere boy, took a lively part in the pred- 
atory warfare by which the militia contrived to harass the king's troops. 
In a skirmish of this character in the spring of 1781, the two brothers 
were taken prisoners, and marched to Camden, South Carolina, then in 
the possession ot the British. On the journey, the officer in charge 
ordered Andrew to blacken his boots. The boy spiritedly refused, demand- 
ing "treatment as a prisoner of war." The officer, with his dishonored 
sword, struck the unarmed boy, who lifted his hand to save his head, and 
received on both a cut whose sears he carried to his grave. "I ivarrani 
ye A tidy Otought of it at Xeiv Orleans" said an old aunty, many years after- 

At Camden the situation of the boys was utterlv wretched. Two hun- 
dred and fifty prisoners were penned together, without beds, almost with- 
out food or clothing. Small-pox appeared among them, and raged 
unchecked by medicine, unrelieved by nursing. Not a sanitary measure 
was taken — the dead, the dying, the well, and the newly stricken were all 
huddled together. 


Mother love came to the rescue of the Jackson boys. Learning their 
condition, the heroic woman rode on horseback the sixty miles between 
her home and Camden, and by her energy effected an exchange of fifteen 
British soldiers for her two boys and five of her neighbors. Back then she 
went at the head of her sad procession, both of her sons sick with small 
pox, and a merciless rain beating upon their emaciated, half-naked bodies. 
In two days after reaching home Robert Jackson was dead, and Andrew 
a raving maniac. Skill and love saved his life, but he was many months 
an invalid, and so ended his services in the war for Independence. 

His mother gave her life to the cause of humanity. _ Hearing, on 
Andrew's recovery, that there was great sickness and suffering among the 
prisoners on the Charleston prison ships, she journeyed there — one hun- 
dred and sixty miles — on horseback, carrying rural delicacies and medi- 
cines, and tended the sick until her own life paid the forfeit. She died of 
ship fever and was buried on the open plain near by. The grave to this 
day remains unknown, save to the angels of God. 

At the age of'eighteen, Andrew Jackson owned one piece of property — 
a beautiful horse which he had reared from its foaling. Mounted upon 
this horse he turned his back forever upon the home of his childhood and 
youth, and journeyed to Salisbury. In this town he read law in the office 
of Spruce McCay," during 1785 "and 1786. The Salisbury people of the 
last generation remembered him as a fair-complectioned, sandy-haired 
young man — "the most roaring, rollicking, game-cocking, card-playing, 
horse-racing, mischievous fellow that ever lived." 

He was admitted to practice in 1787, and in the following year attached 
himself to a party of adventurous spirits emigrating to the then unknown 
wilds of the territory of Tennessee. He had received the appointment of 
public prosecutor for that territory by the authority of North Carolina, 
that State then having jurisdiction over Tennessee. 

He established himself at Nashville, and for eight years discharged the 
duties of his office at a time when only a man of his daring temperament 
would have undertaken them. That he carried the roystering habits of 
his student life with him rather increased than diminished his usefulness 
and influence among the border population. 

January 11, 1796, he was a delegate to the Knoxville convention which 
prepared the State constitution for Tennessee, and that territory, June 1, 

1796, became the sixteenth State in the Union. Jackson was elected Rep- 
resentative, and at once set out on horseback for Philadelphia, eight hun- 
dred miles distant. 

He served in the House only one term, and on the 22d of November, 

1797, returned to Philadelphia, this time as one of the two United States 
Senators from Tennessee. He was no orator, and his Congressional record 
is confined principally to a notice of his vote, which was generally a nega- 
tive one, for he was not in sympathy with the administration. Always 
aware of what he could an') ~ould not do, Jackson was not at home among 



th€ Jrilliant statesmen of his day, and resigned his seat, after only a fe-» 
months' service, in April, 1798. 

The Tennessee Legislature at once elected him to the bench of the 
Supreme Court of that State. For six years he presided over the sittings 
of this court, rendering decisions in a truly Jacksonian manner. That is, 
decisions that often showed lack of knowledge of the law, and always utter 
ignorance of grammar, yet went straight to the root of a matter, and were 
founded on justice. 

July 24, 1804, he resigned his judgeship, and engaged in personal pur- 
suits; managing his large plantation; running a cotton gin (at that time 
there were only twenty-four in Tennessee) ; partner in the mercantile firm 
of Jackson, Coffee & Hutchings; buying, breeding, racing and selling 
blooded horses ; fitting out and lading a line of flatboats on the Mississippi. 

About 1809 he withdrew from all these occupations except the conduct 
of his plantation and his interest in horses. He had then been some years 
married, and was living on that part of his estate set apart and afterward 
famous as "The Hermitage." No children had been born of his marriage, 
but Mrs. Jackson's many young relatives were always made welcome 
by her husband, and, indeed, all the young people of their own rank 
in Tennessee, claimed an interest in the little homespun woman they 
loved to call "Aunt .Rachel." Mr. and Mrs. Jackson adopted two 
children, her nephews — one taking the name of Andrew Jackson, 
and at a later date inheriting the estate, and the other well known 
(n after years as Andrew Jackson Donelson 

By this time Jackson was widely known and much talked of in America. 
His habits of profanity, his terrible temper, the duels he had fought, the 
quarrels he had participated in, were all matters of public knowledge. 
There was another side of the man, not turned towards the world, and not 
bo well understood. He was a tender husband and a kind master, and all 
who were dependent upon him idolized him. 

It must have been a pretty picture to have seen this man, who could so 
easily strike terror into the hearts of men, sitting in the gloaming beside 
the hearthfire in the homely living room of "The Hermitage," smoking 
his cob pipe, a little child nestling against his bosom, and on his knee the 
little white lamb which was its playmate. 

He had been for some years a major-general in the Tennessee militia 
when the second war with Great Britain was declared, June 12, 1812. 
On the 25th of June, General Jackson tendered President Madison his 
own services, with those of 25,000 volunteer troops. November 1st the 
offer was accepted, and Jackson and his troops ordered to New Orleans. 
They started promptly, and had reached Natchez when instructions came 
to hold the men there for further orders. February 3, 1813, the "further 
orders" were received by Jackson. He was to "disband the troops and 
return home." 


Disbf-nd his troops — his len^essee troops — un provisioned, and without 
n.eans of transportation, 500 miles of wilderness between them and home! 
Not Jackson ! Back he marched Vhem, himself performing the journey 
on foot that his three horses might a'l be at the service of the sick men of 
the ranks. "Tough as hickory," a soldier said of him who watched his 
slender figure marching for many dav> at the head of his men, and "Old 
Hickory," he at once became. In a month's time the boys were back on 
their native soil, and "Old Hickory" the hero of Tennessee. 

When the horrible massacre at Fort Mimswas perpetrated, August 13, 
1.813, a cry for help went up from Louisiana. The border State of Ten- 
aessee, itself in danger if the Creek Nation were not subdued, sent out 
militia and volunteer troops. General Jackson, his left arm in a sling, 
his left shoulder not yet healed from a horrible wound received iu a personal 
affair, led his men into the very heart of the Creek country. A brilliant 
campaign in the face of disheartening difficulties followed, culminating in 
the engagement of Horse Shoe Bend, on the Tallapoosa river, March 27, 
1814, when the power of the Creeks was forever broken. 

In May, 1814, Jackson was appointed major general of the regular 
army, and ordered to the South. Arrived at Mobile he found himself with a 
thousand miles of coast to defend, without one fort properly garrisoned or 
armed, and with a force of the British navy and army sailing to give him 
battle. Again he entered upon a series of victories against odds. Driving 
the British from before Mobile, marching into "neutral" Florida and forc- 
ing the "neutral" Spaniards to send their British guests back to their 
ships ; then back to the rescue of New Orleans. Surely he remembered 
his mother, and his brother, and the boy prisoner struck down by the 
sword, when he swore to the weeping women and wailing children of thai 
city that not one red-coat should enter New Orleans but over his dead 

The great battle before New Orleans was fought December 23, 1814, t«. 
January 8, 1815, after peace had been made and signed at Paris between 
America and Great Britain. What slaughter would have been avoided, 
what brave lives spared, had there been telegraph wires and an Atlantic 
cable in those days. But it made Jackson the people's hero — "the hero 
of New Orleans." 

With peace the standing army was reduced to ten thousand men, and 
General Jackson retained in command of the Southern division. His 
summary exploits in Florida and elsewhere while holding this position are 
matters of history. They have been lauded and condemned in the most 
extravagant terms by his friends and his enemies. The dispassionate 
reader will conclude they prove him to have been an excellent military 
man — for an emergency, but a poor diplomat and no statesman. 

When Florida was ceded to the United States, President Madison 
appointed General Jackson its first governor. He left home April 18, 
1821, took leave of the army May 31, 1821, entered upon the duties of 


appointment late in June, and resigned in the November tollow- 
iriri'_' ih( tine of his administration of affairs, the government at 

his new aj 

ing. During liu tine of his administration of affairs, the govi 
Washington dreaded the appearance of every Florida mail, never knowing 
what General Jackson would do next. 

Back again at "The Hermitage," but now daily growing in favor with 
the people of the whole country. When Jackson took his seat again in 
the United States Senate, December 5, 1823, he was also one of the can- 
didates for the next term as President of the United States. The election 
proved him to be the people's choice, though he was defeated. 

The electoral vote of 1824 was: Jackson, 99; John Quincy Adams, 
84 ; Crawford, 41 ; Clay, 37. Jackson was the choice of eleven States , 
Adams of seven ; Clay and Crawford of three each. Jackson had a plur- 
ality ot votes, but not a majority. The election went to the House of .Rep- 
resentatives, and Adams, receiving the votes of thirteen States upon the 
first ballot, was declared president. 

The resolution among the friends of Jackson that he should be the next 
president, in 1829, dated from the moment that decision of the House was 
made known. He resigned his seat in the Senate, went home and awaited 
the event. His friends conducted a four years' campaign on the simple and 
single principle of securing victory. They achieved it. The entire elec- 
toral vote in 1828 was 261. General Jackson received 178 ; Adams, 83. 

But the year which brought him the crowning triumph of his public life 
ended in a gloom which for him overshadowed all its remaining years. 
When he went to his inauguration in 1829, he left behind, sleeping her 
last sleep in the garden of " The Hermitage" the faithful wife of thirty- 
seven years. Mrs. Jackson died after a few days' severe illness, Decem- 
ber 22, 1826, at the age of 61 years. 

Haggard with grief and sickness, "twenty years older in a night," the 
president-elect was hurried through the many duties preceding his inaug- 
uration and assumed the responsibilities of his new position. The White 
House was presided over by his adopted son's wife, Mrs. A. J. Donelson. 

In 1832 the electoral vote was 288 ; Jackson received 219; Clay, 49 ; 
Wirt (of Maryland, and the anti-masonic candidate), received the vote of 
Vermont ; and South Carolina voted for Floyd of Virginia. 

This second administration as president was Jackson's last public service 
for the people who had learned to idolize him. Three days after the in- 
auguration of his successor, which took place March 4, 1837, General 
Jackson, as he must always be called, began his homeward journey. He 
was now an old man in failing health, soon to pass beyond the reach of 
human events, and his soul turned with satisfaction from public cares to 
the repose of home. 

The record of his administrations belongs to the domain of history. Yet 
who but the fiery Jackson could have met the nullifiers of South Carolina 
with his toast : " Our Federal Union — it must be preserved ! " Who but 




the unstatesnum like Jackson would have refused to re-charter the United 
States bank, lest a monopoly should overrun his dear people. And who, 
alas, but the man who always set public opinion at defiance, and who was 
always at the service of his friends, would have dared to have been the 
first president to institute the pernicious custom of civil service abuse. Thi? 
evil dates back to the beginning ot Jackson's first administration, when 
first the cry of " to the victors belong the spoils" was heard. Washing- 
ton, in his eight years' administration, removed nine persons from office;. 
John Adams, in four years, nine ; Jefferson, under exceptional circum- 
stances, thirty-nine, in eight years; Madison, five; Monroe, nine; John 
Quincy Adams, two. Andrew Jackson, in his first year, removed twe 
thousand, as his enemies claimed ; his friends acknowledged about severr 
hundred. * 

It seems never to have occurred to the statesmen who framed the Federal 
Constitution that there ever could be a president of the United States who 
would abuse the power of removal. But Jackson inaugurated a new era, 
and all the presidents succeeding him have been too modest not to walk in. 
his footsteps. 

Jackson was seventy years of age when he returned to the "Hermitage," 
and his remaining years were spent in the society of his adopted children 
and their children, and in an earnest endeavor to fit himself for a future 
meeting with the wife whose loss he had now mourned nearly a decade of 
years. But he was too much the friend of his friend ever to be left quite 
in peace, and he complained with good cause in his last days that office- 
-seekers and place-hunters desiring his influence would not even let him die 
in peace. 

Sunday, May 24, 1845, lying upon his sick bed, General Jackson par- 
took of the communion according to the form of the Presbyterian church. 
He lived about two weeks longer, dying at last, this man of storms and 
passions, tranquilly and almost without pain. 

June 10, 1845, he was laid to rest beside his wife, of whom only a few 
days before he had said: "Heaven will be no heaven to me if I do not 
meet my wife there." 

In life he loved his country, he loved justice, he loved his friends; 
he abhorred debt, and he hated an enemy. Always he would do what he 
eaid he would do. 


Eighth President of the United States, was born December 5, 1782, and 
died July 4, 1862, at the age of 80 years. 

He was of Dutch descent, the first to succeed to the office of president 
who was not of thorough English stock. His birth was in Kinderhook, 
Columbia county, New York, where his father was many years engaged as 


« tavern kt©pei. From his father, Martin Van Buren is said to hav« 
inherited two of the distinguishing attributes of h'13 political life, a temper 
that nothing could ruffle, and an unrivaled faculty for holding his tongue. 

His school days were brief, and the knowledge he possessed of books 
was largely self-acquired after he had entered upon the practice of law. 
For this profession he began to study at the age of fourteen, and he was 
admitted to practice at the age of twenty-one. 

A few years later he married a Miss Hoes, of New York State, and in 
1810 their son John, familiarly known as "Prince Van Buren," was born. 
After the birth of other sons, and when the future eminence of her hus- 
band was just becoming assured, Mrs. Van Buren died. Her husband 
deeply mourned his loss, and her place was never filled. 

In 1808 Martin Van Buren was elected to his first official position, as 
surrogate for Columbia county, New York. From this time he was known 
as a rising lawyer of Albany, and when party lines in the political contests 
began to grow definite, he was a member of that party styled either Dem- 
ocrat or Republican in distinction from the old Federal party whose power 
was waning. 

In 1812 and again in 1816 he was elected to the State Senate of New 
York, and from 1815 to 1819 was State's attorney general. In 1821 he 
leas chosen one of New York's representatives in the United States Senate, 
for the term of six years. 

In 1821 he was also a member of the convention assembled to revise the 
State constitution of New York. As a member of this body he exerted 
himself for the establishment of a freehold qualification as the limit of suf- 
frage. He advocated an extended elective franchise, but opposed uni- 
versal suffrage. With a prophetic eye he saw and with an eloquent tongue 
he foretold the dangers to stability and purity of government which would 
r ollow the unrestricted vote of densely populated cities. Such an amend- 
ment to the State constitution was not favorably considered by his col- 
leagues and was never submitted to the people. 

In 1827 Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to the Senate, and early in 1829 
he resigned his seat to accept the governorship of the State of New 

After serving two months as chief executive of the State, he resigned 
that office in April, 1829, to enter the cabinet of Jackson as Secretary of 
State. He was now an astute politician, a political strategist, combining 
the principles of Jefferson with the tactics of Burr. One of the very few 
quiet men of Jackson's stormy administration, men grew fearful of his 
very silence. No man possessed his confidence, and in turn no man quite 
trusted in him. Cold and formal, he failed to inspire affection in those 
who were about him, and his talents while awakening admiration gave 
equal birth to distrust. 

While the chief executive was swearing, * 4 By the Eternal." things 

<r?*}^yzs&.n^? l 


should be so and so. while Jackson's enemies were plotting and his adher- 
ents counter-plotting, while both were constantly exploding in angry re- 
criminations, Van Buren kept the tenor of his ways, and, always acting for 
the administration, yet always acted in his own way. 

It is related that Clay once burst upon the Secretary of State in a very 
tempest of wrath, and loaded him with abuse because of the disaster that 
was sure to follow some action the Secretary had taken. When the wrathful 
and eloquent Senator stopped for breath, giving Van Buren for the first 
time an opportunity to speak, the secretary, moved neither to anger nor 
repentance, calmly said : "I'll bet you a suit of clothes, Mr. Clay, it 
won't be so." 

Nothing more could be said, and nothing was done except what the 
Secretary of State had already chosen to do. It was characteristic of the 
man ; it was his inheritance from the Dutch tavern-keeper, his father. He 
could hold his tongue about his own opinions, and he refused to grow 
angry over those of other men. 

April 7, 1831, the cabinet of President Jackson resigned, and he 
appointed Martin Van Buren minister to St. James. Mr. Van Buren 
Bailed for England, only to learn soon after his arrival that the Senate had 
refused to confirm his nomination. He returned to America, and on the 
22d of May, 1832, was nominated for vice-president on the Democratic 
ticket, and was elected, serving during the last four years of Jackson's 

May 20, 1835, the Democratic National committee convened in Balti- 
more, nominated Martin Van Buren for the presidency, and the election 
in November, 1S36, gave him a sweeping majority. Of the 294 electoral 
votes, Van Buren received 170 ; General William Henry Harrison, 73 ; 
Hugh H. White, 26; Daniel Wesbter, 14; Mangum, of North Carolina, 
11. The usual inaugural ceremonies followed, on the 4th of March, 1837. 

During the last years of Jackson's administration, sad at heart and worn 
in body, the president had shown himself irritable toward his friends and 
often discourteous to strangers, and the White House had been a gloomy 
place. With the inauguration of Van Buren, a pleasant change appeared 
in the presidential receptions. He had the high art of blending ease with 
dignity, and Washington social life during his administration was made 
pleasant and attractive. 

But a financial crisis had been long impending over the country, and its 
full force was felt in the early months of 1837. On the 11th of May, the 
banks all stopped specie payment; bankruptcy and distress spread far and 
wide; States, as well as individuals, became bankrupt. 

xi any president was responsible for this state of atlairs it was not Van 
Buren, but his predecessor, Jackson. But the popularity which promised 
to follow Van Buren's political career was borne away on the adverse 
winds of commercial ruin, which prepared the way for tiie sweeping Whijj 
victory of 1840. 


In his third annual message to Congress is embodied the principal meas- 
ure of Van Buren's administration. Therein he urged the absolute divorce 
of bank and State, and the payments and disbursements exclusively of 
specie in all governmental transactions. A bill founded upon his recom- 
mendation was passed in Congress June 30, 1840. 

The presidential campaign of 1840, Van Buren, Democrat, against Har- 
rison, Whig, resulted: Harrison, 234; Van Buren, 00 electoral vote3, 
and the will of the people retired Martin Van Buren to private life. 

He lost the vote of many of the Southern States because of the stand he 
had taken in opposing the further extension of slavery into the territories. 
When, therefore, in 1842, a new party, known as the "Free Soil Demo- 
crats" was formed, Van Buren received from their convention, June 22, 
1842, the nomination for president, with Charles Francis Adams for vice- 
president. The platform of the party declared : "Congress has no more 
power to make a slave than to make a king." This party was necessarily 
sectional and cast but a small vote. 

In 1853 Mr. Van Buren sailed for Europe, and visited for about three 
years among the countries of the Old World. His remaining years were 
spent in private life upon his beautiful estate in Kinderhook. 

His "Inquiry into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the 
United States " was published after his death, by his sons, in 1867. 


Ninth President of the United States, was born February 9, 1773, and 
died April 4, 1841, in his 69th year. 

On the banks of the James river, in Charles City county, Virginia, lies 
the beautiful estate called Berkeley, for several generations the home of 
the Harrison family. Here was born Benjamin Harrison, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, and his third son was William Henry Har 

He received his scholastic education at Hampden Sydney College, and 
then began the study of medicine in Philadelphia. But about that time 
an army was gathering to be sent against the Indians of the Northwest, 
and young Harrison displayed an inclination toward military life. At the 
age of nineteen he received from President Washington an ensign's com- 
mission, and joined the army, under General St. Clair. In 1792 he was 
promoted to a lieutenancy, and in 1794 he fought under " Mad Anthony " 
Wayne, whose aide-de-camp he became, greatly distinguishing himself "by 
the valor and military genius he displayed in the conflicts of that general 
with the Indian tribes of the Northwest. 

In 1795. Harrison was commissioned captain and placed in command at 
Fort Washington, now the site of Cincinnati. Here he was joined iu 
marriage with a daughter of John ClevesSymmes, a pioneer settler in that 


locality, who first laid out the tract of country on which Cincinnati now 
stands. Harrison's wife survived him more than twenty years, dying at 
their home in North Bend, Ohio, February 26, 1864. 

In 1797, Harrison was appointed secretary of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory, and resigned his military commission. Two years later, he was 
elected the first delegate to Congress from the territory. General St. Ciair 
was then governor of the territory, which included the present States of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1801 the Northwestern Territory was divided, Indiana was erected 
into a separate territorial government, embracing what is now the States of 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and William Henry Harrison 
was appointed first governor of the new territory. 

By consecutive re-appointments Harrison was continued chief magistrate 
of Indiana until 1813. During this time he also held the official position 
of commissioner of Indian affairs, and concluded thirteen important treat- 
ies with the different Northwestern tribes. His knowledge of the Indian 
character and the respect with which he was regarded by them on account 
of his fighting qualities, enabled him to conduct these treaties greatly to 
the advantage of the government. 

Before the expiration of his last two years' service as governor, Harrison 
had again distinguished himself by his military skill, and was again 
embarked upon a military career. Among his other achievements was the 
successful resistance of his troop of 800 men against a night attack of the 
followers of Tecumseh, led on and incited by his brother, the Prophet. 
This was the engagement on the night of the 6th and morning of the 7th 
of November, 1811, made famous in subsequent history and song as the 
" Battle of Tippecanoe." 

As early as the spring of 1810 the hostile preparations of the Indians 
of the Northwest, under direction of Tecumseh and his brother, induced 
Governor Harrison to call them to account. In August they met the gov- 
ernor in council at Vincennes, where the appearance of 700 disciplined 
troop of militia somewhat abated the ardor of the brothers for an imme- 
diate conflict. In the following year, however, Tecumseh succeeded in 
forming a league of the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Creeks against the 
whites, and Harrison, using the discretionary power vested in him, gath- 
ered a force from his own territory and from Kentucky, at Vincennes. 
and late in September, 1811, marched up the Wabash valley toward the 
town of the Prophet, near the junction of Tippecanoe creek and the 
Wabash river. On the way he built a fort near the site of the present 
city of Terre Haute, which was called Fort Harrison. 

In the beginning of November, the governor and his troops encamped 
on what became the battle-field of Tippecanoe. Tecumseh had gone south 
to arouse the Indians of Florida, and the Prophet rashly undertook to give 
battle to Harrison t«elievinjj the camp could be surprised and an easy and 


bloody victory given his deluded followers. The result made Harrison 
the popular hero of Tippecanoe. 

Early in 1812, Harrison was brevetted major-general in the Kentucky 
militia, and later in the same year, in September, was appointed brigadier 
general of the regular United States army, with command ot the North- 
western division. In 1813, he received commission as major-general of 
the regular army. 

His services in the war with Great Britain were continued until 1814, 
during which time the battle of the Thames, and other victories in the 
lake country, were added to his laurels. In consequence of a misunderstand- 
ing with Armstrong, secretary of war in 1814, General Harrison resigned 
his commission, and retired to his farm at North Bend. 

He, however, served the government as Indian commissioner in nego- 
tiating the treaties of peace, and in 1816, resumed public life as member 
of Congress, from the Cincinnati district. After serving in the House 
three years, he was chosen, in 1819, to the State Senate of Ohio, and 
served in that position five years. 

In 1824 he became a member of the United States Senate from Ohio, 
and was given the chairmanship of the military commission. In 1828 
John Quincy Adams appointed him minister to Colombia, South America, 
but Jackson recalled him during the first year of his administration. 

For the twelve succeeding years General Harrison lived in private life, 
his only public functions in that time being the discharge of the 
duties of clerk of the court of Hamilton county, Ohio. In 1836 the 
Whig party made him their candidate for the chief magistracy, and he 
received 73 electoral votes. Van Buren, the Democratic candidate, and 
the protege of the retiring president, Jackson, was elected ; but the finan- 
cial depression which accompanied his administration rendered it unpopu- 
lar, and gave the Whigs an opportunity to gain the next election. 

December 4, 1839, General Harrison received the nomination from the 
Whig party, and the canvass which followed was the most remarkable one 
that had been witnessed in American politics to that date. It was the 
"log cabin and hard cider" campaign; the "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" 
campaign. The press and politicians who rallied about Van Buren 
brought forward as a slur against Harrison that he lived in a log cabin and 
drank nothing but hard cider. The friends of Harrison caught up the 
implied reproach and made it their rallying cry. Their political meet- 
ings were held in halls on whose walls were inscribed the words, "log 
cabin and hard cider," their processions were headed by banners bearing 
the inscription, and accompanied by miniature log cabins borne in teams 
or on the shoulders of Harrison supporters. 

A wave of popular enthusiasm swept the country, landing William 
Henry Harrison in the White House, March 4, 1841, with 234 electoral 
votes, and stranding Martin Van Buren at Kiuderhook, he having 
received onlv 60 electoral vote*. 


The new president, a man of slender constitution and now almost thre« 
score and ten years of age, entered upon his presidential duties after this 
exciting campaign, only to fall a victim to an illness which in eight daya 
from its first appearance culminated in his death just one month from the 
day on which he took the oath of office. 


Tenth President of the United States, was born March 29, 1790, and died 
January 17, 1862, in his 72d year. 

He was born in Charles City county, Virgiuia, the second son of John 
Tyler, a patriot of the Revolution, and governor of Virginia, 1808-11. 
John Tyler, sr., was also made a judge of admiralty for Virginia, and waj 
holding that office at the time of his death, in 1813. His wife, the mothei 
of the subject of this sketch, was Mary, only child of Robert Armstead, 
whose ancestors emigrated to Virginia from Hes3e-Darmstadt, in early 
■colonial days. 

John Tyler received a collegiate and legal training, being graduated 
from William and Mary College in 1807, and admitted to the bar in 1809. 
He was never in active practice of his profession, entering public life in 
1811, when he was elected to the State legislature. 

He served five years in the legislature, or until his election, in 1816, to 
fill a vacancy in Congress. To this position he was twice re-elected. In 
the House he was a member of what was becoming known as the Southern 

Sarty. He voted in favor of the resolutions of censure on Jackson's con- 
uct in the Seminole war ; and his negative vote is recorded against inter- 
nal improvements; against United States banks; against a protective 
policy ; and he stron-jly opposed and voted against any restriction on the 
extension of slaverv into the territories. In 1819 he resigned, on account 
of ill health. 

1823-5, he was a leading member of the Virginia legislature, and in 
December, 1825, was chosen governor of that Commonwealth, serving two 
terms of one year each. 

In March, 1831, Tyler was chosen to succeed John Randolph of Roan- 
oke, as United States Senator, and in 1833 he was re-appointed. During 
his term in the Senate lie was one of the most active members of that body. 
His vote was almost invariably recorded against any act favored by Adams 
and his cabinet. As in the House, he now set himself against internal 
improvements, and a protective tariff. He voted against the tariff bill of 
1828, and during the debate on Clay's tariff resolutions, session of 1831-32, 
Tyler spoke three days on the question. He opposed direct protection, 
and argued for a tariff for revenue, with incidental protection to home in- 


In 1832, he was in sympathy with the nullification movement of 8outh 
Carolina, and spoke against the " force bill." The bill passed the Senate 
with only one negative vote recorded. Calhoun and others of its oppo- 
nents retired from the chamber when the motion was to be put, and only 
John Tyler voted against it. He also voted for Clay's "compromise bill," 
by which the trouble was adjusted. 

Receiving from his constituents a request that a vote of his should be 
expunged from the records, Tyler resigned and returned to Virginia 
before the expiration of his second term of service in the Senate. He 
removed to Williamsburg, James City county, and became affiliated in 
politics with the Southern Whig movement. From this party he received 
the nomination for vice-president in 1836, and for that office the electoral 
vote was given him in the States of Maryland, Georgia, South Carolina 
and Tennessee. 

In 1838, the James county Whigs elected him to the State legislature, 
where he served until he received the nomination for vice-president in 
1839. The Whig delegates convened at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
December 4, 1839, and Tyler was present as a member of the convention 
from Virginia. They nominated Harrison and Tyler, and these candi- 
dates were elected in the following year, entering upon their respective 
offices March 4, 1841. 

On the death of President Harrison, one month later, John Tyler became 
his constitutional successor. He was called to Washington from his home 
in Williamsburg, by Harrison's cabinet, on the 4th of April (the day on 
which the president died), and he reached the national capital at four 
o'clock on the morning of the 6th. At noon the ministers called upon him 
in a body, and Judge Cranch administered to him the oath of office. To 
the supporters of the administration gathered about him, Tyler said: 
"You have only exchanged one Whig for another." 

His course as chief executive of the nation was not in consonance with 
this assurance. Before a year had elapsed he had lost the confidence of 
the Whig party, principally by his veto of the bank bill, which was strictly 
a Whig measure. When the bill had been amended so as, it was thought, 
to meet his approval, and had been again vetoed, his entire cabinet (the 
one chosen by Harrison) resigned, with the exception of Daniel Webster, 
Secretary of State, who was then engaged in important negotiations with 
England, and who resigned as soon as those negotiations were completed. 
During the three remaining years of his administration, Tyler was three 
times compelled to form a new cabinet. 

In May, 1844, a Whig convention assembled at Baltimore, Maryland, 
nominated Tyler for the presidency, and the nomination was accepted. 
But the convention was not a voice of the people, being composed princi- 
pally of office holders under Tyler, and the president, finding that his 
defeat at the polls wa3 certain, withdrew his acceptance of the nomination, 
and at the end of his four years retired to private life. 


-In 1861, Tyler again appeared in public life. In February of that year 
a convention of peace delegates from the ** Border States' between the 
North and South was called at Washington to endeavor to arrange terms 
of compromise between the seceded States and the Federal government. 
Over this convention ex-President Tyler was called to preside, but nothing 
was accomplished by its deliberations. 

Thirty-six hours after the adjournment of the peace convention, Mr. 
Tyler, speaking in Richmond, Virginia, denounced the convention and it? 
measures and declared the South had nothing to hope but in separation. 
Acting upon his convictions, Mr. Tyler renounced his allegiance to the 
government, and entered upon active labors in behalf of the Southern 
Confederacy. He was one of the committee who, in April, 1861, trans- 
ferred to the service of the Confederate government, the military forces of 
Virginia, and when the seat of that government was established at Rich- 
mond, Virginia, he was a member of its Congress. In that capucity he 
was serving when his death occurred. 


Eleventh President of the United States, was born November 2, 1795, and 
died June 15, 1849, at the age ot 54 years. 

Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, was settled by Scotch Irish, and 
among those of that mixed race who peopled this part of the New World 
was a family named Pollock, who came to be called, after one or two 
generations, Polk. These Scotch-Irish people early identified themselves 
with the colonial interest, and gained for that corner of the province the 
name of "The Hornet's Nest," by their zeal and activity in the cause of 
popular liberty. 

Among the most energetic of these patriots were the relatives of James 
Knox Polk, and in this " Hornet's Nest" he was born, son of Samuel 
Polk, and eldest of ten children. His father was an enterprising farmer, a 
student of men and events, and a warm supporter of the Jeflersonian 
school of politics. 

When young Polk was eleven years old, his family removed from North 
Carolina to the then wilderness of Middle Tennessee, and settled on the 
banks of a branch of the Cumberland river. Here the future president 
passed the greater portion of his life, witnessing the disappearance of the 
wilderness before the hand of civilization. 

After acquiring a fair English education, James K. Polk was placed 
with a merchant, to be fitted tor a commercial life. But the pursuit was 
not a congenial one, and with some further preparatory study he was able 
to enter the University of North Carolina, in the fall of 1815, and wa> 
thence graduated in 1818. 



In 1819 he began the study of law with Felix Grundy, and in 1820 
was admitted to the bar. From childhood he had been of delicate frame 
and feeble health, but the energy of his mind overcame the weakness of his 
body. In college he never missed a recitation, and in the practice of hia 
chosen profession he soon rose to eminence. His talent and pleasing 
manners won him friends and he soon entered upon public life. 

In 1823 he was a member of the State legislature, and in that body as a 
warm personal and political friend of General Jackson, was chiefly instru- 
mental in returning that gentleman to the United States Senate. 

In August, 1825, at the age of 30, James K. Polk was chosen a repre- 
sentative of Tennessee in the Federal Congress, and for fourteen years the 
people whom he faithfully served returned him to that body. In the 
House he was distinguished for his faithfulness in everything he undertook, 
and as chairman of important committees he was indefatigable in labor 
and clear and correct in his preparation of reports. 

He took a high position among his colleagues as a democratic-republican 
of the strictest stamp, was an earnest and efficient opponent of the admin- 
istration of Adams, and the supporter of all the important measures 
advanced by President Jackson. From the beginning of Jackson's war 
with the Bank of the United States, Polk was in sympathy with his posi- 
tion, and he was one of the most active enemies of the bank in the 
popular branch of Congress. His course arrayed against him the power- 
ful friends of the bank, and great efforts were made to defeat his re-elec- 
tion, but he always received the approval of the people. 

In 1835, and again in 1837, he was elected Speaker of the House. His 
enemies in that body were many, their opposition to his rulings bitter and 
factious, their intrigues against him continuous. Never was a Speaker 
more vigorously assailed and annoyed than Mr. Polk, but with dignified 
equanimity and unchanging urbanity, he held his course, and, happily for 
himself, was always so thoroughly a parliamentarian in his rulings as to 
receive the support of a majority of the House. 

In 1839 Mr. Polk declined a further re-election as representative, and in 
the same year the people of Tennessee, by a large majority, elected him 
governor of that State. After filling that office for the prescribed term, 
Governor Polk sustained three political defeats. 

He was first defeated as a candidate for vice-president with Van Buren. 
The legislature of Tennessee, and of several other States, gave him the 
nomination, but on the election only one electoral vote was given him. 
In 1841 he ran for governor of Tennessee, and was defeated by 3,224 
votes, and he received another defeat for gubernatorial honors in 1843. 

May 27, 1844, the democratic national convention assembled at Balti- 
more, nominated James K. Polk to till the fifteenth term of President of 
the United States, and his election followed. The popular vote was: 
Polk, Democrat, 1,337,243; Clay, Whig, 1,299,062; James G. Birney, 
Anti-Slaverv. 62,300. The whole number of electoral votes was 275, and 


Polk received 170, Clay 105. 

President Polk's cabinet consisted of: James Buchanan, of Pennsylva- 
nia, Secretary of State ; Robert J. Walker, of Mississippi, Secretary of the 
Treasury; William L. Marcy, of New York, Secretary of War; fteorga 
Bancroft, of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Navy until September 9, 
1846, afterward John Y. Mason, of Virginia; Cave Johnson, of Tennes- 
see, Postmaster-General; John Y. Mason of Virginia, Nathan Clifford 
of Maine, and Isaac Toucey of Connecticut, Attorneys-General in the 
order named. 

The administration of President Polk included the period of the Mexi- 
can war, with the settlement of the Texan boundary line ; the Oregon 
boundary question ; and the excitement of the discovery of gold in Cali- 
fornia. Wisconsin was admitted to the Union ; and the Department of 
the Interior established ; the independent treasury system, by which gov- 
ernment revenues are collected in specie without the aid of banks, wag 
established; and the low tariff of 1846 was substituted for the protective 
tariff of 1842. 

President Polk retired from office in March, 1849, and died at his resi- 
dence in Nashville, Tennessee, in the June following, alter a few days' 

In personal appearance, he was a man of middle stature, of quick 
movements but grave and unostentatious manner ; his iace was expres- 
sive of great force, attributable to his penetrating eyes, and full, over- 
hanging forehead. In character he was pure, amiable and upright, 
loved of his friends and respected by his enemies. 


Twelfth President of the United States, was born November 24, 1784, 
and died July 9, 1850, aged 66 years. 

His birth was in Orange county, Virginia, and he was a son of Colonel 
Richard and Sarah (Strothers) Taylor, both parents of eminent Virginia 
families. The Virginian Taylors were allied to the oldest and most dis- 
tinguished families in that State — the Madisons, the Lees, the Pendletons 
the Barbours, the Con ways, the Gaineses, the Hunts, the Taliaferros. 

But the character of our twelfth President seems to have been largely 
determined by the rude border life in which his childhood and youth were 
passed. Battling with the hardships and dangers of frontier life, rather 
than Virginia cultivation, stamped the character of him who was to be 
known as " Old Rough and Ready." 

In 1785, Colonel Taylor settled, with his little family, in Kentucky, in 
what is now Jefferson county, two miles from the Ohio river, and five 
miles from the present site of Louisville. Here young Zachary grew to 

gscz^h- e<? ■? £~ w-^ c*4 




manhood, his earlier years spent in the acquisition of such book knowledge 
as could be obtained ; and his time, when he had grown old enough and 
Htrong enough, given to the actual labors of the farm, where he worked 
with his father until he was nearly twenty-four years old. 

His book learning was confined to a knowledge of reading, writing, 
spelling, and plain arithmetic, but during his boyhood's days he also 
acquired a love for military life from the many border skirmishes with the 
Indians of which he was a spectator, or in which he participated. His 
instructor in the arts of warfare was one Whetsel, a noted border charac- 
ter, who taught young Taylor how to load and "fire running." The lat- 
ter accomplishment Taylor never availed himself of. 

May 3, 1808, Zachary Taylor received a commission as first lieutenant 
in the 7th United States Infantry, and his regiment marched under Har- 
rison in his expedition against the Indians of the Northwest. Taylor was 
now in active service until the close of the second war with England. In 
the beginning of the year 1812, President Madison commissioned him cap- 
tain, and he was placed in command of Fort Harrison, on the Wabash. 

Here he achieved the first of those brilliant victories which in after 
years formulated the axiom, " Taylor never surrenders," on which his sol- 
diers enthusiastically relied. On the night of September 4, 1812, a band 
of 400 Indians fell upon the fort, expecting to surprise it and massacre its 
garrison. They succeeded, in the first onslaught, in firing the block-house, 
in which the garrison's stock of whisky was stored, and it burned with un- 
controllable fury. Captain Taylor, then only twenty-eight years of age, 
found himself shut up in a burning fort, with 400 savages outside its 
walls, and only fifty men at his command, twenty-six of them sick with 
malarial fever, and unfitted for duty. He calmed the women and child- 
ren, encouraged the men, directed the control of the flames, held the fort 
and defeated the enemy. For this victory he was brevetted major by 
President Madison. 

In 1816, Major Taylor was ordered to Green Bay, and remained in com- 
mand of that post for two years. Then returning to Kentucky he passed 
one year with his family, and was then ordered to New Orleans. In 1822 
he superintended the erection of Fort Jesup ; in 1824 was in the re- 
cruiting service, then ordered to Washington, and thence to the South 
again. He had been made lieutenant-colonel in 1819, and in 1832 was 
promoted to the rank of colonel. The contest known as the "Black 
Hawk War" opened in 1832, and Colonel Taylor commanded the expedi- 
tion which resulted in the defeat and capture of Black Hawk. His mili- 
tary decision was shown in this campaign by his control of his own troop.', 
as much as by his action against the enemy. The pursuit of Black 
Hawk's band had brought the troops to Rock River, the northwestern 
boundary of Illinois. Here the militia, called out (as they claimed) to 
defend their State, considered their services ended. The orders of Taylor 
were to continue the pursuit with his " full army." 


Tht= militia held a sort of town meeting, at which Taylor was present. 
Deceived by his quiet manner, theleadetiof the movement for disbanding 
grew insolent, and the spirit of mutiny was augmented by their inflam- 
matory speeches. When Taylor had listened to several of these gentle- 
men, his own speech was ready : " Gentlemen, the word has been passed' 
on to me from Washington to follow Black Hawk, and to take you with 
me as soldiers. I mean to do both. There are the flat boats drawn up on 
the shore, and here are Uncle Sam's men drawn up behind you on the 
prairie." The militia did not disband that day. 

After the Black Hawk war, Colonel Taylor was in command at Fort Craw- 
ford, Prairie du Chien, where he remained until, in 1836, his services were 
required in Florida in the Seminole war. In Florida he won the battle of 
Okee-chcbee, January, 1838, and was promoted to brigadier-general. In 
April, 1838, he was appointed to the command of the Florida troops, and 
continued in that responsible position until he was relieved in April, 1840,. 
at his own request. 

He was at once appointed to the command of the army of the south- 
west, which comprehended the States of Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas 
and Louisiana, with headquarters at Fort Jesup, in the latter State. 

The annexation of Texas, in 1845, and the consequent war with Mexico, 
next called General Taylor into active service. He was ordered to the 
frontier of Texas, and made his headquarters on the Rio Grande del Norte. 

The war which followed terminated in success to the A merican arms and 
independence for Texas, and recorded the name of General Taylor as vic- 
tor at Palo Alto, Reseca de la Palma, Monterey and Beuna Vista. 

The battle of Beuna Vista was the last in which General Taylor en- 
gaged. He returned to his home, now in his G3d year, to find that a por- 
tion of the people desired to reward his services by making him the chief 
•magistrate of the nation. His own views upon accepting the honor ten- 
dered him were expressed in a letter written before he left the seat of war. 
He desired to be "elected by the general voice of the people, without 
regard to their political differences." His want of knowledge of party 
politics is explained, however, in the same letter. He says: "I have 
never yet exercised the privilege of voting." The soldier had been too 
busy all his life fighting for all America, to interest himself in any sec- 
tional or party question. 

He was nominated by the Whig convention at Baltimore, June 7, 1848, 
and elected in the November following. His opponent was Lewis Cass, 
of Michigan, and the electoral vote stood : Taylor, 163 ; Cass, 127. 

The inaugural ceremonies were observed March 5, 1849, the 4th of 
March that year falling upon Sunday. His administration of affairs ex- 
tended over very little more than a year, nnd was principally occupied in 
long debates over the adjustment of the questions connected* with the new 
territory of the United States. 


July 4th, 1850, President Taylor attended some national demonstration* 
in honor of the day, in his usual health and spirits. Tn the evening, 
while overheated, he partook freely of fruits and iced water and milk. 
Within an hour he was seized with cramps which took the form of violent 
cholera morbus, and after lingering in terrible pain until the end, death 
supervened at 1 p. m., July 9th. 

Taylor married in 1810, and the wife of forty years knelt at hi3 death- 
bed with their weeping children about her, anil his last unintelligible word 
was an effort to speak to her once more. Of the four children born of 
their union, three survived him, and were present at his death-bed, his 
only son, Colonel Taylor, and two daughters. One of his sons-in-law was 
Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, who had served under him in the Mexican 
war, and afterward achieved a name as president of the Southern Confed- 
eracy. The death of President Taylor was widely mourned ; the people, 
who held him second only to Washington, mourned a popular hero ; the 
army mourned old " Rough and Ready." The loss to the nation was the 
loss of a sincere patriot and an honest man. A man of application as 
well as of military genius, he has left an enduring record. 


Thirteenth President of the United States, was born January 7, 1800, and 
died March 8, 1874, in his 75th year. 

He was born in the township of Locke, now Somerville, Cayuga county, 
New York, and his early years were passed upon his father's farm which 
lay in comparative solitude, the nearest neighbor being four miles distant. 
The boy Fillmore trudged along the country road for a still greater dist- 
ance to reach the district school house, where he was instructed in the 
usual branches taught in such a school. 

At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to learn the fuller's trade, 
and served five years. He then bought from his employer the two remain- 
ing years of his time, giving up his wages for his last year's services, and 
a bonus of thirty dollars. 

He then entered earnestly upon the study of law, reading first with the 
village lawyer and paying for his board in office work. After two years' 
study here, he went to Buffalo, entering that city in 1821 without a friend 
or an acquaintance there, and with only four dollars in money as his busi- 
ness capital. 

For two years more he continued his studies, supporting himself by 
teaching and by assisting in the Buffalo postofiice, and in 1823 he was 
admitted to practice in the Court of Common Pleas of Erie county, and 
opened his office in Aurora, where his father was then living. In the course 
of a few years he acquired not only a large practice, but also a knowledge 


of the law which was to put him among the gifted tew who stood at the 
head of the legal profession in New York State. In 1827 he was made an 
attorney, and'in 1S29 a counsellor of the Supreme Court of his native 

State. . .,.,.., r> i 

In 1826 Mr. Fillmore was united in marriage with Abigail rowers, and 
in 1830, they made their home in Buffalo, where he continued his profes- 
sional career in the intervals of his official duties until, in 1847, when 
State comptroller, he retired permanently from practice. 

His political life began in 1828, when he was elected to the State legis- 
lature by the anti-masonic party. He served three terms, or until the 
spring of 1831. He advocated and drafted the bill to abolish imprison- 
ment for debt, which was passed in 1831. 

In the autumn of 1832 he was elected to the House of Representatives 
on the anti-Jackson or anti-administration ticket, and served one term. In 
1836 he was returned to the same body on the Whig ticket, and again in 
in 1838 and 1840. In 1842 he declined further re-election. His conduct 
in the House was distinguished by integrity of purpose, and industry and 
practical abilitv in execution. , 

As a decided Whis, he had belonged to the minority party until, in 
the Twenty-seventh Congress, in 1841, that party became dominant, when 
Fillmore at once assumed the prominence his talent merited. During his 
last term he was chairman of the ways and means committee, and in a 
nine months' session was not a single d"ay absent from duty. The tarhfof 
1842 was largely his individual work. He retired from Congress in 
March, 1843. 

In May, 1844, he was the candidate of New York and of some of the 
Western States for the nomination for vice-president at the Baltimore 
Whig Convention, but failed to secure the nomination. September 11, 
1844* he was the Whig nominee for governor of New York, but was 
•defeated bv Silas Wright. In 1847 he was elected State comptroller. 

In June*, 1848, he received the Whig nomination for vice-president 
•on the ticket with Taylor, was elected in the November following, and 
resigned the comptrollership in February, 1849, assuming the obligations 
of vice-president in the following month. 

As president of the Senate, Fillmore exhibited a firmness and decision 
of character which the time specially called for. During the session 
(winter of 1849-50) three questions of importance were before the Senate, 
viz: The admission of California, the territorial extension of slavery, 
and the rendition of fugitive slaves. Sectional lines were sharply drawn, 
the controversy waxed bitter, and the most acrimonious language was used 
by contending Senators. In 1829, Mr. Calhoun, then vice-president, 
had established the rule that that officer had no power to call members ol 
the Senate to order. Astonishing as this decision appears, it is more 
astonishing to learn that his successors in office until Fillmore bound them- 
selves by the precedent thus established. 


During Mr. Fillmore's presidency over the session of 1849-50, he 
announced to the Senate his determination to preserve order, and that, 
should occasion require, he should set aside the usage of his predecessors. 
He was as good as his word, calling to order the first member who departed 
from parliamentary language, and receiving the unanimous approval of 
the Senate for so doing, the Senate voting his remarks should be entered 
at length on the Journal. 

After the death of President Taylor, July 9, 1850, Fillmore fulfilled 
the duties of chief magistrate for the remainder of the term, taking the 
oath of office July 10, 1850, and retiring upon the inauguration of his 
successor, March 4, 1853. 

During his administration he insisted upon a rigorous and absolute 
enforcement of the law and constitution, although (notably in two 
instances) sometimes against his own political predilections. 

The fugitive slave law, which he signed, was a concession to the South- 
ern politicians, which was very obnoxious to the Whig party. Personally 
President Fillmore was of the same feeling, but when the execution of the 
law was resisted in northern cities, his injunctions were emphatic that the 
law must and should be enforced. Again, sympathizing, as the majority of 
Americans did, with Hungary during her death-struggle with Austria, he 
was firm in his assurance to Kossuth that the United States would observe 
the law of neutrality. 

In 1852, President Fillmore was a candidate for the nomination for the 
next Presidential term, but failed to receive it. His signing the fugitive 
slave bill had lost him the support of the Whig party, and in their con- 
vention of 1852, he received only twenty votes from the Free States, and 
none from any other section of the country. 

He now spent some years in travel, visiting first the Southwestern States, 
the New England States in the summer of 1855, and then sailing tor 
Europe. His tour of the European cities was continued until in June, 
1856, while in Koine, he received notification of his nomination by the 
"American'' parly, tor the next presidential term. 

He accepted the nomination and returned home. But the real struggle 
of that campaign lay between the democratic and republican nominees, 
Buchanan and Fremont. Fillmore received the support of quite a large 
popular vote from several States, but only one State, Maryland, cast the 
electoral vote for him* 

The remaining years of Fillmore's life were passed in private life, hit 
death occurring at his home in the city of Buffalo, New "iork. 


Fourteenth President of the United States, was born November 23, 1804, 
and died October 8. 1869, aged 65 veara. 


He was born in Hillsborough, Hillsborough county, New Hampshire, a 
eon of Benjamin and Anna (Kendrick) Pierce. From his infancy Frank- 
lin Pierce had, in his father, an example of sterling New England char- 
acter, which must strongly have influenced his own development toward 

April 19, 1775, Benjamin Pierce, then less than eighteen years of age, 
was following the plough in the field when he heard of the bloodshed at 
Lexington and Concord. He immediately loosened the ox-chain, left the 
plough in the furrow, took gun and equipment, and started for the scene 
of action. For seven years he never saw homeagain. In 1785 he bought 
a tract of land in Hillsborough, and thereafter contributed as much asany 
man to the growth and prosperity of that county. He was thirteen years 
a member of the State legislature, and after that a member of the gov- 
ernor's council. During the same time he was active in military duty, 
and he attained the rank of general in the State militia. He was also two 
terms governor of New Hampshire. 

At an early age Franklin Pierce was sent to the academy at Hancock, 
and afterward to that of Francestown, both in New Hampshire. In 1820, 
he entered Bowdoin College at Brunswick, Maine, and was graduated from 
that institution with a highly creditable degree of scholarship. 

Leaving college in 1824, Pierce entered upon the study of law, in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He also 
attended for two years the law school at Northampton, Massachusetts, and 
studied in the office of Judge Parker, at Amherst. In 1827, he was 
admitted to the bar, and settled in his native town, but the enticements of 
political life had already begun to fiscinate the young man's mind, and he 
paid more attention to national affairs than to personal advancement in his 
chosen profession. 

In 1829 the town of Hillsborough elected him to the State legislature, 
and he served four consecutive years. In the two latter years he was 
chosen speaker by a vote of 155 against 58 votes cast for all other candi- 
dates. He had all the natural gifts that adapted him for the post ; cour- 
tesy, firmness, quickness and accuracy of judgment, and clearness of men- 
tal perception. To that he added what was to be attained by a laborious 
study of parliamentary rules, and his record as a presiding officer was a 
brilliant one. 

In 1833 he was elected to the House of Representatives, and there sup- 
ported the administration of Jackson, who became warmly attached to the 
young New Hampshire Democrat. Pierce continued in the house four 
vears, during which time he put himself upon record as an opponent of the 
\\Vst Point system of military education, and a supporter of States rights 
as seemed to him guaranteed by the Constitution. On the former point, 
after his experience in the Mexican war, he became convinced he was mis- 
taken, and so puhliclv acknowledged But he was always "a State-rights 



man," and as determined that anything due should be given a Southern 
State, as that the rights of his own land of hills should be regarded. 

In 1837 Franklin took his seat in the United States Senate as member 
from New Hampshire. This was in the beginning of President Van Bu- 
ren's administration, and when the Senate, oi which Pierce was the young- 
est member, contained such illustrious talent as that of Webster, of Clay, 
and of Calhoun. For the first three years, the records of Senator 
Pierce's duties consists mainly of reports of committees and brief remarks, 
usually bearing upon some committee work. But in 1841, when the elec- 
tion of Harrison had brought the Whig party into pre-eminence, the power 
of Pierce as one of the organized minority was sensibly felt, and gener- 
ously recognized by the older and more experienced men of his party. 
In their consultations no man's voice was heard with more respect than 
his, and when he rose to address the Senate he was listened to with the 
profoundest attention. 

In 1842 Pierce resigned his seat in the Senate and turned his attention 
once more to the practice of his profession. In 1834, he had married 
Jane Means, a daughter ot Rev. Dr. Appleton, a former president of 
Bowdoin College, and since 1838 they had made their home in Concord, 
the capital of New Hampshire. Three sons, the first of whom died in 
infancy, were born of their union, and as Mr. Pierce's honorable public 
services had kept him poor, it was now his intention to provide tor his 
family by practice at the bar. 

He at once rose to eminence in his profession, obtained a lucrative prac- 
tice, and made a record never excelled by any practitioner at the New 
Hampshire bar. He continued in practice for five year, or until the 
opening of the Mexican war in 1847. During these years he declined 
the nomination for governor, tendered by the Democrats of his State ; the 
position of United States Senator again urged upon him, and the office of 
attorney general tendered him by President Polk. 

With the necessity for war once more forced upon the nation, Pierce at 
once, and voluntarily, entered upon public life again. He enlisted a3 a 
private in a company of volunteers enrolled at Concord, was appointed 
colonel of the Ninth Regiment, and shortly after, in March, 1847, was 
commissioned brigadier-general. His bn'gade consisted of regiments from 
the extreme north, the extreme west, and the extreme south of the Union. 

General Pierce remained nine months in Mexico, until peace was about 
to be concluded, in December, 1847. During that time he saw more of 
actual service than many professional soldiers see in their whole lives. 
During the battle of Contreras, begun August 19, Pierce received a 
severe injury iti the first hour of the engagement, a fracture of the knee, 
brought about by the stumbling and falling of his horse. But he 
remained at the head of his brigade, and fur two days and nights, during 
the fight which followed at Cherubusco. he never removed his spurs or 



slept an hour. When, from the exhaustion consequent unon the severe 
pain, he reeled in hi& saddle, and those about him begged him to retire, 
his reply was: "If I can't sit on my horse, you must tie me on." And 
when he fell fainting with pain, he insisted upon lying in an exposed 
position on the field -as long as his brigade was engaged, and so participated 
in their victory. 

From the time of General Pierce's return to New Hampshire until his 
nomination for the presidency he continued in the practice of law. In 
the autumn of 1850 he was president of a convention assembled at Con- 
cord to revise the State constitution of New Hampshire, and the duties of 
that position he discharged to the satisfaction of his colleagues, and the 
benefit of the State. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic delegates convened in Baltimore to 
nominate a candidate for the next presidential term. Pierce had refused 
the use of his name to his friends, and the convention was four days in 
session, and had thrown thirty-five ballots before his interdiction was set 
aside. On the thirty-sixth ballot the delegates from Virginia brought forward 
the name of Pierce, casting their solid vote for him. The name received 
a new impetus on every following ballot until, on the forty-ninth, the vote 
was: Franklin Pierce, 282; all other candidates, 11. His election fol- 
lowed, in due time, the nomination, the electoral count standing: Pierce, 
244 ; Scott, 42. 

During Pierce's administration, a dispute concerning boundary lines 
between the United States and Mexico resulted in the acquisition ot 
Arizona by the United States. The "Missouri compromise" was re- 
paled; Senator Douglas' celebrated " Kansas-Nebraska bill " beeame a 
law, and other signs pointed to a growing agitation of the slavery question 
and violent sectional strife. 

Pierce's administration extended over only four years, ending March 
4, 1857. He visited Madeira soon after retiring to private life, and then 
made an extended tour of Europe, returning home in 1860. During the 
civil war he adhered to his political belief in the States' rights doctrine, 
and in public speeches recorded his sympathy with the cause of the Con- 
tedei acy. 

H 3 death occurred in Concord, New Hampshire, which, for thirty 
years, had been his home. 


Fifteenth President of the United States, was born April 22, 1791, and 
died June 1, l$o8, in his 78th year. 

His birth was at Stony Butter, Franklin county, Pennsylvania, and he 
was of mixed Irish and American blood. His lather emigrated from Ire- 
laud to America, settling in Pennsylvania in 1783 ; and his mother, whoso 


maiden name was Elizabeth Spear, was the daughter of a prosperous 
farmer of Adams county, Pennsylvania. 

After receiving a good scholastic training, James Buchanan entered 
Dickinson College, Pennsylvania, and was graduated at the age of 
eighteen, in 1809. He entered upon the study of law in Lancaster, and, 
when duly qualified, was admitted to the bar, in 1812. 

Although at this time a Federalist in political convictions, and there- 
fore opposed to the second war between the United States and Great 
Britain, Buchanan enlisted as a private in a company which marched 
to the defense of Baltimore when that city was threatened with destruc- 
tion at the hands of the British. 

In 1814 Buchanan represented Franklin county in the State legislature, 
and from 1821 to 1831 he was a member of the House of Representatives 
from that district ot Pennsylvania in which Franklin county is included. 

Buchanan's record in the house was that of a free-trade Democrat, and 
in 1828 he warmly espoused the nomination of Jackson for the presidency, 
and took an active part in the campaign which resulted in the general'3 
election. At the close of his fifth congressional term, in 1831, Buchanan 
withdrew from Congress and was by President Jackson appointed envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at St. Petersburg. During 
his term of service in this capacity, Buchanan concluded the first commer- 
cial treaty between the United States and Russia, which secured our mer- 
chants and navigators important privileges in the Baltic and Black seas. 

Returning to America, in 1833. Buchanan entered the United States 
Senate, where he supported the measures of the administrations of Jackson 
and of Van Buren. 

President Polk made James Buchanan his Secretary of State, and dur- 
ing the Mexican war it required the utmost diplomacy of the head of that 
department to prevent European interference in American affairs. Dur- 
ing this administration, also., and between Buchanan, as Secretary of 
State, and Mr. Pakenhatn, representing England, was settled the present 
northwestern boundary line, 40° N., between the United States and the 
British American possessions. 

At the close of President Polk's administration, Buchanan retired to 
private life, but in 1853 he was, by President Pierce, appointed minister to 

He returned to America in April, 1856, and in June of that year re- 
ceived from the National Democratic convention, assembled in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, the unanimous nomination for the next term of chief magistrate of 
the United States. 

His election followed, the electoral votes of nineteen states being cast 
for him, giving him a total of 174 votes, against 114 for Fremont, his 
opponent. In the mouth of his election he declared in a public speech 
that the object of his administration would be to destroy any sectional 





party, whether in- the North or South, and to restore national and fraternal 
feeling between the sections. 

But a much stronger man would have failed in what he had undertaken 
to do. The vexed questions of Kansas free-soil and of the other phases 
of the slavery question, kept the country in an unhealthy state of turmoil 
during the whole of his administration. As its term drew towards its close, 
it became evident that a sectional conflict likely to culminate in something 
beyond words, was pending, and the election of Lincoln as his successor 
precipitated this result. 

The John Brown raid, in 1859, was one of the unfortunate events 
which, during this administration, added fuel to the flame3 of sectional 

In his annual message to Congress, in December, 1860, President 
Buchanan expressed a hope that the issue of disunion would be averted, 
and laid the blame of the trouble upon the " unwarrantable agitation at the 
North of the slavery question," "which," the president said, "has pro- 
duced its malign influence upon the slaves, and inspired them with a 
vague idea of freedom." 

At this time the party opposed to Buchanan's administration were out- 
epoken in their denunciations of the s'upineness of the government, and 
stigmatized its head as " a Northern man with Southern principles." The 
truth of history probably is that President Buchanan desired nothing but 
to do the right, and was so uncertain what the right was that he did 
nothing. He rightly regarded "the Constitution" as the limit of his 
prerogative, but he held it in as holy awe as the heathen does his idol, 
and was ready to call upon all the people to throw themselves under the 
wheels of this juggernaut. 

South Carolina formally seceded December 20, 1860, and President 
Buchanan refused to call out the army to restrain her. He declared the 
Constitution gave "no power to coerce into submission any State which is 
attempting to withraw or has already withdrawn from the Union." 

Then South Carolina sent commissioners to Washington " to treat " 
with President Buchanan "for the delivery of all public property in that 
State," and to negotiate " peace and amity between that State and the 
government at Washington," and the president refused to negotiate. He 
had "no power" to do that, either. 

During the winter of 18(>0-61, one after another of the Southern States 
seceded from the Federal Union, seizing and holding nearly all the forts, 
arsenals and custom-houses within their territory, and the government at 
Washington, with its paralyzed head, looked on without action. 

But it to do nothing was President Buchanan's only ability at this junc- 
ture, he did not find his neutrality a pleasant resource. His cabinet broke 
up almost without the formality of resignations. Cobb, Secretary of the 
Treasury, was the first to resign ; Cass, Secretary of State, resigned because 
President Buchanan would not reinforce the troops in Charleston harbor, 


3nd Floyd, Secretary of War, because he would not withdraw the troope 
already there ; the other members of the cabinet acted, or ceased to act, 
in their official characters, quite unnoticed of the President, and under this 
unprecedented cloud his administration closed. 

He never again participated in public affairs, but remained in retire- 
ment at his beautiful estate at "Wheatland," near Lancaster, which he 
had- been able to purchase, before he reached the age ot forty years, with 
some of the proceeds of his lucrative law practice in Lancaster. 

Buchanan never married, and the White House, during his adminis- 
tration, was presided over by his beautiful niece, Miss Harriet A. Lane. 
After his retirement to "Wheatland," he solaced his disappointed ambition 
by writing and publishing his own defense, a book entitled " Mr. 
Buchanan's Administration." The book was issued in 1866, and he died at 
his home, two years later. 


Sixteenth President of the United States, was born February 12, 18Q9 r 
and died April 15, 1865, at the age of 56 years. 

Thomas and Nancy (Hanks) Lincoln, his parents, were both Virginians 
of humble family, by birth, and after their marriage, in 1806, they made 
their home in Hardin county, Kentucky, for some years. Here Abraham 
Lincoln was born, and here his early years were spent in poverty and toil. 
His early education was acquired by occasional attendance upon a country 
school, where the onlv school book his father's means afforded him was a 
dilapidated copy of Dilworth's spelling book. 

In 1817 Thomas Lincoln resolved to emigrate to a State where free 
labor was more dignified and more profitable than it could be in a State 
where slavery was established. Accordingly, in that year, their humble 
home was sold, their small stock of valuables placed upon a raft, and the 
little family took their way to a new home in the wilds of Indiana. 

Abraham Lincoln was not quite eight years old when the family settled 
in Spencer county, Indiana, but he was already accustomed to the toils of 
life, and his boyish labors largely helped to establish their pioneer home 
in the wilderness. His mother died before he was ten years old, having 
first instructed her son in the rudiments of writing, and in the habit ol 
daily Bible reading. 

It is a touching tribute of the boy's love, that one of the first accom- 
plishments of his unready pen was a letter written to an old friend of his 
mother's, a traveling preacher, begging him to come and deliver a funeral 
sermon over her grave. As soon as circumstances would permit, Parson 
Elkins responded to the boy's impressive appeal, and the sermon was 
preached just one year after the death, of the good, woman whose virtues it 


The next twelve years of Lincoln's life were passed in Indiana, mainly 
occupied in a hard struggle for existence, hut with all spare moments and 
availahle opportunities given to the acquisition of knowledge. In 1830, 
the advancing tide of civilization having spread about the home of Thomas 
Lincoln, he again took his march to the westward, this time settling near 
Decatur, Macon county, Illinois. Here, with Abraham's assistance, he 
erected a log cabin, and'the two men, for the son was now twenty-one, split 
rails to fence in their new farm. These were not the first nor the only rails 
made by the young man, who became a practiced hand at the business, 
little dreaming of the day when they would be in demand in every State 
in the Union, and would be borne in processions of the people, and hailed 
by hundreds of thousands as the symbol of the dignity and triumph of 
free labor. 

In 1828, and again in 1831, Abraham Lincoln made trips to New 
Orleans as a flat-boatman, and on his return from the last trip, his em- 
ployer gave him a position as clerk in a country store at New Salem, some 
twenty miles from Springfield, Illinois. In 1832 the ' ' Black Hawk War " 
broke out, and young Lincoln joined a volunteer company, of which he was 
made captain. Of his three mcnths' campaign we give his own descrip- 
tion. It abounds in that quaint and homely simplicity that made him so 
absolutely a man of the people. In addressing the House, during his 
membership in that body, Mr. Lincoln once said : 

"By the way, Mr. Speaker, did y u know I was a military hero? Yes, sir; in 
the days of the Black Hawk War, I fought, bled, and came away. Speaking of 
General Cass's career, reminds me of ray c wn. I was not at Stillman's defeat, but 
I was about as near to it as Cass was to Hull's- surrender ; and, like him, I saw the 
place a few days after. It is quite certain that 1 did not break my sword, for I had 
none to break; but I bent my musket pretty badly upon one occasion. If Cass 
broke his sword, the idea is, he broke it in desperation. I bent the musket bv 
accident. If General Cass went in advance of me in picking whortleberries, I 
guess I surpassed him in charges upon the wild onions. If he saw any live right- 
ing Indians, it is more than I did, but I had a great many bloody straggles with 
the mosquitoes; and although I never fainted from loss of blood, I certanly can 
say that I was often very hungry." 

His "military career" closed, Mr. Lincoln looked for an opening in 
politics. In the same year, 1832, he ran for the State legislature, and sus- 
tained his only defeat at the hands of the people. He had espoused the 
cause of Henry Clay against General Jackson, and the popularity of 
Jackson in Illinois was too much for the success of the young politician, 
although his own precinct gave him the compliment ot 277 out ol the L&4 
votes cast. 

After this defeat, Lincoln purchased a store and stock ot goods on 
credit and secured the postmastership of the little town, but his venture 
was unsuccessful. He then devoted himself to the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1836. On the 15th of April, 1837, he settled ie 


Springfield, the county seat of Sangamon county, which was destined to 
be his tuture home. 

In 1834 he was elected to the legislature, and continued, by re-ele^Hong, 
one of the representatives of Sangamon county in that body until the 
close of the session of 1840. Heathen entered upon a law partnership 
with his friend and former colleague, Hon. John T. Stuart, at Springfield. 

November 4, 1842, Abraham Lincoln married Mary, daughter of 
Hon. Robert S. Todd, of Lexington, Kentucky, and in the after years 
three sons were born of their union. 

In 1846 Mr. Lincoln was elected to the House of Representatives, the 
only Whig member from Illinois, which State had then seven mem- 
bers in tlie House. As a Whig. Mr. Lincoln was not in favor of the 
inauguration of the Mexican war, the most important act of President 
Polk's administration, but he voted for the proper supplies to continue 
the war when it had been begun. Except in this vr>te, he acted with the 
Whi» minority, and opposed the administration, until the close of his 
congressional career, March 4, 1849. 

Following his professional duties again at his home in Springfield, Mr. 
Lincoln was now for some years an anxious observer of the growing com- 
plications of the political situation, and the pressure of events gradually 
brought him before the North as a defender of those principles most 
favorably received in that section of the country. The " Republican " 
party was formed, and held its first convention for the nomination of 
president and vice-president at Philadelphia, June 17, 1856. JohnC. 
Fremont was nominated for president, and William L. Dayton for vice- 
president. Mr. Lincoln's name was prominently before the convention for 
the latter office, and on the informal ballot he stood next to Mr. Dayton, 
receiving 110 votes. His name headed the electoral ticket in Illinois, and 
he took an active part in the canvass that followed. 

Early in 1857 began his famous platform contests with Senator Douglas, 
the "Little Giant of the West," which were extended over a period of 
eighteen months. June 17, 1858, the Republican State Convention at 
Springfield nominated Lincoln as their candidate for the Senate of the_ 
United States. The Democrats renominated Douglas, whose term of 
office was about expiring. The two candidates stumped the State, each 
explaining his own platform and explaining away his opponent's. The 
Douglas cry was "popular sovereignty," which, in Douglas' view, was 
" the right of each State to vote slavery up or down," according to the 
will of die people of that State alone. The party represented by Lincoln 
were for the absolute restriction of slavery within the then slave States, 
which, as they frankly expressed it, was a first and important step toward 
its ultimate extinction. 

Lincoln challenged Douglas to a joint debate in 1858, and the chal- 
lenge was promptly accepted. Seven joint .debates were held : At 


Ottawa. August 21 ; Freeport, August 27 ; Jonesboro, September 15 ; 
Charleston, September 18; Galesburg, October 7; Quincy, October 13; 
Alton, October 15. These seven tournaments were attended with the 
utmost excitement between the two parties throughout the State, and 
attracted the attention of the whole nation. 

The election took place November 2d, and the popular vote stood : Re- 
publican, 126,084; Douglas Democrat, 121,940 ; Lecompton Democrat, 
5,091. Had the people, therefore, directly decided the question, Mr. 
Lincoln would have been elected to the Senate, as he had a plurality of 
4,144 votes over Mr. Douglas. But the final tribunal was the State legis- 
lature, which was largely Democratic, and Senator Douglas was re-elected. 

Mr. Lincoln was kept before the people by speeches made by him in 
Ohio for the Republican candidate for governor in 1859, and by his great 
speech delivered at Cooper Institute, New York, February 27, "i860. In 
that speech the Republican principles were so enunciated and defended by 
Mr. Lincoln as to make him pre-eminently the head for that party in its 
next political contest. 

The Republican National convention, of 1860, met on the 16th of May, 
at Chicago, in an immense "Wigwam" put up for the meeting by the 
people of that city. There were present 465 delegates, and the names of 
a number of prominent members of the party were buzzed about for the 
nominations. Chase. Bates, Cameron and Seward had many zealous sup- 
porters; but from the first it was evident that the "Lincoln men" were 
in the majority. The first ballot gave Seward 173 votes; Lincoln, 102; 
the rest scattering. On the second ballot, the chairman of the Vermont 
delegation announced in the name of that delegation, " Vermont casts her 
ten votes for the young giant of the West, Abraham Lincoln." In the 
third ballot, after some States had been allowed to change their vote, it 
was announced that Abraham Lincoln had received 354 votes, and the 
nomination, on motion of Evarts of New York, was made unanimous. 

His election by popular vote followed on the 6th ot November. 1860. 
His total electoral vote was 180 out of a grand total of 303. The solid 
South voted against him, and as soon as the result was known begau pre- 
parations for carrying out what had been announced as their determined 
purpose if any man known to be hostile to the extension of slavery was 
elected to the presidency. This purposed action was a withdrawal of the 
slave States from the Federal Union, peacably if might be, by force of 
arms if must be. 

South Carolina led the way by an ordinance of secession, passed De- 
cember 20, 1860; Mississippi passed a like ordinance January 9, 1861; 
Alabama and Florida, January 11; Louisiana, January 26; Texas, 
February 5. At a convention held in Montgomery, Alabama, Jeii'erson 
Davis, of Mississippi, was elected president, and Alexander H. Stephens, 
of Georgia, vice-president of the new Confederacy, and both were inau- 
gurated February IS, 1861. 


When, therefore, upon his inauguration March 4, 1861, Abraham Lin- 
coln entered upon his duties as sixteenth President of the United States, 
he found himself facing such grave responsibilities and solemn as 
no president before him could even in the remotest degree have contem- 
plated A civil war and a divided nation were upon Ins hands. _ 

From the opening of hostilities by the Southern Confederacy in the 
firing upon Fort Sumter, April 12, 1801, to the end of Lincoln s first 
administration, the leagued Southern States fought for the right to secede, 
the Northern States to compel them into submission to the federal Union. 
The President, supported by his cabinet and by Congress, took such means 
as were necessary to achieve the latter result, conducting the government 
according to established usage for times of war. The great act of this 
administration was the " Emancipation Proclamation, issued September 
22 1862 and taking effect Januarv 1, 1863, whereby all slaves held in 
the rebellious States were forever liberated. And thus, as a war measure, 
« militarv necessity, a president of the United States was permitted to do 
what could not have been under the Constitution in any other way ac- 
complished. An amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting slavery 
passed both houses of Congress before the close of this administration, and 
She vexed question of slavery was eliminated from American politics. 

As the first official term of President Lincoln drew toward its close, he 
was wellnigh broken down under the awful responsibilities of his position, 
wd the American people were put to a severe test of their capacity tor 
self-government. Two great armies still held the field in the cause of the 
South: the power of the government for which they fought was 
unbroken after three years of war ; the public debt was increasing 
rapidly ; taxes were increasing; volunteer forces no longer sprang up at a 
call and a draft was necessary to recruit the army. Inevitably personal 
ambitions took advantage of the situation, and the outlook for the steady 
support of the administration was disheartening. 

But the Republican and Union Convention, convened at Baltimore, 
June 8 1864, re-nominated Lincoln for a second term by a vote of 49/ 
out of 519, on the first ballot, and the nomination was made unanimous 
amid intense enthusiasm. In spite of the strong disaflections and dis- 
honest machinations on the part of the so-called "peace party of the 
North the elections of the next November passed quietly, and a must 
deceive vote was given to show that the hearts of the majority of the 
people clung to their homelv, faithful, care-worn leader. Of all the btatea 
which voted In this election, General McClellan, Lincoln s opponent. 
carried but three— New Jersey, Delaware and Kentucky. Lincoln s 
popular majority was over 400.000 votes— a larger majority than was ever 
given an- other president. This was cheering and strengthening to the 
Ireat-hearted, simple-souled man who was able to say, at the close of his 
first administration : " So long as Ihave been here I have not wulingly 
planted a thorn in any man's bosom." 


Before the second inauguration of President Lincoln, the brilliant and 
sustained victories of the Northern armies under Grant, Sherman and 
Sheridan, and the unmistakable signs that the Confederacy was tottering 
toward its fall, the power of its armies broken, gave auspicious promise for 
the future, and the first administration closed with a confidence in a 
speedily restored and honorable peace. 

_ The scene of the inauguration, March 4, 1865, was made more impres- 
sive by a chance which, in the light of after events, seemed like a prophecy. 
The morning had been made so inclement by a violent March storm, that 
it appeared unlikely the inaugural address could be given in the open air. 
But an immense concourse of people gathered about the capitol, and 
waited patiently the event. A little before noon the clouds broke awav, 
and just as the President took the oath of office, blue sky spread, as it by 
magic, above the whole city, while a little white cloud, like a hovering 
bird, hung, or seemed to hang, just above the head of the chief magis- 
trate, and the sun's rays fell upon his worn countenance like the benediction 
of God. Afterward it seemed to those who witnessed this, that they had 
seen the victim crowned before his martyrdom. 

President Lincoln closed this inaugural address with words which he 
might, indeed, have chosen had he known that the hour of his departure 
was at hand : 

"Ayith malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as 
God gives us to see the right, let us finish the work we are in, to bind mi the 
nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his 
widow and his orphans, to do all which mav achieve and cherish a just and last- 
ing peace among ourselves and with all nations." 

Disasters and defeats accumulated upon the Southern armies, Sherman 
reached the sea, and Grant forced the evacuation of Petersburg and 
Richmond, and on Sunday, April 9th, Lee surrendered his array. °With 
characteristic simplicity and fearlessness, Lincoln, accompanied only by 
his younger son and Admiral Porter, visited Richmond the day after its 
surrender. On the morning of the 14th ot April the newspapers of the 
country published the announcement of the Secretary of War that all 
drafting or other preparations for further war would be abandoned, and 
the country received the order as an assurance that peace was consum- 
mated. The hearts of ihe people were filled with love for the chief 
magistrate whose wisdom and patience had delivered them, and preserved 
their country, and everywhere preparations were made to celebrate with 
great demonstrations the return of peace. 

The next morning consternation had seized upon everv heart. In every 
State, in every town, in every household, was felt the bitter and awful 
agony of personal bereavement. The terrible tranedv of the assassina- 
tion had been enacted in Ford's theatre, Washington, the night before, and 
the.nation was without a head. The assassin's aim had been only too true, 


and the great soul that had taken all the people into its care had gone to 
its reward, the great heart that would not " willingly plant a thurn ill any 
man's bosom," was stilled in death by the red hand of murder. 

"Sic semper tyrannis," was the shout of J. Wilkes Booth, as he leaped 
over the box upon the stage, after he had shot the President. But he 
could not prostitute the beautiful motto of Old Virginia to such a pur- 
pose. If he believed Lincoln a tyrant, there was no other man in all the 
North or South who so regarded him. And "The South is avenged!" he 
added as he left the stage. But the South, with holy horror, repudiated 
the deed, and none deplored the crime which deprived the nation of its 
chief magistrate more than those who had been involved in the Confede- 
rate movement, and who had just begun to understand and appreciate the 
merciful and forgiving element in Lincoln's character, and to feel they 
might and should soon need its exercise in their behalf. 

President Lincoln was shot between nine and ten o'clock in the evening, 
while sitting beside his wife in their private box at the theatre. Booth 
stepped into the box, directly behind the president, and holding the pistol 
just over the back of the president's chair, shot him through the head, the 
ball entering behind the left ear, traversing the brain and lodging just 
behind the right eye. 

The president was removed to a private residence near the theatre, 
where he breathed his last a few minutes past seven on the morning of 
April 15. 1 1 is remains were then removed to the White House, where they 
lay in state lour days, and then to the capitol, on the 19th of April, where 
thousands thronged to take a last look at the familiar face. On the mo.n- 
ing of the 21st the funeral cortege started for the president's former home 
in Springfield, which was reached on the 3d of May. The funeral train 
passed through Baltimore, Harrisburg, Lancaster, Philadelphia, New 
York, and other cities of New York Suite, Cleveland, Columbus, Indiana- 
polis and Chicago. Everywhere preparations had been made to receive 
and honor the dead, and everywhere thousands and thousands flocked 
together to look upon the martyr of the Union. 

On the morning of May 4, at ten o'clock, the coffin was closed forever 
upon what was earthly of this great, good man, and reverent hands placed 
it within its sepulchre in Oak Ridge Cemetery, at Springfield. 

Mr. Lincoln's widow long survived him, dying in the autumn of 1882, 
but from the shock of her bereavement she never recovered. She had 
been a true and loving wife, and her life had been guarded with chival- 
rous tenderness by her homespun husband. Although the fact has been 
largely kept from public gossip, it is truer justice to Mrs. Lincoln the 
world should know that from the hour of her husband's assassination, her 
mind was never what it had before been, her reason and her actions never 
quite under her control. 

Willie, the youngest child of Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln, died soon after 


the removal of the family to Washington; "Tad," as President Lincoln 
loved to call his second son, survived his father, but is also now deceased. 
The oldest son, Robert Todd Lincoln, studied law and settled in practice 
and married in Chicago, Illinois. When President Garfield organized his 
cabinet the position of secretary of war was tendered Robert T. Lincoln, 
and was accepted by him. He was the only member of the Garfield cab- 
inet to retain position during President Arthur's administration. Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert T. Lincoln have several children. 

J. Wilkes Booth, the assassin, was discovered in hiding four days after 
the death of Lincoln, and, refusing to surrender, was shot through the 
head and killed. 


Seventeenth Pmsident of the United States, was born December 29, 
1808, and died July 31, 1875, in his 67th year. 

His father was Jacob Johnson, who lived at the time of the son's birth 
in Raleigh, North Carolina. He was a man of humble station in society, 
making a livelihood ior himself and his family by following the occupa- 
tions of bank porter, city constable and church sexton. His death 
occurred in 1812, and before Andrew Johnson was ten years of age he 
was apprenticed to the tailor's trade, in his native town. Thus early in 
life began his struggle for the means of living, and in the formation of his 
mind and the acquirement of literary knowledge, he never had the benefit 
of one day's schooling. 

He took up the alphabet without an instructor ; and, receiving the gift 
of a volume of speeches from a gentleman who patmnized the shop where 
he worked, he set himself to master its contents. This book was "The 
American Speaker," published in 1810, and contained specimens of the 
best oratorical etiorts of Pitt, Fox, Walpole, and other eminent British 
speakers. From this book Andrew Johnson learned to read and spell, 
and its eloquent and statesmanlike speeches gave his mind its bent toward 
debate and his ambition its fixed purpose of becoming a political leader. 

In 1824, having served over six years at his trade, young Johnson ran 
away from the employer to whom he was indentured, and fofsome eighteen 
months supported himself by working in South Carolina at odd jobs 
of his trade. He returned to Raleigh in May, 1826, made peace with 
his former employer, and worked as a journeyman tailor until the Sep- 
tember following. Then he turned his steps westward, taking with him 
his mother, whose sole support he was, and for whom he cared tenderlv 
until her death. 

At the close of his eighteenth year he settled in Greenville, Green 
county, Tennessee, and worked at his trade there, for himself. In about 
a year he wedded a young lady of Greenville, and the marriage, though 


contracted in his extreme youth, and with poverty and uncertain work 
before him, was the most auspicious act of his life. Hitherto he had 
known only how to read, a knowledge with difficulty acquired without a 
teacher. Now his wife took his education in hand. While he bent over 
the shop-board and plyed the needle, she sat beside him and instructed 
him in the mysteries of arithmetic and the simple sciences that were 
within her scope. When the labors of the day were ended, she taught him 
to guide the pen and form the written characters which had been to him 
an unknown quantity. With this childhood and young manhood, it is 
not surprising that later years made Andrew Johnson the exponent of the 
wants and po°wer of the w'orking class ; that he was always hostile to any 
movement that gave power and advantage to the few at the expense 01 
the many. 

Johnson obtained his first training in the art of debate by attaching 
himself to a polemic society connected with Greenville College. This 
society had weekly meetings for debate, and Johnson was always in attend- 
ance, although he" had to walk four miles out and four mdes back, after 
his day's work, as the college was four miles distant from Greenville. 

In 1828, the working population of Greenville elected the young tailoi 
to the office of alderman. It was for those days and that State an unex- 
ampled triumph for the working class, and to the ambition of Johnson it 
was an earnest of the greater things in store for him. He was re-elected 
in 1829 and in 1830, and in the latter year was chosen mayor of the city, 
an office he filled three terms. 

In 1834, Mr. Johnson took an active part in securing the adoption o? 
the new State constitution of Tennessee, which preatly enlarged the privi- 
leges of the masses, and guaranteed freedom of speech and of the press. 
In 1835 he was elected to the State legislature, and again in 1839. In 
the famous presidential campaign of 1840, he stumped eastern Tennessee 
for Van Buren, and was presidential elector at large on the Democratic 
ticket. In 1841 he was sent to the State senate by a majority of 2,000 : 
and in 1843 was elected member ot Congress from the First District of 
Tennessee, then embracing seven counties. He took his seat in the House 
of Representatives, in December, 1843, and there, by subsequent re-elec- 
tions, continued to represent his district for ten consecutive years. 

While in the House Mr. Johnson was the originator and prime mover 
of the "Homestead Bill," which received his devoted and untiring labor? 
from the time the question was first agitated by himself until the close ot 
his services in the House. The substance of this bill was: "To give 
every man, who is the head ot a family, and a citizen of the United States, 
a homestead of 160 acres of land, out of the public domain," upon the 
condition that he should occupy and cultivate the same for five years. 
Whatever may be the wisdom or folly of this measure of " paternal gov- 
ernment," Johnson's position showed him to have been mindful of the 


welfare of the people from whom, and by the votes of whom, he had risen 
to eminence. 

In 1853, after an exciting contest with one of the ablest Whigs of the 
6tate, Johnson was elected governor of Tennessee, and in 1855 was re- 
elected. As governor, he exhibited personal and official energy and dig- 
nity, and impartiality and devotion to the people's interests. His well- 
known personal courage was often tested during these years ot his public 
career. Again and again he was threatened with assas.sination, and that 
in times when the pistol and bowie knife were weapons of ready resort in 
Tennessee. But Johnson never once flinched from a duty, nor altered a 
plan of action from fear, or at attempted intimidation. On one occasion, 
when about to address an excited audience upon a contested question of 
the day, Johnson was threatened by enemies and warned by friends that 
his life would certainly be taken if he appeared upon the platform. At 
the appointed time, however, he was there, and advanced to his desk and 
laid his pistol on it. Then, announcing to his audience that he wa3 to be 
ehot during the evening, he moved that everything should be done de- 
cently and in order, and that the assassination be made the first business 
of the evening. Then throwing open his coat with his left hand, to give the 
bullet a fair mark, he raised and cocked his own pistol with his right 
hand. After that he was listened to in respectful silence until he had said 
all he went there to say, when he left the hall unharmed. 

In 1*57, by almost a unanimous vote, Governor Johnson was elected to 
the United States Senate from Tennessee, tor the full term ending March 
3, 1863. Here he fought for his beloved "Homestead Bill," and for all 
popular measures, greatly to the disgust of other senators from the South 
and Southwest, who declined to consider him a " colleague," although he 
stood with them then on the slavery question, and most of the measures in 
which the interests of the South were involved. The bill passed both 
houses by a two-thirds majority, in May, I860, only to receive the veto ot 
President Buchanan, which veto was sustained by Congress and the bill 

As the time drew near for the sectional contest, Johnson's position in 
the Senate was tolerant, not at all radical. Looking in his own heart, he 
judged other southern members by himself, and believed, as he said, that 
the Union could never be assailed. He was a southern man with the 
principles of a northern Union Democrat, and he acted and voted accord- 
ing to his convictions. With this view he sustained the Democratic nom- 
ination for the presidency in 1*60, but from the first overt act of secession 
he was all for the country, and no consideration of party or sectional lines 
influenced him again, until the war had closed. 

Tennessee was one of the divided States when the war had beeninau- 
gurated, a part of her people clinging to the government and the Union, 
and a part believing in the dismemberment of the old government and 
the sovereignty of the States. Brother's hand was lifted against brother, 



civil dissension and bloody strife rent the State. In 1862, it was held by 
force in the Union, and President Lincoln appointed Andrew Johnson 
military governor of the State. The senate confirmed the appointment, 
March 4, 18G2, and he entered at once upon his duties, making his head- 
quarters at Nashville. Under repeated threats and attempts at assassina- 
tion, Johnson performed the duties of brigadier-general and military gov- 
ernor of Tennessee until the State, in 1864, returned to its allegiance to 
the Federal government, and the proper machinery of the State govern- 
ment was again set in motion. 

At the National-Union convention held at Baltimore, June^, 1864, 
after Lincoln was a second time nominated for the presidency, Andrew 
Johnson received the nomination for vice-president. The electoral vote 
ca.»t for Lincoln for president was also given Johnson for vice-president. 
Upon the assassination of Lincoln, a little, more than one month after as- 
suming the duties of vice-president, Johnson was called upon by the law 
of the land to assume the chief place in the nation. Chief Justice Salmon 
P. Chase administered to him the oath of office, at 10 A. M., April 15, 
1865, three hours after the death of Lincoln. 

Johnson's administration was a disappointment to the party who elected 
him, and before his first year's services as chief magistrate were ended he 
had utterly lost the confidence of his cabinet and of the Congress. He 
had put himself upon record, while senator, governor and vice-president, 
as an advocate of a severe policy in dealing with what he called " the con- 
scious and intelligent rebels," that is, the leaders of the movement. He 
had constantly asserted that " treason must be made odious ;" that it was 
" a crime, the blackest of crimes," and should be " swiftly and surely pun- 
ished." The reconstruction policy he actually pursued, when circumstan- 
ces put him in a place to carry out his own assertions, was diametrically 
opposed to these assertions. Conciliation and general amnesty was, as 
rapidly as possible, tendered all the Southern States, and by him no one 
of the leaders in the movement of secession was ever punished. 

During the sessions of 1865-67, several of the important bills relating 
to southern affairs, after passing both branches of Congress, were vetoed 
by President Johnson, and by Congress, after reconsideration, were passed 
over the vetoes. This led to intemperate public speeches concerning Con- 
press on the part of Johnson, in one of which he declared Congress to be 
in a state of rebellion. 

President Johnson also twice sought to remove Secretary of War 
Stanton from otiice, an act, it was claimed, beyond his prerogative. For 
these two offenses he was impeached in the House of Representatives, 
February 24, 1868, the vote reading: Yeas, 126; nays, 47 ; not voting, 17. 

March 3d, the House agreed to the articles of impeachment, which were 
presented to the Senate March 5th. The trial began on the 23d of March, 
and the vote on the first count was taken May 16th ; on the second count. 


May 26th. In each case the vote stood: Guilty, 35; not guilty, 17. A 
two-thirds vote being necessary to conviction, he stood acquitted. 

July 4, 1868, in the democratic nominating convention, held in New 
York, Andrew Johnson received 65 votes on the first ballot cast for can- 
didates for next president. He then lost rapidly on each ballot cast, until 
on the nineteenth ballot, his name was dropped. 

March 4, 1869, succeeded by Grant, President Johnson retired from the 
official position he had rilled with a loss to himself, and, as was generally 
felt, with no gain to any part of the country. 

In 1870 he was a candidate for the United States Senate, and lost the 
election by only two votes. In 1875 he was elected Senator, but died in 
July of the same year. His grave is in Greenville, scene of his earlier life's 
trials and triumphs, in a spot selected by himself. The site is marked 
by a fine granite arch, with a monument of marble upon a granite base. 
Tho tomb was erected by his three sons, who survived him; his wife 
also survived him.dyinir in 1876 When we remember how the belief of 
the peopie in him has changed, there is something of a pathetic reproach 
in the inscription upon his monument: 

"His faith in the people never wavered." 


Eighteenth President of the United States, was born at Point Pleasant, 
Clermont county, Ohio, April. 27, 1822. 

He was the first born child of Jesse R. and Hannah (Simpsons- 
Grant, who were wedded in Clermont county, in June, 1821. They 
bestowed upon their eldest son the name of Pliram Ulysses, but by mis- 
understanding upon entering West Point his cadet warrant was made out 
for "Ulysses Sidney Grant," and he accepted the name while at the 
academy, changing it, in honor of his mother, to " Ulysses Simpson," when 
he was graduated. By this name, or its commonly used abbreviation, 
"U. S. Grant," he has become known to fame, and will be designated by 

His parents were both Pennsylvanians by birth, his mother born in 
Montgomery county, that State, and settling with her father's familv La 
Clermont county, Ohio, in 1818. His father was bom in 1794, in West- 
moreland county, Pennsylvania, and was a son of a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion. The grandfather of Jesse R. Grant was also a soldier, and wat 
killed at the battle of White Plains, in 1756. 

The school education of young Grant was limited to attendance upor 
the intermediate term of the village school. Like most Western boyi 
of his time and circumstances, he found much hard work to do during 
the remainder of the vear. Rut he managed to acquire the knowledg* 


requisite for entering the military school at West Point, where it was his 
ambition to be, and where, upon application of Hon. T. L. Hamer, of 
Grant's congressional district, he was entered July 1, 1839. His record 
at West Point was unmarked by any promise ot future achievement, and 
when he was graduated, in 1843, he stood twenty-first in a class of thirty- 

A comrade of his at the academy gives this pen-picture of the future 
general: " I remember him a3 a plain, common-sense, straight forward 
youth; quiet, calm, thoughtful, unaggressive ; shunning notoriety; taking 
to his military duties in a very business-like manner. He was then and 
always an excellent horseman, and his picture rises before me, in the 
old torn coat, obsolescent leather gig-tops, loose riding pantaloons, with 
spurs buckled over them, going with his clanking sabre to the drill-hall. 
He exhibited but little enthusiasm in anything ; his best standing was in 
• the mathematical branches, and their application to tactics and military 

July 1, 1843, Grant began his army life as brevet second lieutenant of 
the Fourth Infantry, then stationed at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, 
Missouri. The regiment was stationed at Corpus Christi in 1845, in 
anticipation of service in the Mexican war; and in 184G this anticipation 
was verified by participation in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca, and 
Monterey, under General Taylor. The regiment then participated in the 
splendid campaign of Scott from Vera Cruz to Mexico. Grant was thus 
at the siege and capture of Vera Cruz, March 29, 1847, and on April 1st 
he was appointed regimental quartermaster. At Molino del Rey, Sep- 
tember 8, 1847, he was brevetted first lieutenant for distinguished services. 
But the casualities of that battle made him full first lieutenant by succes* 
sion. He received "special mention" for gallant actiou at Chapultepec, 
September 13, 1847, and the brevet rank of captain. 

Upon the close of the war in 1848, the Fourth Infantry was ordered to 
the Northern frontier and Grant served for some time in the command of 
his company at Detroit and Sacketts Harbor. He did not receive his fuU 
captaincy until August, 1853, and July 31, 1854, not liking a soldier's 
life in times of peace, he resigned his commission, and commenced life 
anew as a citizen. 

He had married, in 1848, Miss Julia Dent, of St. Louis, sister of a 
classmate, Frederick J. Dent, and he now tried his hand at various civd 
pursuits, to obtain a livelihood for himself and family. Settling near St. 
Louis, he tried farming and wool-growing, but with small success; as a 
money collector, he failed. And he is said to have tried auctioneering, 
for which he had probably not the requisite fluency of speech. 

In I860 he entered into partnership with his father, who was prosper- 
ously engaged in the tanning business, and they opened a' leather and 
saddlery store, at Galena, Illinois. Here Grant settled down in a com- 



fortable home with his wife and their family of three children, one daugh- 
ter and two sons. Here he achieved a certain amount of business suc- 
cess, which might have ripened into a comfortable competence had not the 
war between the States opened a new field, marked a new epoch in his 

When Sumter was fired upon Grant found his work. It was to 
" support the country, and uphold the flag." In a month he reported to 
the governor of Illinois, at its capital, Springfield, with a full company of 
men. He was set to work to drill the three months' men, and proved an 
indefatigable disciplinarian. He was commissioned colonel of the 21st 
Illinois Volunteers, three months' men, who, under his leadership, re- 
enlisted one thousand strong, for three years service. 

In July, 1861, he was acting brigadier-general, with headquarters at 
Mexico, Missouri, and in the following month secured full commission as 
brigadier-general, dating from the preceding May, and assigning him com- 
mand of " the district of Cairo." To this campaign belongs his brilliant 
record of the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, for which latter vic- 
tory he was commissioned major-general, the rank dating from the day of 
the surrender, the day when the breasts of the anxious northern people 
thrilled to the announcement of the electric wires : " The Union flag 
floats on Fort Donelson !" 

Grant's sphere of action was again enlarged, on order of General Hal- 
leck, bearing date February 14, 1862, assigning him the command of 
the district of West Tennessee, embracing the territory from Cairo, be- 
tween the Mississippi and Cumberland rivers, to the Mississippi border, 
with his headquarters in the field. The victory of Pittsburg Landing, 
or Shiloh ; the siege and occupation of Corinth ; the capture and occu- 
pation of Holly Springs; and the battle and victory to the Northern 
troops at Iuka, all belong to this campaign, and all led to Vicksburg. 

October 16, 1862, General Grant's command was extended and entitled 
Department of the Tennessee, which command he officially assumed Oc- 
tober 25th. The battles, assaults, repulses and siege of Vicksburg fillet' 
this campaign until its surrender on the 4th of July, 1863, and it must 
ever be the glory and the sorrow of all American hearts that the heroism 
and valor of that long struggle was the heroism and valor of two Ameri- 
can armies, although they were arrayed, alas! against one another. 

By General Order No". 337, dated October 16, 1863, Major-General 
Grant took command of the "Division of the Mississippi," which embraced 
the departments of the Army of the Cumberland and the Tennessee, with 
headquarters in the field. Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Mission Mills, 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Kidge belong to this campaign, as does 
the occupation ot Knoxville. For the victories of the armies under his 
leadership in this campaign, Congress ordered a gold medal to be struck 
off and " Presented to Major-General Grant, in the name of the people of 
the United States of America." 


March 2, 1864, Grant was confirmed by the United States, in executive 
eession, lieutenant-general of the army of the United States. Thi3 put 
him over all the other generals, but did not, ■without a special order, make 
him commander-in-chief. This special order, however, he received from 
President Lincoln eight days later. Having then assumed the command 
of all the Federal armies, the remaining events of the war are all more or 
less directly attributable to his generalship, and are all familiar to the 
readers of the Encyclopedia. The cry of "On to Richmond!" the- 
Battle of the Wilderness ; the fighting in the Shenandoah Vallev ; the 
raids of Sheridan, and the marches of Sherman ; the action south of the 
James, and from Spottsylvania to the Chickahominy ; Petersburg and 
Fort Fisher; all were tending to the end which was reached on that Sun- 
day morning, April 9, 1S65, when the brave Confederate, Robert E. Lee, 
forced to surrender the Army ot Northern Virginia, virtually ended the 
war between the States. It was a hard fate for the brave generals and 
self-sacrificing soldiers of the southern armies ; rendered hard by the costly 
blood they had spilled, now felt to have been wasted, indeed ; and all of 
kindred, comfort and competency, they had bestowed upon their lost cause. 
But it was the fortune of war ; it has held a united country ; and in that 
country, North and South again are brothers and sharers. 

May 21, 186S, the National Republican Convention nominated General 
Grant for the presidency, and his election followed in November. His 
popular vote was 3,015,071 ; and he received 214 electoral votes against 
80 cast for his opponent, Horatio Seymour, of New York. Renominated 
in 1872, his electoral vote was 286 out of a total of 352 votes; popular 
votes, 3,597,070. 

The popular admiration of Grant reached its height at the close of the 
war between the States. In December, 1865, he received the office of 
General by action of Congress, and this position he resigned when he had 
accepted the nomination for the presidency. Consequently, upon the 
inauguration of his successor, March 4, 1877, he became a private citizen. 

Among the events of prominence connected with his administration was 
the completion of the Pacific Railroad, the first transcontinental railwav ; 
the "Treaty of Washington," which settled the "Alabama " claims and 
other long-standing disputes with England ; and what was popuiarlv 
known as " the salary grab," by which the pay of Congressmen, the pres- 
ident, and various government officials was increased. This bill was 
made retroactive, and was very obnoxious to a majority of the people, 
but received the approval of President Grant. 

After returning to private life, Grant, accompanied by his wife and 
younger son, Jesse, made a tour of the world, visiting all the principal 
countries of Europe and their capitals, and even-where received bv the 
dignitaries of those countries with a distinction which he met with sus- 
tained self-respect highly honorable to the countrv of which he was an 


unofficial representative. On his return to America, he made his 
home in New York. In his 63d year ho began to write his personal 
memoirs, and other war papors, while a fatal and most painful disease, 
cancer of the throat, was wasting his life. After thirteen months 
heroic endurance of intense suffering, the "Old Commander" died at 
Mt. McGregor, New York, at 8:08 a. m., Thursday, July 23d, 1S85, 
mourned by the Nation, North and South — the greatest soldier of 
the Nineteenth Century. 


Nineteenth President of the United States, was born in Delaware county, 
Ohio, October 4, 1822. 

The first of his name and family to settle in America was George Hayes, 
who came from Scotland to Connecticut in 1682.- For several successive 
generations the family made their home in Connecticut, where they followed 
the customary avocations of pioneers in a new land. They. were artisans 
rather than men of books, or of leisure ; in religious matters were of the 
pronounced type of Puritanism common in the New England provinces at 
an early date ; and in politics they were early identified with the home in- 
terests of the colonists, proving the staunchest of Whigs during the days of 
the Revolution. 

The first Rutherford Hayes, grandfather of Rutherford B., was born in 
New Haven, Connecticut, learned the trade of blacksmith, settled in Ver- 
mont, where he followed his trade many years and became a large land 
owner and an inu-keeper. He died in 1836, leaving eleven children; of 
these the fifth was Rutherford, who married Sophia Birchard, whose family 
had removed from Connecticut to Vermont in the last years of the 18th 

In 1817 Rutherford and Sophia (Birchard) Hayes settled in what was 
then a part of the great west, Delaware county, Ohio. Here they purchased 
land and founded a home, from which death removed the husband and 
father in 1822. Mrs. Hayes was left with two children, and a second son 
was born a few months after her husband's death. This son she named 
Rutherford Birchard Hayes, in memory of his father, and in affection for a 
loving brother whose care supported her in her affliction. 

This brother was Sardis Birchard, who died unmarried in 1874, in Fre- 
mont, Ohio, leaving a large property to Rutherford B. Hayes, included in 
which is a fine gallery of pictures, works of the best American and Freuch 
end German painters. 

At the age of fourteen, young Hayes was sent to school at r.n academy 
in Norwalk, Ohio, after which he took a course of reading in Middletown, 
Connecticut. In November, 1838, he was entered for the Freshman class, 
at Keuyon College, Gambier, Ohio. He was graduated in 1642, valedic- 


torian of his class, and entered upon the study of law in the office of Sparrow 
and Matthews, prominent lawyers of Columbus, Ohio. After ten mouths 
reading he entered the Harvard Law School at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
and was graduated in the autumn of 1844. He entered upon the practice 
of his profession in Lower Sandusky, now Fremont, Ohio, where he con- 
tinued until ill-health, in 1847, obliged him to discontinue work and seek, 
in travel and recreation, to restore bodily vigor. 

After this result had been achieved by jaunts through New England and 
through Texas, he established himself in Cincinnati, and engaged again in 
i the duties of his profession. 

( December 30, 1852, Rutherford B. Hayes was united in marriaze with 

'iucy Ware Webb, of Cincinnati. She was a Kentuckian by family con- 

lection, but was born in Chillicothe, Ohio, where her father, Dr. James 

Webb, formerly of Lexington, Kentucky, had been long in practice. The 

narriage of Mr. and Mrs. Hayes was a union of congenial temperaments 

.nd kindred tastes, and has resulted in many years of wedded happiness. 

'heir children were eight, of whom only five were living when Mr. 

layes became the chief magistrate of the nation. 

In 1859, Hayes was elected city solicitor for Cincinnati, and discharged 

* tie duties of his office with signal ability until the expiration of his term 

i f service in 1861, when he at once began preparations for active partici- 

>ation in the duties of the Northern army during the war between the 

' Jtates. 

He received from President Lincoln the offer of a colonel's commission, 
I ut deemed himself unfit for the command, and instead began the study 
rf military tactics, of which, like so many of the volunteer officers of that 
ear, he was profoundly ignorant. In June, 1861, he accepted from Gov- 
rnor Dennison, of Ohio, the majorship of the 2od Ohio Volunteer In- 
antry, and went into camp with his regiment at Columbus. 

July 25th, the regiment was ordered into West Virginia, and its action 
Irom that time until the close of the war, is a glorious part of the history 
( four country. As major, then as lieutenant-colonel, and then as colonel, 
Hayes continued with this regiment until he was made brigadier-general 
i.i 1864. He was a gallant soldier and a careful commander, who earned 
his promotions and merited the warm regard in which he was always held 
by all who served under hira. 

During his last campaign, from the beginning of May until the end of 
October, 1864, Colonel Hayes was sixty days under tire. In the course of 
the war he was about one hundred days under tire, and he was four times 
wounded. The most severe wound was received in the battle of South 
Mountain, when his left arm was shattered by a minie-ball. 

In August, 1864, General Hayes was nominated for Congress by the 
Republicans of the Second Cincinnati district, and his election followed 
in October. He did not take his seat, however, until the war was over 
and his faithful troops disbanded. 


In October, I860, lie returned to Cincinnati, and reopened his old 
home, and in December he took his seat in Congress. A thorough and 
diligent worker, General Hayes rather avoided than sought opportunities 
for the display of eloquence. He was chairman of the library com- 
mittee during his service, and its value was greatly increased "by his 

In 1866 he was re-nominated by acclamation, and was re-elected by a 
majority which showed a gain where the rest of the ticket showed a m 
In 1869 he was tendered and accepted the nomination for governor of 
Ohio, and his personal popularity gave the State a Republican governor, 
when the legislature went strongly Democratic. In 1871 he was re- 
nominated by acclamation, and again elected by an increased majoritv. 

At the close of his second gubernatorial term, he was again nominated 
for Congress by his old Cincinnati district, but was defeated. Declining 
the appointment of Assistant United States Treasurer, at Cincinnati, ten- 
dered by Grant, Hayes now retired to Fremont, where he had inherited 
the estate of his uncle, planning to live there a life of leisure and of books. 

But again, in 1875, the Republican convention assembled at Cincinnati, 
gave Hayes the unanimous nomination for governor, and again his election 
by an overwhelming majority followed. His candidacy for the next Presi- 
dency of the United States was discussed as soon as his third election as 
governor became known. 

When the Republican National convention met in Cincinnati, in 1876, 
the forty-four Ohio delegates cast their vote solid for Hayes. On the en- 
suing ballots he gained steadily, and he received the nomination. The 
campaign which followed was the most closely contested of anv in all our 
political history, and the result of the election of November 7th was for 
many months doubtful. 

Samuel Tilden, of New York, the nominee of the Democratic party, 
received 183 electoral votes, and 173 were cast for Hayes, with Florida 
and Louisiana uncertain; 185 were necessary to a choice. When the 
electoral colleges^ in each State met December 6th, to cast their votes, some 
of the votes in Florida and Louisiana were thrown out for alleged fraud. 
This was the action of a Republican board, who^e right to take such action 
was disputed by the Democrats in those States, and" double returns were 
forwarded to Congress. 

The dispute remained in arbitrament before that body, until, in Janu- 
ary, 1877, an electoral commission was constituted to whom it was sub- 
mitted. The commission consisted of five senators, five representatives, 
and five judges of the Supreme Court. Eight members of the commis- 
sion were Republicans ; seven, Democrats. Every contested point was 
voted upon according to party lines, and the disputed States were given to 
Hayes by a vote of eight over seven. This gave him the uecessar) num- 
ber of electoral votes, 185, and secured his election. 


If this contested election was another test of the stability of our form 
of government, it was a triumph to the friends of self-government. Not- 
withstanding its inauspicious inauguration, the presidential term of Presi- 
dent Hayes was a very quiet and satisfactory one, and upon its close his 
successor in office was a Republican elected by a decisive majority. 

Since his retirement from the office of chief magistrate, Mr. Hayes has 
passed his time at his charming home in Fremont, surrounded by his in- 
teresting family. 


Twentieth President of the United States, was born November 19, 1831, 
and died September 19, 1881, at the age of 50 years. 

His birth was in a log cabin built on a clearing some fifteen miles from 
Mentor, in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, and he was the youngest of the four 
children of Abram and Eliza (Ballou) Garfield. On the paternal side we 
trace his ancestry to Edward Garfield, who, in 1635, was a pioneer settler 
of what is now Watertown, Middlesex county, Massachusetts. Five gen- 
erations of the name of Garfield lived in and around Watertown, indus- 
trious, sober-minded, strong-bodied tillers of the soil, or workers at some 
mechanical trade ; all believing in liberty of government and the West- 
minster catechism. The succeeding generations of Garfield, moved by the 
spirit of enterprise, made successive settlements toward the West, until 
Abram, father of James A., erected his little cabin in Orange, and with 
his own hands commenced to fell the forest about him. He died when 
this son was eighteen months old, and his widow was leff with her four 
little ones to br.ttle with that poverty known only to the pioneer home 
that is deprived of the strong arm of the husband and father. 

The mother of Garfield proved equal to the task. She was of that 
noble strain of blood inherited from a Huguenot ancestry — the fugitives of 
France, under the " Edict of Nantes." In her own religious faith, Mrs. 
Garfield was a disciple of the humble Campbellite school, but from such 
ancestry she drew the poetry that softened into loveliness her religion, and 
the spirit that enabled her to face poverty with a serene faith in herself 
and in God. 

From his father's family James A. Garfield inherited physical and 
moral strength, and from his mother he received that intellectual vigor 
and those fine mental qualities which have marked the generations 
descended from Maturin Ballon. At three years of age he began to 
attend school in the little log hut where his older brother and sisters were 
taught. At the end of the first term lie received the prize ot a New 
Testament as the best reader in his class of little ones. At tea he was 


still a student in the same school, seeking in all direction for books to 
read. By the time he was fourteen he had reached higher arithmetic, 
grammar, "declamation;" out jf school was a strong, athletic boy, doing 
his share of farm work, and getting the name of " a fighting boy" by hi3 
successful contests of fist and foot with his schoolmates. At sixteen he 
worked at haying, receiving " full men's rates," a dollar a day. A year 
later came his canal boat experience, when he drove the horses of a canal 
boat along the Ohio river until an attack of fever ended this part of his 
career, and sent him home to his mother to be nursed to bodily health, 
while her wisdom and love gave the right turning to hi3 untrained mind. 

In March, 1849, young Garfield entered Geauga Seminary, a Free Will 
Baptist institution of learning at Chester, Ohio. Here he studied four 
terms, supporting himself by working at haying and carpentering, and by 
teaching, during the long vacations, country schools at 816 per month. In 
the fall of 1851, he became a student of Hiram Institute, where he was 
fitted for College, and where he enjoyed association with Miss Almeda A. 
Booth, "the Margaret Fuller of the West," whose eulogy he pronounced 
at Hiram College, June 22, 1876. Devoting himself with enersry to his 
studies, keeping up his lessons while teaching others, he found himself in 
June, 1854, fitted to enter a junior college class, and with S350 saved. 

Drawn toward the large-souled President Hopkins of Williams College, 
Williamstown, Massachusetts, Garfield entered the junior class of that col- 
lege in the fall of 1854, and was graduated with the metaphysical honors 
of the class in 1856. He was now twenty-five, with a collegiate education, 
his diploma, and a debt of S450. 

He was at once elected teacher of Greek and Latin at Hiram College, and 
among his pupils was Lucretia Rudolph with whom he had been a student 
at Geauga. They were united in marriage in 1858, while he was still teach- 
ing at Hiram, and the story of her wifely devotion from that hour to his 
death is one of the noblest annals of womanhood. 

In 1856 James A. Garfield was first interested in political affairs. The 
Kansas-Nebraska bill was then before the people, and Garfield entered 
the ranks of the Republican party, making his first speech just before he 
left Williams College, in behalf of Fremont. His first vote was,cast that 
fall also for Fremont. 

In 1859 he was elected to the Ohio Senate from the counties of Portage 
and Summit, and at once took rank as one well informed on subjects of 
legislation, and powerful in debate. While attending to his senatorial 
duties he was pushing forward the law studies entered upon while he was 
in college, ami early in the winter of 1861, he was admitted to the bar of 
the Supreme Court. 

When the war between the States was inaugurated, Garfield resigned 
the presidency of Hiram College, which he held when called to the senate 
chamber, and which, at the desire of the board of directors, he had con- 
tinued to hold, and enlisted. He was commissioned lieutenant colonel i 


then colonel of the 42d Ohio ; and on December 20, 1861, was aligned 
to the command of the 18th Brigade. In the winter of 1802 he was detailed 
a member of the Fitz John Porter court-martial, and during the forty- 
five days of that trial his great ability as a soldier and a lawyer were con- 
spicuous. When the court adjourned, in January, 1803, General Garfield 
was ordered to report to Major-General Rosecrans, who made liim hi3 chief 
of staff. 

He remained with Rosecrans until after the battle of Chickamau^a, 
which closed his military career, the voice of the people calling him else- 
where. His " ride at Chickamauga" was one of the most brilliant in- 
stances of personal heroism called forth in the war, and for " gallant and 
important services" in that battle he was made a major-general, September 
19, 1803. 

In the summer of 1802 he had been nominated for Congress in the 19tb 
Ohio district, and he was elected by a majority of over 10,000. He 
accepted the nomination in the faith that the war would be ended before 
the time came for him to take his seat in the House, which would be in 
December, 1803. President Lincoln, as the time approached, advisee* 
General Garfield to resign his commission, and take his seat in Congress, 
and Garfield acted upon his counsel. December 5, 1803, Garfield fire 
appeared on the floor of the House of Representatives as a member. 

Perhaps the greatest moment of Garfield's life, and the one destined to 
live longest in the history of the American people, was when he stood 
before the infuriated mob of New York on the day following Lincoln'* 
assassination. It is thus described by an eye-witness: 

By this time the wave of popular indignation had swelled to its crest. Twi 
men lay bleeding on one of the side streets— one dead, the other dying ; one on th« 
pavement, the other in the gutter. They had said a moment before that Lincoln 
"ought to have been shot long ago." They were not allowed to say it again. Sood 
two long pieces of scantling stood out above the heads of the crowd, crossed at th« 
top like the letter X, and a looped halter pendant from the junction. A dozes 
men followed its slow motion through the masses, while " vengeance " was the cry 
On the right, suddenly the shout arose, "The World," "The World." "The office o 
the World, World," and a movement of, perhaps, 8,000 or 10,000 turning theil 
faces in the direction of that building besran to be executed. It was a critical 
moment. What might come no one could tell did that crowd get in front of that 
office. The police and military would have availed little or been too late. A 
telegram had just been read from Washington, "Seward is dying." Just then a 
man stepped forward with a small flag in his hand and beckoned to the crowd: 
"Another telegram from Washington."' and then, in the awful stillness of the 
crisis, taking advantage of the hesitation of the crowd, whose steps had been 
arrested for a moment, a right arm was lifted skyward, and a voice clear and steady, 
loud and distinct, spoke out: " Fellow-citizens— Clouds and darkness are round 
about him. His pavilion is dark waters and thick clouds of the skies. Justice 
and judgment are the establishment of his throne. Mercy and truth shall so 
before his face. Fellow-citizens, God reigns and the government at Washington 
still lives." The effect was tremendous. The crowd stood riveted to the spot in 


4we, gazing at the motionless orator, and think in? of God and the security of the 
government in that hour. As the boiling wave sulfides and settles to the sea when 
some strong wind beats it down, so the tumult of the people sank and became still. 
All took it as a divine omen. It was a triumph of eloquence, inspired by the 
moment, such as falls to but one man's lot, and that but once in a century. The 
genius of Webster, Choate, Everett or Seward never reached it. Demosthenes 
never equaled it. What might have happened had the surging and maddened 
mob been let loose none can tell. The man for the crisis was on the spot, more 
potent than Napoleon's guns at Paris. I inquired what was his name. The 
answer came in a low whisper, "It is General Garfield of Ohio." 

At the Republican National convention in Chicago, June, 1880, Gen- 
eral Garfield was chosen candidate for President on the thirty-sixth ballot, 
after the convention had been sitting two days. His election followed in 
November. His popular vote, 4,450,921, against 4,447,888 for General 
Hancock, his opponent ; electoral vote, Garfield 214; Hancock 155. 

The president-elect passed the time between his election and the inau- 
guration at his home in Mentor, Ohio, with his lovely family, Mr3. 
Garfield, their daughter Mollie, and their four sons, Harry Augustus, 
James R., Irwin McDowell and Abram. It was while in this retirement 
General Garfield paid his wife that compliment so rarely bestowed upon 
woman, but in her case so well deserved : "There has not been one soli- 
tary instance in my public career where I suffered in the smallest degree 
from any remark she ever made." 

The inauguration, March 4, 1881, was made the occasion of a great 
demonstration by the people, a part of which was a civic and military 
procession which took three hours to pass a given point. When Garfield 
had taken the oath of office his first act was to turn and kiss the two 
women who sat nearest him — the mother who had moulded his childhood, 
directed his youth, and watched with just pride the career of his man- 
hood, and the wife who had shared its counsels and lightened its anxieties. 
Mrs. Eliza A. Garfield, at the age of eighty years, saw her son, who had 
been fatherless and dependent on her alone at eighteen months, at fifty 
years the head of a great nation. She is the only mother who ever wit- 
nessed a son's inauguration. 

Of the time between the 4th of March and the 2d of July, little can be 
recorded. President Garfield's administration opened with a promise of 
fulfillment that never came. Strife within his own party hampered all his 
movements; hate and opposition held down the hands which should have 
been strengthened by loving support, and the bullet of an ignorant, half- 
crazed assassin completed the work of malicious intelligence. 

On the 2d of July, 1881, President Garfield left the White House in- 
tending to take the train for hong Branch where Mrs. Garfield was recu- 
perating after illness. At 9:20 a. m., as he was passing through the Bal- 
timore & Ohio depot to his train. Charles J. Gitteau, a third-class lawyer 
and disappointed office-seeker, shot him through the back, inflicting a 
wound which caused his death, after seventy-nine days of suffering. 


The day after the shooting there appeared a hope that the president 
might recover. The wife, summoned from the sick-room, had been home 
over the rails, "forty miles an hour," to his bedside, and self-seeking com* 
merce stood aside to make room for her to pass to her work of consolation. 
" There was one chance," mistaken science said, and the president answer- 
ed calmly: " We will take that chance," and then set himself to conquer 
death as he had borne down other obstacles. 

Until the last days of July there was hope, and the people gathered 
aDout the bulletins announcing the pulse, temperature and respiration of 
the nation's patient as if each came to receive a personal message from 
a loved one. On the 23d of July, chills and other unfavorable symp- 
toms supervened, but still the struggle was continued, and hope and des- 
pair alternately possessed the hearts of those who looked on, powerless to 
relieve. On the 6th of September the president was taken from the White 
House to Elberon, New Jersey, and there he died ten days later, mourned 
by the nation, honored by a world, liiw reman, s were con /eyed to 
Cleveland, where his wife and children have since continued to reside. 

The 26th of September, the day of the funeral services, was a day of 
universal mourning, and of its observance one of his eulogists says : "From 
the farthest South comes the voice of the mourning for the soldier of the 
Union. Over fisherman's hut and frontiersman's cabin is spread a gloom 
because the White House is desolate. The son of the poor widow is dead, 
and palace and castle are in tears. As the humble Campbellite disciple is 
borne to his long home, the music of the requiem fills cathedral arches and 
the domes of ancient synagogues. On the coffin of the canal boy a queen 
lays her wreath. As the "bier is lifted, word comes beneath the sea that 
the nations of the earth are rising and bowing their heads. In many lan- 
guages, from manv climes, they join in the solemn service." 

The assassin paid the penalty of his folly, after a long-drawn trial, where 
the defense was based upon the plea of insanity. He died upon the scaf- 
fold, June 30, 1882. 


Twenty-first President of the United States, was born October 5, 1830, in 
Fairfield, Franklin county, Vermont. 

He was one of five children of Rev. Wm. Arthur, a clergyman of the 
Baptist faith, who was born in County Antrim, Ireland. After acquiring 
the knowledge usuallv imparted in the New England public school, sup- 
plemented bv instruction from his father, Chester A. Arthur entered Union 
College, Schenectady, New York. While pursuing his studies here he 
supported himself by teaching public schools during some months ot 
the year, and was graduated with honor, in 1849, at the age of nineteen. 

He assumed the position of principal of the Pownal Axademy, an 


educational institution of Vermont, the duties of which position he di* 
charo-ed for two years, studying law meanwhile. He then entered the 
law office of ex-Judge E. D.' Culver, in New York City, and after due 
preparation was admitted to practice at the New York bar. In 1*53 he 
entered into a partnership in law with Henry D. Gardiner, and the firm 
soon rose to eminence among the successful practitioners of the Empire 

In 1859 Mr. Arthur was joined in wedlock with a daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United Stares navy. Lieutenant Herndon died 
at sea, going down with his ship, and showing in his death such courage 
in duty that his widow received from Congress a medal struck oft in hi3 
honor." The married life of Mr. aril Mrs7 Arthur extended over twenty- 
one years. In January, 1880, Mrb. Arthur died, leaving her husband 
with one daughter and one son. 

In his professional life. Mr. Arthur became ou several occasions the 
advocate of the rights of the eolured race. He defended clieuts who ren- 
dered themselves liable by a violation of the fugitive slave law, and by a 
•uccessful suit for damage?, brought asrainst a street railway corapan> 
whose agent ejected a colored jrirl from a car, he established tha -ight to 
pubtieconve' aneefor oeopie ot color in New York State. 

In public affairs, Mr. Arthur mw <n>»;tys been an active and successful 
politician, since he first entered the political arena, a young Whig of tne 
Henry Clay school. He was a delegate to the Saratoga convention which 
founded the Republican party of New York, and from the hour of its 
organization to the time of his inauguration as President of the United 
States, he understood and largely controlled every movement of the party 
in his State. 

In 1859, Chester A. Arthur was judge advocate of the 2d Brigade of 
the New York Militia, and in 1860 he received the appointment from 
Governor E. D. Morgan of en^ineer-in-chief on his staff. During the 
years of the war between the States, he performed the arduous duties of 
inspector-general and then quarter-master general of the military forces 
of New York. And these duties he so discharged, that with all the 
power and resources under his unquestioned control, he retired from the 
office, when the war had ended, a much poorer man than when he entered it. 

In 1865 he returned to his law practice, and built up a large business 
collecting claims against the govern menu He continued active in local 
and State politics, and drafted many important measures for action of the 
legislature. His ability as a skillful organizer and manager of party men 
and measures began to attract notice outsi ie of his own State, and it wad 
observed that whatever his measures, he saw them through. 

November 20, 1871, he received from President Grant the appointment 
of collector of customs for the port of New York. In 1875 he was reap- 
pointed fc> the position, and this second appointment was confirmed by th« 
Senate without the usual reference to a Committee. 


In 1877, after his accession to the chief-magistracy, President Hayes pro- 
mulgated an order forbidding any person in the civil service of the govern- 
ment taking an active part in political affairs. Mr. Arthur was at that 
time chairman of the Republican Central Committee of New York City, 
and failed to resign the position. For this, in July, 1877, he wa3 removed 
from office. He left the collectorship unshadowed by any hint of wrong- 
doing in his relation to that office, and with the affairs of his department 
in sounder condition than they had been for years before. 

Returning to the practice of law, Mr. Arthur continued active in poli- 
tics, and in 1880 was a delegate from New York to the Republican Nom- 
inating Convention assembled in Chicago. He was a zealous supporter of 
Grant as a candidate for the presidency, and when General Garfield had 
received the nomination, Chester A. Arthur was nominated by acclamation 
for vice-president, to secure for Garfield the Grant-Republican vote. He 
was elected vice-president by the same vote which made Garfield the 
twentieth president. 

Through the first session of the Senate during Garfield's administration, 
Vice-President Arthur presided acceptably over its sittings. After Pres- 
ident Garfield received the fatal shot, and while he lingered between life 
and death, the vice-president refrained from all participation in public 
affairs and the controversies then raging, displaying a sincere participation 
in the common grief and concern, and good taste in a not too loud utter- 
ance if the same. 

On September 19th, 1881, the day of Garfield's death, Arthur was sum- 
moned to Long Branch to meet the Cabinet. At two o'clock on the morn- 
ing ol September 20, he took the oath of office before Chief Justice Brady of 
the State Supreme Court, and then went to Long Branch, whence he accom- 
panied the remains of his predecessor in office to Washington. At Wash- 
ington he was sworn into office in a more formal manner, on September 
22d, by Chief Justice Waite, of the United States Supreme Court. His 
first official act was to proclaim a day of mourning for the death of Garfield. 

The duties ot chief-executive, President Arthur performed in a manner 
consistent with his previous career, and the public acts of his administra- 
tion fairly stood the testot the unusual scrutiny to which they were natur- 
ally subjected on account of the peculiar circumstances attending his enter 
in<r upon the office. He died at f> A. M., November 18. 1SS6. 



Twenty-second President of the United States, was born in Caldwell, 
Essex county, New Jersey, on the 18th of March, 1837. 

He was the fifth of the nine children of Richard F. and Anne 
(Neale) Cleveland, and the third son. At the time of his birth hia 
father was pastor in charge of the Presbyterian congregation of Cald- 
well, and he was named in honor of his father's predecessor in the 
pastorate. From earliest childhood he was called " Grover/' and has 
always written his name " Grover Cleveland." The Cleveland family, 
of English descent, show five generations of residents in America, 
and Grover Cleveland traces his ancestry back, by a direct line of 
clergymen, or others closely connected with religious matters, to Dr. 
Aaron Cleveland, an Episcopal clergyman who died in 1757, in the 
city of Philadelphia, at the home of Dr. Benjamin Franklin, whose 
friend he was. Anne, wife of Richard F. Cleveland, was the daughter 
of a gentleman of Irish birth, a law book publisher and merchant, ol 

During Grover Cleveland's childhood his father had in charge the 
Presbyterian Church at Fayetteville, Onondaga county, New York, 
then the agency of the American Home Missionary Society at Clin- 
ton, Oneida county, New York, and in these two places Grover re- 
ceived a common school education. When his father died, in 1853, 
he was clerking in a country store at Fayetteville. He spent the next 
year as book-keeper in the Institution for the Blind, in New York 
city, and in the spring of 1855 he left this situation with the intention 
of going west as far as the then young city of Cleveland, Ohio. He 
went only to Buffalo, New York, and stopped there with an uncle, 
Lewis F. Allen, through whose influence, in August, 1855, he entered 
the law office of Messrs. Rogers, Bowen & Rogers. In 1859 he was 
admitted to the bar, but remained with the firm four years longer. 

In .1863 he was appointed assistant district attorney for Erie 
coumy; in 1805 was nominated on the Democratic ticket for district 
attorney, but was defeated by his Republican opponent. In 1S70 he 
was elected sheriff of Erie county tor three years, at the expiration 
of which period he resumed his law practice, in which he continued 
until elected mayor. His law practice, except for the terms of office 
named, extended from 1859 to 1381, during which time he was a 
member of several legal co-partnerships, rising steadily in his pro- 
fession, and acquiring a reputation second to no lawyer of "Western 


New York. He was a fluent, terse, forcible speaker, successful alike 
before judges and juries, and especially strong in equity cases. 

In November, 1881, he was elected mayor of Buffalo, on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket, by a majority of 3,500, the city ticket generally going 
Republican. The city had been, as many of our large cities are, 
badly governed, and its affairs in 1882, under the guidance of Mayor 
Cleveland, assumed a shape very much more satisfactory to the busi- 
ness men and tax payers of the city. So many were the checks he 
put upon the city council that he gained the soubriquet of " Veto 
Mayor." It is claimed he saved the city in eleven months one 
million of dollars. 

In 1882 Mayor Cleveland received the nomination on the Demo- 
cratic ticket for governor of New York, the nominating convention 
meeting in Syracuse, Onondaga county, and the name of Grover 
Cleveland being presented by Hon. D. N. Lockwood, of Buffalo, who 
also nominated him for Sheriff in 1870, for Mayor in 1881, and for 
President in 1883. The nomination was well received by all factions 
of the Democratic party, and the popular cry of " Reform Governor " 
being started, he received many votes from the growing Independent 
party. He was elected by a majority of 192,854, receiving 535,318 
votes against 342.46-4 cast for his opponent, Judge Folger. A Repub- 
lican governor had been elected at the two preceding elections. 

Governor Cleveland's administration of State affairs attracted at- 
tention throughout the country, principally by his opposition to 
measures advocated by his party, and by his veto of the " Assembly 
Bill No. 5S, to regulate fares on elevated railroads in New York 
City," and by his veto of the Street Car Conductors and Drivers bill. 
Tho first of these measures was intended to reduce fares on the 
elevated roads to five cents, the second to make a day's work for men 
engaged as drivers or conductors on horse cars twelve hours, and 
to make the evasion or violation of the law by any officer or agent 
of the road punishable by fine or imprisonment. The latter bill was 
passed over the veto, the first was lost. Both were drawn in the in- 
terest of workingmen, and in vetoing them it was claimed Governor 
Cleveland bad taken the side of tho corporation in the now irrepres- 
sible conflict between capital and labor. On the great question of 
Civil Service Reform, in his letter accepting the nomination for gov- 
ernor, dated October 20, 1SS2, in his ratification of legislative meas- 
ures during his tenure of office, and in his own appointments during 
that time, Governor Cleveland put himself on record as an ardent 
supporter of the movement. The following synopsis of his character 
is the voice of friendship, the utterance of an intimate friend, and 
the years of his administration as President of the United States 
must be the test of the truth of the prophecy : " He is very deliberate, 
even somewhat slow, in formin<r decisions, but after he has settled a 


matter, nobody in the world can change him. So he'was as a lawyer, 
so he was as a mayor, so he was as governor. He has taken many 
positions that his friends thought wrong, and sometimes ruinous, 
but we were never able to change him, and it has often turned out 
that he was right. He is firm, straightforward and upright, and that 
is the kind of president he will make." 

On Juue 2, 16MI, riLMucnt, Cleveland was married at the White . 
House, to Miss Frank Folsom, of New York. The ceremony was 
performed bv Rev. Dr. Sunderland of the First Presbvterian Church, 
of Washington, D. C. 

The cabinet chosen by President Cleveland, and confirmed by the 
Senate, is as follows: Secretary of State, Thomas F. Bayard, of Dela- 
ware, born at Wilmington, that State, October 20, 1829, elected te 
the Senate in winter of 1SGS-9, to succeed his father, James A. Bayard, 
re-elected in 1875, and again in 1881. Secretary of the Treasury, 
Daniel Manning, of New York, born in Albany, that State, August 16, 
1831, chief proprietor of the Albany Argus, and identified with Dem- 
ocratic politics in New York. Secretary of War, William C. Endicott, 
of Massachusetts, born in Salem, that State, in 1827;- from 1872 to 
1882 judge of the supreme court of Massachusetts. Secretary of the 
Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, of Mississippi, born in Oxford, Putnam 
county, Georgia, September 17, 1825, represented Mississippi in the 
Thirty-Fifth and Thirty-Sixth Congresses, resigned in 18GU, entered 
the Confederate army in 1801, lieutenant-colonel of Nineteenth Mis- 
sissippi Volunteers; promoted colonel; in 1803 sent to Puissia on 
diplomatic mission for the Davis government; elected to the Forty- 
Third Congress, re-elected to the Forty-Fourth; elected to the Senate 
in winter of 1870-7, and serving when called to the cabinet. Secre- 
tary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, of New York, born in Con- 
way, Massachusetts, in 1839; has always followed the profession of 
law. Attorney-General, Augustus H. Garland of Arkansas; born in 
Tipton county, Tennessee, June 11, 1832, taken by his parents to 
Arkansas in the following year, and since a resident of that State ; 
served in the Confederate Congress, in the House and Senate, a 
member of the Senate when the Confederacy collapsed ; elected to the 
United States Senate from Arkansas in 18(57, but was not admitted to 
his seat; elected governor of Arkansas without opposition in 1874; at 
the expiration of gubernatorial term elected to United States Senate 
without opposition, where he was serving when called to the cabinet 
Postmaster General, William F. Vilas of Wisconsin; born at Chelsea, 
Orange counts', Vermont, July 9, 1^40; entered the army in 1851, 
captain Twenty-Third Wisconsin Volunteers, promoted major and 
lieutenant-colonel: resigned in 1803, and resumed practice of law; 
one of the revisers of the State statutes in 1875 and 1878. 



Twenty-third President of the United States, is a son of the late 
John Scott Harrison, who was third son of William Henry Harrison, 
ninth President of the United States and third son of Benjamin 
Harrison of Virginia, one of the Signers of the Declaration of 
Independence on behalf of that State. The distinguished lineage 
of the Harrison family has been given on preceding pages of this 
work, in sketches of these statesmen. 

John Scott Harrison was a life-long farmer, living at North 
Bend, Ohio, the western boundary of his farm the Indiana and 
Ohio State line. He was twice married, his second wife Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Archibald Irwin, of Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. 
The farm was a part of that formerly owned by William Henry 
Harrison, and Benjamin, second son of the second marriage of 
John Scott Harrison, was born in his grandfather's house at North 
Bend, on the 20th of August, 1S33. 

The residence of John Scott Harrison fronted the Ohio river. 
and between the river and the house was a small, old log school 
house, in which Benjamin Harrison received his first schooling 
from a private teacher. When the log school house gave out, as 
it did from old age, the school was continued in a room in the 
house. Here he received a common English schooling, and was 

f rounded in Latin and otherwise prepared for an academical course, 
or two .years he attended the Farmers College, a lew miies back 
from Cincinnati, then was transferred to the Miami University, 
entering the junior class. He was graduated from the University 
on June 24, 1S52, taking fourth honors in a class of sixteen. He 
studied law in Cincinnati, and in March, 1S54-, established himself 
in practice in Indianapolis, which has been his home ever since. 

Comparatively unknown, and with no means whatever except 
what his profession might bring him, the first years of Mr. 
Harrison's professional life were a struggle. lie was already 
married. While at the University he met the lady who has been 
for many years his loved and honored wife, a helpmate worthy 
of the name, and who will, as Lady of the White House, be an 
honor to the Nation. She is Caroline W., (.laughter of Dr. John 
W. Scott, now of Washington, D. C, who was president of a 
voung ladies' seminary near the Miami University at the time 
!Mr. Harrison was a student there. They were married on October 
20, 1853, and their son Russell was born August 12, 1S54, at Dr. 
Scott's home in Oxbridge. Tlie young couple at that time vrer* 


boarding in Indianapolis, but when Mrs. Harrison returned from 
her visit to Oxbridge with their babe they went to housekeeping 
in a quiet, modest way. The first money earned by Mr. Harrison 
was for performing the services of court crier for the Federal 
Court of Indianapolis, two and a half dollars a day. 

He, however, soon won a name as a successful pleader and 
careful lawj*er, and built up a good practice, in lb60 he was 
elected Reporter of the Supreme (State) Court, by a majority of 
9,688. On entering the army July, 18(32, he appointed a deputy 
reporter. The Democrats, holding that his acceptance of a 
military commission had vacated his commission us reporter, 
nominated and elected to that office lion. M. C. Kerr. He by 
legal process, the Supreme Court sustaining him, took possession 
of the records, and served out the term. In 1804 the Republicans 
again nominated Mr. Harrison, then commanding his regiment in 
the Atlanta campaign, and he was elected by a majority of 19,713. 
He reappointed his deputy to serve for him and remained in the 
field. After his muster out he resumed his duties as reporter. 

In July, 18G2, Mr. Harrison raised the regiment which went 
.•nto service as the Seventieth Indiana Infantry, and of which he 
vas commissioned colonel, lie reported with it to General Buell, 
ttt Bowling Green, Kentucky, in time. to take part in the campaign 
against Bragg. The regiment, with the Seventy-Ninth Ohio and 
three Illinois regiments, was brigaded under Brigadier-General W. 
T. Ward of Kentucky, and the organization remained unchanged 
till the close of the war. At Murfreesboro it w T as made a part of 
Granger's Reserve Corps. In January, 1S04, it became the First 
Brigade of the First Division, Eleventh Army Corps, Colonel 
Harrison commanding the brigade, General Ward the division. 
{Vhen the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were consolidated, be- 
coming the Twentieth Army Corps, the brigade became the First 
of the Third Division, General Ward returning to command of 
brigade, Colonel Harrison to his regiment. In the Atlanta cam- 
paign he led this regiment in battles of Resaca, where General 
Ward was wounded, and command of brigade fell again on 
Colonel Harrison ; Cassville, New Hope Church, Gilgal Church, 
Kenesaw Mt., Peachtree Creek, Atlanta. Through most of this 
campaign Colonel Harrison commanded Ward's brigade ; for his 
gallantry at Peachtree Creek General Hooker recommended him 
for promotion to rank of brigadier general. In September, ISO-t, 
Colonel Harrison was ordered home for recruiting service. Start- 
ing for his command again in November, he was unable to connect 



with it before it had moved on the March to the Sea. Hp was 
put in command of that portion of the Twentieth Army Corns 
gathered in Chattanooga; took a brigade to Nashville, fought 
against Hood there, and followed his retreat as far as Courtland, 
Alabama. He rejoined his old brigade and took command of it 
at Goldsboro. North Carolina, and with it passed, via Richmond, 
to the Grand Review at Washington. His rank as brevet brigadier- 
general dates from January 23, 1865. He was discharged from 
service on June S, 1865. One who fought in the ranks of the 
Seventieth Indiana through its three years in the field thus 
epitomizes General Harrison's leading trait as a soldier: "It 
wasn't k Go ahead, boys,' with him; it was always, ' Come on, 

In 1865 General Harrison resumed his law practice, in which 
he has continued ever since except when filling official positions. 
In 1S76 he was the Republican nominee for governor of Indiana, 
and ran seveial thousand votes ahead of his ticket, but was de- 
feated by his Democratic opponent, Hon. James D. Williams, of 
Knox county, ' k Blue Jeans Williams." In 1S78 he presided over the 
Republican State Convention. In 1SS0 he was chairman of the 
Indiana delegation to the National (Jon vention at Chicago. In ISSi 
he was delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention. 

President Garfield offered General Harrison a place in his 
cabinet, which the latter declined on the ground that he was 
unfamiliar with public affairs at Washington, and had just been 
elected to the United States Senate. The office of United States 
Senator General Harrison tilled for six years to the entire satis- 
faction of his constituency and of the Republican party. 

At the National Republican Convention held in Chicago, June, 
1888, General Harrison was nominated for President on the 
eighth ballot, receiving 5-ii votes out of 830 cast. In the No- 
vember following he received 234 of the electoral votes cast as 
against 167 for Mr. Cleveland, his opponent, and was thus chosen 
the Twenty-Third President of the United States. 

President Harrison's Cabinet is as follows: Secretary of Staf" 
James G. Blaine of Maine; Secretary of the Treasury, William Wiu- 
dom of Minnesota; Secretary of War, Richard Proctor of Vermont ; 
Secretary of the Navy, Benjamin F. Tracy of New York ; Secre- 
tary of the Interior, John W. Noble of .Missouri; Secretary of 
Agriculture, Jeremiah M. Rusk of Wisconsin : Attorney-General, 
Win. II. II. Miller of Indiana; Postmaster-General, John Wana- 
maker of Pennsylvania. 



Electoral Vote, ist and 2d Terms, 1789-93, 1793-97 



Term— 1 



•Second Term 








- z 


z . 


¥■ '£. 



Z — 

a 2 


1 z - 

« ~ Z ^S i; _; 



< DO 

^ "SI 
Z X 


* >■* 
— ^ 

-> 1. 

z a 



< — 

z r; —J r .2 



5 5 


z £ "3 g a 

z — 

r - >■ 



4 s3 



►2 x 

5 i S 
- I a 

'" 8 JS 

1 I 



— * 

fc P 


t 7 



















Maryland _.. 









— - 



New Hampshire 
















New Jersey _ __ 


New York". _. 

North Carolina. 





Pennsylvania __ 









Rhode Island .. 















South Carolina. 






Virginia . 















* Previous to 1S05, each elector voted for two candidates for President, and 
the person receiving the highest number of votes, if a majority of ihe whole 
number of electors, waa declared President, and the person having the next 
highest number Vice-President. 

f Not a State at this election. 

$ For term 17S9-1793. Connecticut cast two votes for Samuel Huntingdon of 
Connecticut; Georgia one vote each for James Armstrong of Pennsylvania, 
Edward Telfair of Georgia, and Benjamin Lincoln of G^or^ia. and two votes 
ic* JJkn Milton of Penn--ylvan ; si. 

' Fee term 1793-1797, South Carolina cast one vote for Aaron Burr of New- 



Electoral Vote, 3d and 4th Terms, 1797-1801, 1801-5 

Third Term— 1797-1801. 

Fourth Term— 1801-54 












as .5 



* ~ , -~ • 

SB £ QQ .^ 

< — K ® 



< ~ 

— 7. 

** — 

'— 7- 

< ^1 

? ? ' a -if 
5 \° 


! S 




3 M 

- V 

- so 

— 5r. 

2 X 

-5 — 


z . 

* 3 

z ^ 

„- p 

rj ^ 


3 3 



Connecticut. _ 

t 9 

9 L 











Delaware 3 















Oeorgia 1 4 


Kentucky 4 



Maryland 110 

Massachusetts .If 16 











New Hampshirel 6 
Now Jersey 1 7 









New York! 1 12 

North Carolina. tl2 

















Pennsylvania __| 15 


Rhode Island...! 4 



South Carolina- 8 













Tennessee 3 






Totals . 









* Previous to 1805, each elector voted lor two candidates for President, and 
the person receiving the highest number of votes, if a majority of the whole 
number of electors, was declared President, and the person having the next 
highest number Vice-President. 

T For term 1797-1801, Connecticut cast five votes for John Jay of New York ; 
Maryland two votes for John Henry of Maryland: Massachusetts two votes 
for Samuel Johnson of North Carolina ; North Carolina three votes for John 
Iredell of North Carolina, one for Charles C. Pinckney of South Carolina, and 
one for George Washington of North Carolina; Virginia cast one vote for 
George Washington r f North Carolina. 

X In the 1800 election there having been a tie vote between Jefferson and 
P>urr in the Electoral College, the choice devolved upon the House of Repre- 
sentatives, which, February 17, 1801, on the thirty-sixth ballot, elected Jef- 
ferson President, and BlTRR Vice President. 

#For term of 1801-1805, Rhode Island cast one vote for John Jav of New 



Electoral Vote, 5th and 6th Terms, 1805-9, 1809-13. 

Fifth Term— 1805-!). 

Sixth Tekm— 1809-13. 





*" S 






o ft J 
H « 9 







y- z - 


»i\ - 


3 .; : y. -B 

U >- 1 . ~ 5 >- : < E 1 >" 


or; .— 


- ^ 




■r. ■— 


.■: *oc 



DO •. 

Li > 








y A 






















Kentucky _. 

Maryland . _ 









— - 





New Hampshire 

New Jersey 











8 ! 

New York.. 










. . 13 


North Carolina.- _ . 
















Rhode Island 




















South Carolina 





Tennessee . 















113 I 9 



* For the term 1S09-1S13, New York cast three votes each for James Madison 
of Virginia and James Monroe of Virginia for Vice-President. 



Electoral Vote, 7th and 8th Terms, 1813-17, 1817-21. 

Seventh Tekm — v ^ ,„,--,. 
1S13-1S17 Eighth Term. — 181,-21. 













r. ;— 


— t. 

Bi 99 

— 1) 

y. > 

— - 

y. .2 






Q > 


-/ — 

SB >, 

3 /. 

DO • — 
Sq J; 

5 s 























' 8 




































































Maryland _ 

Massachusetts _. 
New Hampshire 



New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 


Rhode rsland... 

— - 


South Carolina . 

Tennessee ._ 

— -— - 








5 1 4 



•Not a State at the time of this election. 


Electoral Vote, gth Term, 1821-25. 
















New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 



Rhode Island .... 
South Carolina . 









t 3 





t 8 






. 1 





< . 




« ■' 

.*• -»j 

Z 33 


> /- 


■x. '" 


S to 

v: — 

03 • — 



< 33 


z «a 




















•Three votes from Missouri excluded. 

tOne elector died in Mississippi, one in Pennsylvania, and one in 



Electoral and Popular Votes, ioth Term, 1825-29. 












g ■ 


is ~ 








* . 




































1 ,680' 67 
1,978 _ 

Georgia. .. 









5 315 


Louisiana _. 

6,453 . _ 


16 7S2 






Maine. _ . 










New Hampshire.. 

New Jersey 

New York. . 



















North Carolina... 
Ohio.. . 








19 255 


Rhode Island.. 






South Carolina 


Vermont . 









8,489| 416 







44.282, 46,587 

No choice having been made in the Electoral College for President, the 
House of Representatives chose from the three receiving the highest number 
of votes. John Quiney Adams, 13; Andrew Jackson, 7 ; Wm. H. Crawford, 
4, and Mr. Adams was declared to he Pros dent. 

For Vice-President, John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, received, in the 
Electoral College, 182 votes; Nathaniel Macon, of North Carolina. 24 : Andrew 
Jackson, of Tennessee, 13; Nathan Sand ford, of New York, 30 ; Henrv Clay, 
of Kentucky, 2; and Martin Van Buren, of New York, 9. 



Electoral and Popular Votes, nth Term, 1829-33. 




Pros' t. 


' -/f 

g" \< . \* • 


O x O ci 





« § x £ 




* c ■ z "^ H ^ 



5 5 : ii * ^ — 

< s 

1 — 


sjyj Or| 

?: r 

~ 7* 

- — \ 



5 f=i 

~ X 






































Indiana . 


















Louisiana . 

4 605 



Maryland- _ 









6,7) ! 








New Hampshire 



New Jersey 













New York.. _ 


North Carolina 










Rhode Island ... 



4 ._.. 



South Carolina 



















Virginia . 









Electoral and Popular Votes. 12th Term, 1833- 


















New Hampshire 

Kew Jersey ._. 

New York 

Jforth Carolina 



"Rhode Island 

South Carolina 






















* 7 

Pres't. Vice-P. 



CD 1 >i .13 . 

* £ < >. a •* 

js in 1 - 

< 2 

7. B 

Totals 1 [288 "210 | 49 Il89 I 49 || 530,189 687,502 

3 L. 



11 . 

5 . 

9 ''. 
__„! 15 L 








15 ! 
21 | 
30 i 









4 L 

15 . 














u- o 



14 545 





* South Carolina cast her full electoral vote for John Floyd, of Virginia, and 
Vermont cast her seven votes for William Wirt, of Maryland, fur President. 

t Pennsylvania cast her full electoral vote for Vice-President for William 
TVilkins, of Pennsylvania. 



Electoral and Popular Votes, 13th Term, 1837-41. 



President. Yice-Pn-s't. 

el | 


* «->' 

H LOME'S j ^ H z. '£** ^'^1 ^ z Z 

1 \< \i 

z r 

Alabama 7 

Arkansas 3 

Connecticut ■■ S 

Delaware ' 3 

Georgia : 11 

Illinois 5 

Indiana j 9 

Kentucky i 15 

Louisiana j 5 

Maine j 10 

Maryland 10 

Massachusetts *14 

.Michigan 1 3 

Mississippi j 4 

MissourL- 4 

New Hampshire 7 

New Jersey 8 

New York | 42 

North Carolina j 15 

Ohio . I 21 

Pennsylvania 30 

Rhode Island | 4 




! 10 

South Carolina 













... 11 
... 15 

7 ,____ 










is,! 1 :;'! 





87, 1 1 1 


294 170 



























736,656| 761,549 

* In the Electoral College for this term Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, 
received 14 votes for President, being the full vote of his state. Willie P. 
Mangum, of "North Carolina, received 11 votes for President, and William 
Smith, of South Carolina, 23 for Vice-President. 


Electoral and Popular Votes, 14th Term, 1841-45. 




1 Tres't. Vice-P 

° to 

~c y & u± y = 



v. 'Z. 

Alabama 7 

Arkansas 3 

Connecticut - 8 

Delaware 3 

Georgia 11 

Illinois 5 

Indiana 9 

Kentucky 15 

Louisiana 5 

Maine 10 

Maryland 10 

Massachusetts 14 

Michigan 3 

Mississippi 4 

Missouri 4 

New Hampshire 7 

New Jersey 8 

New Yurk 4*2 

North Carolina 15 

Ohio . 21 

Pennsylvania 30 

Rhode Island. 1 4 

South Carolina *ll 

Tennessee. 13 

Vermont 7 

Virginia *23 

Totals 294 234 
















































22 9 

26' 158 






" 5,27S 









7 617 










34,2 IS 












60 234 I 48 I 1,275,011 1,128,702 







• Littleton W. Tazewell, of Virginia, received 11 votes, and James K. Folk, 
of Tennessee, 1 vote, for Vice-President. 



Electoral and Popular Votes. 15th Term. 1845-49. 







-. s 


O i( < >■» < c 

r JM 

. I ;y| H > 

•> u 

^ J, ; 

— : >, 

- •- 

1> 1 ~ 

"2 i ' 

33 c 1, ; 






> e 

> tij 

if 5 

v. 'ZZ 














Massachusetts. 1 



Missouri I 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York ! 

North Carolina ! 

Ohio . ! 


Khode Island 

South Carolina 


Vermont 1 





Electoral and Popular Votes, 16th Term, 1849-53. 




Pres't. Vice-P. 

>» - e: g 2 «** I] >. 

< i 

o = 

Alabama • 9 

Arkansas i 3 








» ti 

















New Hampshire 

New Jersey ._. 

New York 

North Carolina 



Rhode' Island 

South Carolina 



Vermont . 

















G _J. 

5 ! 5 

6 !.__. 6 


, "0 
.1 11 




















47,544 ! 










25 922 









~ 64,705 





31.363 . 
9,300 . 
1.847 . 
44,802 . 
49,720 . 
15.370 . 
39 880 
26, 5." 57 . 
40.077 . 

10,068 . 













Totals 290 1163 Il27 163 [127 :; 1,300,099! 1.220.544 291.263 



Electoral and Popular Votes,- 17th Term, 1853-57. 




Pres't. Vice-P. 

g fa E "12 

Q G* 

> 2 < ? 

H & 3-3 L* .a 

a sir 5 

c ~ 




















New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 



Rhode Island 

South Carolina 






















































290 254 I 42 











26,881 1 


40,626 ! 

S.3,249 1 















29.! 197 



31 '.744 

















~~ >"sl4 



Electoral and Popular Votes, i8tli Term, 1857-61. 








< c 

- 71 



S F Sis 1,3 H 

<^ S P 

M B 

H 3 

< 5 


c £ 

-i s 

= a 

Alabama 9 

















New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 

Ohio _____ 


Rhode" Island 




















South Carolina I S 






Totals 290 174 



























._. 12 
.__| 4 

5 | 

___ 15 
































39,501 1 

201 1 




36, 1 65 






1 ,000 





114 1174 114 

1.341,204, 1,S38,169 874,534 


Electoral and Popular Votes. 19th Term. 1861-65. 







. 1 








— 00 





4* ^ 

g 5 






£ g. 




W P 









Alabama. _. 






















Connecticut.. _. 














Florida _ 
















Georgia. . 


Illinois _ 















































Michigan ._ _ 
















Mississippi . 














New Hampshire. 








New Jersey 







New York . 






North Carolina.. 














12 194 

Oregon .. 
















Rhode Island 






South Carolina 





















J ,969 



















! 845.7H: 


Totals __ 

1 1,866,352 

! 1,375 157 


Fo term JPfil -U5. Stephen A. Pong'fts, of Illinois, nml ITen»cheI Y. Johnson, of <"!eo-!:ia, run- 
dictates fur President and Vice-President, on iudepeudent De uocratie ti.-ket, re. i>iv« .| nine 
votes fiom Mi souri, and three irom New Jersey. .John Bell, ni Tennessit?, mid Kdwanl 
Everett, of Miu-suehusetts, cuudidmes for President sn>l Vice- President on Ihc "Pence" 
tieket, received twelve votes lroiu Kentucky, twelve from 'lenucshee, and til teen iroiu 


Electoral and Popular Votes, 20th Term, 1865-69. 















7. ^ 



5 .a 









£ 9 

~ DO 


s z 




£ C 















t 3 
























De La ware 



Georgia . 


Indiana.. _- . 














Kansas _ _. 


Kentucky - 


Louisiana . 

Maine ._ . 




61, S0:'» 


Maryland .. _ ._ 





Minnesota. _. 

17,3 < 

Mississippi. _ _ 

Missouri _ 














Nevada. . 


New Hampshire 


New Jersev . . 


New York . 













205. 56S 


Rhode Island 


South C'."i ■< ilina 





-- - 




West Virginia 













1212 1 21 

! 1.S08.725 

* Disqualified by secession, f One elector died. 


Electoral and Popular Votes, 21st Term, 1869-73. 










Vice- P. 

2 g* 




. c 

T. '— 

30 "~ ' 



«- ■— 

M z 




"" ' K 
-/. ™ 


c 5£ 

Alabama . 

Arkansas . 























1 2 




















1 76,548 











California ..__ . 


Connecticut _. 


Delaware ._ __ 








Kentucky. ._. 



Maine _. ._ „ 



Maryland .. 


Massachusetts .. _ 


Michigan ... 


Minnesota. . 



Missouri ._ 






















Nebraska . 


New Hampshire. _ __ __ 




New Jersey ._ . 


New York. 


North Carolina .. _. 






Rhode Island 

South Carolina 




45,2: .7 






— - 



West Virginia 












Wisconsin i 



Disqualified by secession. 


Electoral and Popular Votes, 22d Term, 1873-77. 












jL c 

je IS 








'A J 





x *a 

— X 

— X 

Z £ 

« = 

S X 

~ BO 









































































f 3 



Illinois _ 









Iowa . 







Louisiana : 

































Michigan. __ 





— - 

— - 










15 . 

























New Hampshire 


New Jersey.. ... 

— - 


New York 




Oregon _ . 





Rhode Island.. 





72,290 22.703 







85,655 94,391 
47,406 66,500 
41,481 10.927 


93.46S 91,654 

"West Virginia 

Wisconsin _. 

— - 


32,315 29,451 

104,l»97l 86,477 





3,597,070) 2,834,079 

• Electoral vot^x of Arknn«ns u"«l Loiilf'nria woro not romif'-d 

1 1 hr>e \ot<-« from Groigiu feir Hornet! Greeley vwu i aelmietl on ncconnt of hl« death. 


Electoral and Popular Votes. 23d Term. 1877-81 




Pres't. Vice-P. 

>3 jx 


!> c 

Alabama 10 

Arkansas 6 

California (j 

Colorado 3 


Delaware 3 

Florida 4 

Georgia n 

Illinois 21 

Indiana 15 

Iowa 11 

Kansas 5 

Kentucky 12 

Louisiana ' g 

Maine ' 7 

Mary laud ; g 




Minnesota ,-, 

Mississippi ' s 

Missouri 15 

Nebraska 3 

Nevada ! 3 

New Hampshire.' 5 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 




Rhode Island ... 
South Carolina.. 


Texas .__. 


Virginia __ 

West Virginia _ 

Totals .. 


10 .__. 

:;c,o 1 1 85 






























— - 




— - 






— - 






O t 













75, 1 35 












4 SO. 207 1 



15 200 







95 558* 



22 923 


213 520 







1 25.427 



1 33,166 















71 2 










1 ,:>oo 

185 1S4 1 4 033.295 4,284 26-" 




Electoral and Popular Votes, 24th Term, i88r 






| . 






a 1 
2 1 <■* 


§ . 

B % 


pi 3 

8 3 


< fl 




Q ? 

- ? 

M B 








-^ "* 













Alabama . 















California. . 
















Connecticut.. . 








Delaware . . _ . 













, , „ „ 

Georgia.. _. 























-_ — 

Iowa . . 








1. S3, 927 





Kansas ._ 




Louisiana _ 






43,'. t 

Maine _. .. 








Maryland. . _ _. 















Michigan .. .. 




1 S5, 341 









Mississippi. _ . 


.... 1 8 







..._. 15 













5 . 





New Hampshire. 



New Jersev 








New York 








North Carolina.. 





























Rhode Island ... 







. 20 

South Carolina 




58,07 1 

















. 156.52S 



1 5 








! 1,215 




West Virginia 






57.3.9 1 


! — . 















1 55 

ll 4.450 921 

i 4,447,88$ 





Electoral and Popular Votes, 25th Term, 1885-89. 






•J . 




O . 












< a 





*5 cj 

•< E 


m a 

• 2 

3 2 


> a 

- : 

63 3 





H rt 


5 .o 

« a, 









z s 



£ p 

Alabama .... 




Connecticut ..... 

Delaware .... 



Illinois . 


Iowa . 

Kansas ..... 

Kentucky ... 

Louisiana ... 

Maine .. 




Minnesota .... .. 

Mississippi .. 

Missouri.... . 

Nebraska ... 


New Hampshire. 

New Jersey ... 

New York . 

North Carolina.. 




Rhode Island 

South Carolina.. 



Vermont . 


West Virginia... 






























. . 








































































225 309 








36.. 90 










































2,8. J 9 

401 219 182 219. 182; 4,874,986 4.851. 981 : 175. 37" l. r .0.369 


Electoral and Popular Votes, 26th Term, 1889-92. 



rv, s't. vk-c-r 

p S _. a je Z J* \ 3 

o 2 

5 P 




- o 
r 4 *3 















Maine _ 









New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York" 

North Carolina.. 




Rhode Island ... 
South Carolina.. 





West Virginia 








13 i 

8 j 

6 1 

8 ! 












Totals 401 233 

4 . 






" 8~ 

















8 I 









— — 








— - 










12 1 


13 j 












I6S I 































21. 90S| 














39,501 1 

























65,S25 . 






















4.707! . 

8,701 ! 






30.231 ! 







7,0! »" 
2,6! '4 
9, 1 ' '•"> 
















5,440.21615,538,233 249,907| I4S.105 

Electoral and Popular Votes, 27th Term, 1893-97 







Connecticut -- 







Iowa . 









Mississippi — 





New Hamps'e. 
New Jersey — 

New York 

*North Dakota 


£ Ore<ron 

Rhode Island- 
South Carolina 
South Dakota- 


Pres't. Vice P. 

£ — 

— S 

C c 


> fc t, c 

I J r \ < •*" 


la 1 

b c 






Vermont 1 4 


Washington .- 
West Virginia. 



Total . . 


8 ! 

8 ! 1 


G .... 




21 I- 

15 I- 

.— | 13 
.— I 8 

6 L__. 
- — i 8 

9 i 5 


8 L._. 





4 -~ 4 

._.! 10 L__. 

... 36 — - 

...I ll 

1 11 

"s i— -! 3 

1 :::| 1 

.... 9 

4 I — - 

— 12 





1 4 

12 1— - 


(> - 

i 3 
































40 237 




















S4.46s ! 



20,6 Hi 
163 111 1 
13,332 - 



7 259. 
S3. 134 



17 650. 


2,410 . 








1 687 










38 620 


255.6 i 5 



92 736 














>, 1 75.2021 5,554,226 1 ,042.631 , 202.-9 









4,91 2 





2.6: '.6 


1 . 565 

4 S56 

1 .424 

•Colorado cnst 4 votes, Idaho 3, Khushs 10. Nevada 3, 
Weaver for President u:<d Field for Vice President, a total 

North Dakota 1, and Oregon 1 for 
of 22 votes. 




Martha, wife of George Washington, was bom in the colony of Vir- 
ginia, in May, 17.52, tlie daughter of a Virginia planter named Dan- 
drid'^e. Her education was limited and received at home, although her 
father was wealthy and her family one of the first in Virginia. It wan 
not in those days the custom to highly educate the daughters of even 
the most wealthy men, and at no time in her life did Mrs. Washington 
show any fondness tor books or literary attainments. She first appeared 
in society- at the residence of the colonial governor iu Williamsburg, where 
she was "soon recognized as :i belle and beauty. There she met Colonel 
Custis, whose wife she became, and their happy union was blessed with 
three children, one daughter and two sons. The eldest son died in youth, 
and Colonel Custis died a few years later, of consumption. 

In 1758, at the home of Mr. Chamberlayne, of New Kent county, Vir- 
• ginia, Mrs. Custis met Colonel Washington, as he was then known, who 
already was looked upon as a leader by Virginians, and had gained dis- 
tinction serving under Braddock in that general's ill-starred Indian cam- 
paign. She was then twenty-six years of age, and is described as " re- 
markably youthful in appearance and very beautiful."' Washington ap- 
pears to "have fallen in love with her with military promptness, and they 
yvere married very soon after, at her oyvn home, on January l>, 1859, re- 
pairing, at the close of protracted wedding festivities, to Mount Vernon. 
This was thereafter their home, left only when Mrs. Washington accom- 
panied her husband to places where duty and his groyviug fame took him 

in the servic f his country. He yvas for fifteen consecutive years a 

member of the House of Rurgesses, meeting at Williamsburg, and Mrs. 
Washington frequently graced the capital of the colony with her presence 
during that time. 

The eight years of the War of the Revolution were a cruei interrup- 
tion to the home life at Mount Vernon. The commander-in-chief of the 
little host- battling for independence must make his home in the .Held. 
the loving wife -it in solitude and heaviness of heart in the home which 
he had left, or, as yvas Mrs. Washington's custom iu the fall of each year, 
journev in her cumbersome carriage over the bad roads of that day. to 


spend a few months with him wherever he mijrht be making his head- 
quarters. From December, ill'), to the opening of the campaign of the 
following spring, she was with General Washington at his headquarters 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The following winter she was with him at 
Morristown, New Jersey, where she occupied a small frame house, living 
without any conveniences or comforts. In the bitter winter of 1777, she 
shared with him the want that made the camp at Valley Forge so desolate. 

The two surviving children of Mrs. Washington's first marriage were 
Martha and John Parke Custis. No children were horn of her second 
marriage, a source of deep regret to Washington, hut, as one writer has 
prettily said: " Providence left him childless that he might he the father 
of his country." The daughter of the first marriage died in early woman- 
hood, unwedded. The son, who was devotedly attached toGeneral Wash- 
ington, and accompanied him on his campaigns, married, on February 
3d, 1774, Miss Nelly Calvert, of Baltimore. The news of Washington's 
victory at Yorktown had scarcely brought the hope of speedy peace to the 
heart of his wife, when as a mother she was called to mourn the loss of 
her only remaining child. Colonel Custis had been borne from the field 
of triumph to a village in New Kent county to die. The sorrowing mother 
reached his bedside in time to receive his last embraces, and to take to 
her heart the widow and four children he left. The two youngest of 
these children were later formally adopted by Washington. 

When President Washington had been inaugurated in his office, Mrs. 
Washington joined him at New York, then the seat of government, and 
as the wife of the chief magistrate established a court that was founded 
on that of St. James. The Republican court, as it was styled, was held 
at No. 3 Franklin Square, and the rules governing admission to the levees 
were such as prevailed in English and French courts. The dress to be 
worn was defined, and all failing to comply were rigorously excluded. 
Doubtless this pomp was pleasing to the first lady in the land, who was 
proud of her descent, and naturally aristocratic. But a more pleasing 
picture of her, and one more in consonance with the spirit of the repub- 
lic her husband had fought to establish, is that of preceding years, when 
she was unostentatious in her apparel; wearing dresses from the spinning 
wheels and looms kept busy in her own home; appearing at a ball given in 
her honor in New Jersey during the war in a "simple russet gown," with 
a plain white 'kerchief about her neck. And her home-made dress of al- 
ternating stripes of cotton and silk, " wherein the silk stripes were woven 
out of ravelings of brown silk stockings and old red chair-covers," is the 
dress we like to read about, albeit she would not have admitted it in later 
years to her own receptions. 

In the second year of Washington's administration the seat of £rovern- 
ment was removed to Philadelphia, where he rented and furnished a house 
on Market street, between Fifth and Sixth. Mrs. Washington had gone 
from New York to Mount Vernon, and came with her husband to their 


Philadelphia home late iu the fall of that year. There she held drawing- 
rooms on Friday of each week, the guests appearing early, passing a for- 
mal and unsocial evening, and leaving about hall-past ten. When Ley< a 
were given on national holidaysa salute was fired to announce their opening. 
The seat of government was not yet removed to Washington city when 
Mrs. Washington returned to Mount Vernon at the close of her husband's 
second term In the presidential office. Consequently the first of the 
"Ladies of the White House," never lived in the White House at all. 
The happy home life in the mansion on the Potomac was resumed, its 
mistress devoting herself to the congenial duties of wife, grandmother 
and hostess. It was a brief interval of happiness, eclipsed in the death 
of her husband on the 14th of December, 1799. "The death of her 
husband," writes one who has given her biography in extended form, 
" was the last event in Mrs. Washington's life. It shattered her nerves, 
and broke her heart. She never recovered from it. * * * For many 
months Mrs. Washington had been growing more gloomy and silent than 
ever before, and the friends who gathered about her called her actions 
strange and' incomprehensible. She stayed muchaloneand declined every 
offer of sympathy." The end came in the spring of 1801, when she died 
in the seventy-first year of her age, the third of her second widowhood. 
To the resting place "of George and Martha Washington at Mount Ver- 
non yet journey travelers of this and other lands. 


Abasail Smith, born in Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1744. the daugh- 
ter of William and Elizabeth (Quiucy) Smith, became the wife of him 
who was to be the second president of the United States. Her father 
was forty years a Congregational clergyman at Weymouth, and her grand- 
father was a minister of the same denomination in a neighboring town. 
With this grandparent, trained by his godly wife, away from all young 
companions either in her home or iu school, she grew to womanhood. She 
was born of generations of scholars and had inherited their dispositi<>u 
toward learning, a disposition which in her ease received no aid to its de- 
velopment. The year before her death she said : " My early education did 
not partake of the abundant opportunity which theP re sen* day oftersand 
which even our common country schools no w afford. I never was sent t>> 
anv school. I was always sick." To this it may be added that in >ov 
England, as j tl Virginia, it was only the sons who were given educational 
facilities bv fathers of means. There was. as one of Abagail Adam.- de- 
scendants has said: "In the public a conviction of the danger that mav 
attend the meddling 0I> women with obscure points of doctrine, etc.. it 
ihey were educated. 

On October 2~>, 1704, A.bagai1 Smith became the wife of John Adams, 
a strutridinir young lawver. whom her father's parishioners thought hardly 
good enough for "the parson's daughter." Until the beginning of the 


Revolutionary war the family residence alternated between Braintreeand 
Boston, as Mr. Adams' health or business required, during which time .sin- 
bore him one daughter and three eons. When her husband had been 
called to his duties in Congress at Philadelphia as one of Massachusett'e 

representatives, she was left with their little ones in the home near the 
foot of Penn Hill. There she toiled and studied, now at the spinning 
wheel, now bending above a book ; now caring for her children, now giv- 
ing of her scant portion to those more poor. Weak with violent illness, 
she rose from her sick, bed to make a hospital of her home, for pestilence 
was raging about her. .She nursed her youngest son back to health from 
the very borders of the grave, but saw her mother laid beneath the sod. 
What a woman she became under these hard circuim-tances, how worth- 
ily developed to become the pattern of American womanhood, this pen 
picture by the historian Bancroft, shows: 

" Woe followed woe, and one affliction trod on the heels of another. 
Winter was hurrying on ; during the day family affairs took off her at- 
tention, but the long evenings, broken by the sound of the storm on the 
ocean, or the enemy's artillery at Boston, were lonesome and melancholy. 
Even in the silent night, ruminating on the love and tenderne.-s of her 
departed parent, she needed the consolation of her husband's presence. 
But when she read the king's proclamation, she willingly gave up her 
nearest friend exclusively to his perilous duties."' And this was the mes- 
sage the brave wife and patriotic woman sent to that husband: '"This 
intelligence will make a plain path for you, though a perilous one. I 
could not join to-day in the petitions of our worthy pastor for a recon- 
ciliation between our no longer parent state, but tyrant state, and these 
colonies. Let us separate. They are unworthy to be our brethren. Let 
us renounce them. And instead of supplications, as formerly, for their 
prosperity and happiuess, let us beseech the Almighty to blast their coun- 
sels and bring to naught all their devices." 

Such words astheseare indicative ofthe passion of patriotism which tilled 
the hearts of American women during the years of the war for independ- 
ence, and are worthy of her who was to be the wife of one president 
and the mother of another. The letters of Mrs. Adams to husband and 
sou during these years, show a vein of intellect and a comprehension 
of the issues at stake which a statesman might envy. She was destined to 
write many letters, because separated for long periods from these loved 
ones. Mr. Adams represented Massachusetts in the first Congress, then 
was sent to France as United States minister, taking with him theireldest 
son, John Quincy Adams. Ofthe situation in which Mrs. Adams was 
left, with the rest of their young family, a glimpse is seen iu a letter writ- 
ten toher husband six month- later: "* I have never received a syllable 
from you or my dear son, and it i> five months since I hail an opportuni- 
ty of conveying a line to von. Vet 1 know not but you are less asufierer 
than you would be to hear from us, to know our distresses, vet be unable 



to relieve them. The universal cry for bread to a humane heart is pain- 
ful beyond description." A frugal housewife, a devoted mother, an in- 
telligent student of events, Mrs. Adams remained alone in charge of the 
family for many months. After spending a year and a half in France, 
Mr. Adams returned home, hut was immediately sent to England to ne- 
gotiate a peace. Two sous accompanied him on this voyage. 

In April, 1780, when the seat of government was established in New 
York city, Mr. Adams as vice-president made his headquarters there, 
and Mrs." Adams was with him, writing thence affectionate letters to those 
of their childreu left at Braiutree. She was at their home in this little town, 
tenderly caring for her husband's dying mother, when he was elected 
president. Later she joined him in Philadelphia, and with him in June, 
1800, removed to the new seat of government at Washington. Of the 
city as she found it, she wrote her daughter, Abigail, wife of Col. Wm. 
S. Smith : " Woods are all you see from Baltimore to this city, which is 
only so in name. There are buildings enough, if they were compact and 
finished, to accommodate Congress and those attached to it. But as they 
are, and scattered as they are, I see no great comfort for them.'' She be- 
moaned the necessity of keeping thirty servants to take care of the great 
house, on her husband's small salary, and further: "The lighting of the 
apartments, from the kitchen to parlors and chambers, is a great tax in- 
deed, and the fires we are obliged to keep to secure us from daily agues 
is another cheering comfort." Further she found no bells in the house 
and could get none put up, nor could she get grates made and set. The 
vessel with her clothes and other matters did not arrive ; her tea-china 
came half missing; the great stairs were not up, and would not be until 
the next winter. " We have not the least fence, yard, or other convenience 
without, and the great unfinished audience room I make a drying room 
of, to hang up the clothes in." Altogether, the first lady in the White 
House found it not a very desirable place to live in. But in making the?e 
confidential complaints to her daughter, she thoughtfully added: "You 
must keep all this to yourself, and when asked how I like it, say that I 
write you the situation is beautiful, which is true." 

The "first New Year's reception at the White House was held bj Presi- 
dent and Mrs. Adams in 1801. The etiquette established by Mrs. Wash- 
ington was followed bv Mrs. Adams during the four months she remained 
in Washington. The sacrifices she had made during the years of the war. 
the hardships she had borne, had undermined a constitution never strong. 
In the spring of 1801 the state of her health was such that she was forced 
to return to their home in Quincy, and she remained there from that time 
until her death, seventeen years later, dying of fever on October 28, 
1818, at the age of 6eventy-four years. Her husband and all but three 
of her children survived her. The epitaph written by John Quiucy 
Adams for the tomb of his parents, says of the mother to whom he owed 


so much, that she was "In every relation of life a pattern of filial, con- 
jugal, maternal and social virtue." 


During President Jefferson's eight years incumbency of the presidency, 
there was no lady permanently residing at the White House a* its mis- 
tress. He married, on New Year's Day, 1772, Mrs. Martha 8 kelton, 
widow of Bathurst Skekon, and daughter of John Wayles, of Charles 
City county, Virginia. This lady is described as having been extraordi- 
narily beautiful, accomplished far beyond most women of her day, and 
of charming manners and most lovable disposition. Jefferson's devotion 
to her memory proved the depth of his love for her, and though she had 
been nineteen years dead when he became president in 1801, no one was 
called to fill her place in his heart or home. During the eight years of 
his administration no formal receptions were held at the White House, 
and the simplicity which characterized his relations with others, a dislike 
of ostentation which has since become proverbial, extended to all visits ot 
a ceremonious nature. Though averse to display, President Jefferson was 
the soul of hospitality, and the frequent dinners he gave were, when la- 
dies were present, presided over by Mrs. Madison, the wife of his Secre- 
tarv of State. 

At the time of her second marriage Mrs. Jefferson was twenty-three 
vears of age, had been four vears a widow, and had buried the only child 
bf that marriage. The married life of Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson was passed 
mainly at his beautiful home, Monticello, and six children were born to 
them. The fifth child was born in November, 17$0. Two months later 
British troops under the traitor Arnold threatened Richmond, and Gen- 
eral Tarleton sent a detachment to Monticello to capture Jefferson, then 
governor of Virginia. Mrs. Jefferson and her children were taken to a 
neighboring plantation, ami Jefferson also escaped. Monticello was cap- 
tured, the house searched though not pillaged, the farm laid waste, its 
crops of grain and tobacco destroyed, and its negroes and horses taken 
away. From the alarm incident upon this disaster, and the accompanying 
exposure in her delicate state of health, Mrs. Jefferson never recovered. 
In April, 1781, the babe who had been a fugitive in her arms at two 
months old, died. On May 8, 1782, another babe was born, and on the 
6th of September following Mrs. Jefferson died. 

Three daughters of this marriage had died in infancy, and there 
were left to Mr. Jefferson three daughters, Martha, then eleven years 
old, Marv, aged six, and the baby, Lucy Elizabeth. The last named 
died in 17*4. Martha was sent toaschool in Philadelphia, and in 1784, 
when Mr. Jefferson went to Europe, she went with him and was placed 
in the school of the Abbaye de Panthemont. near Paris, where her father 
could visit her often. In'l7s7, Marv was sent to join her father and isis- 
ter. In the fall of 178 l J Mr. Jefferson returned to America with Ins 


daughters, and in February following Martha became the wife of Thomas 
Mann Randolph, jr., her cousin. Their home was on the Randolph es- 
tate, near Monticello. Mary, or Marie, as she was called in Prance and 

after her return, married a few years later, John W. Eppsof Eppington, 
also a cousin. Both daughters spent much time at Monticello, especially 
when their father was at home, ami in the winter of 1802-3 both were 
at the White House. Mrs. Epps died on April 1., 1*<>4, leaving child- 
ren. In the winter of 1805-6, Mrs. Randolph passed some time at the 
White House, having with her her own and her sister's children. After 
his return to Monticello Mr. Jefferson was seldom separated from his re- 
maining child, who was indeed the "apple of his eye," and his graud- 
' children were his delight. The testimonies he has left concerning this 
daughter, even when allowance is made for a father's partiality, prove 
Martha Jefferson Randolph to have been worthy of her distinguished 

On one occasion, writing to a gentlemen who had asked of him his 
views "on a proper course of education for women," Mr. Jefferson said : 
"My surviving daughter, the mother of many daughters as well as sons, 
has made their education the object of her lite, and being a better judge 
of the practical part than myself, it is with her aid I shall subjoin a cata- 
logue of the books for such a course of reading as we have practiced.'' 
Again, writing to his grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, he calls her — 
and what a tribute from the father of the woman to be spoken to her son — 
"My dear and beloved daughter, the cherished companion of my early 
life,'and nurse of my age." She was indeed his companion in the ^even- 
teen years he passed in private life at Monticello, and she stood beside his 
deathbed on July 4, 1826. She survived him ten years, and her hus- 
band eight years, lived to see her sons and daughters honored and happily 
married, to gather many grandchildren about her knee, and died on Oc- 
tober 10, 1836, aged sixty-four years. 


Dorothy, second child of John and Mary (Coles) Payne, was born in 
North Carolina, on May 20, 17G7, her parents of Virginia families. They 
removed to Philadelphia while she was quite young, and there joined the 
society of Friends, in which faith she was reared. Her father had made 
his slaves free on coming to Philadelphia, and the little maiden, though 
reared in plenty, was trained in the ways of a simple and useful life. At 
the age of nineteen years she became the wife of a young lawyer of Phil- 
adelphia, John Todd, of the society of Friends also. A few years later 
he died, leaving her with an infant 'son, and she returned to the home of 
her mother, then also a widow. So far her life had been secluded and 
uneventful, but it was now r ( > lie changed. 

After less than a year of widowhood, in October, 1704, she became the 
wife of James Madison, at that time a member of Congress, and holding 


high social position secured by his attainments and character no less than 
by his wealth, which was very large for that day. The wedding was sol- 
emnized at Harewood, the residence in Jefferson county, Virginia, of her 
youngest Bister, Lucy, wife of George Steptoe Washington. Mr. and 
Mrs. Madison remained at his seat Montpelier, until he was called to Jef- 
ferson's cabinet, in 1801, as Secretary of State. In April of that year 
they took up their residence in Washington, and for the eight years that 
he remained at the head of the State department, she fitted a* role that 
was not less marked socially thau his own. She presided frequently, al- 
most invariably, over the state dinners at the executive mansion, while 
her own home became known and loved for its charming hospitality, 
its sparkling entertainments, and the high character of* its guests. 

Consequently when, in 1809, Mr. Madison being made president, she 
became the mistress of the White House she entered upon no new or un- 
tried duties. " Everyone in Washington," says one of her admiring his- 
torians, " felt that her watchful care and friendly interest would be in 
nowise diminished by her advancement to a higher position; and the 
magical effects of her snuff-box were as potent in one capacity as another. 
The forms and ceremonies which had rendered the drawing rooms of Mrs. 
Washington and Mrs. Adams dull and tedious were laid aside, and no 
kind of stiffness was permitted." Still comparatively young on assuming 
this high position, and having no children to divide her cares and increase 
her responsibilities, Mrs. Madison devoted her entire energies to increas- 
ing the success of her husband's administration, her field her parlor and 
her trophies (he hearts of the men and women who gathered about her 
and adored her. Elegance and state she never sought for, abundance and 
couteutment she would always have about her. 

On this life, Arcadian, in spite of its dignities, fell the clouds of war. 
In June, 1812, began the second war with Great Britain. On August 
24, 1814, the White House and Capitol were plundered and burned, and 
popular Dolly Madison and her husband, the fourth president of the 
United States, were fugitives before the advance of the victorious British 
troops. Let the story of that day be told in Mrs. Madison's own words, 
which so simply yet graphically portray her strength of character, single- 
ness of heart and forgetfulness of self. Writing on Tuesday, August 
23d, to her sister at Mount Vernon, she said : " My husband left me yes- 
terday morning, to join General Winder. He inquired anxiously whether 
I had the coinage or firmness to remain in the President's House until 
his return on the morrow or succeeding day. and on my assuring him I 
had no fear but for him and the success of our army, lie left me, beseech- 
ing me to take care >f myself and Of the Cabinet papers, public and pri- 
vate. I have since received two dispatches from him written with a pen- 
cil. The last is alarming, because he desires I should be ready at a mo- 
ment's warning to enter my carriage and leave the city. * * * lam 
ready. I have pressed as many Cabinet papers into trunks as to fill one 


carriage. Our private property must be sacrificed, as it is impossible to 
procure wagons for its transportation. I am determined not to go myself 
until I see Mr. Madison safe and he can accompany me, as I hear of much 
hostility toward him." 

Resuming her letter at noon the next day, Mrs. Madison continued: 
"Since sunrise I have been turning my spy glass in every direction and 
watching with unwearied anxiety, hoping to discover the approach of ray 
dear husband and his friends. But alas! I can descry only groups of - 
militarv wandering in all directions, as if there was a lack of arm- or of 
spirit to h>ht for their own firesides." Three hours later she added a few 
hasty lines: " Will you believe it, my sister? We have had a battle r.r a 
skirmish near Bladensburg, and I am still here within sound of the can- 
non. Mr. Madison comes not — may God protect him ! Two messengere 
covered with dust come to bid me "fly, but I wait for him." The letter 
appears to have been hastily finished still later in the day. " A wagon 
has been procured. I have bad it tilled with the plate and most valuable 
portable articles belonging to the house. Whether it will reach its desti- 
nation, the Bank of Maryland, or fall into the hands of British soldiery, 
events must determine. Our kind friend, Mr. Carroll, has come to has- 
ten my departure, and is in a very bad humor with me because I insist 
on waiting until the large picture of General Washington is secured, and 
it requires to be unscrewed from the wall. — This process is found too tedi- 
ous for these perilous momeuts; I have ordered the frame to be broken 
aud the canvass taken out. — It is done, and the precious portrait placed 
in the hands of two gentlemeu of New York for safe keeping. And now, 
my dear sister, I must leave this house, or the retreating army will make 
me a prisoner by tilling up the road I am to take. When I shall write 
again to you, or where I shall be to-morrow, I cannot tell." 

What "a beautiful picture, unconsciously drawn, of a worthy woman 
worthily meeting a great emergency. Anxiety for her loved husband, 
anxietv for the State papers, anxiety to save a portrait, and only at the 
very last a glimpse of the fact that all the while she was aware of her own 
perilous position, knew not where or how the morrow would rind her. 
Happiiv, her principal anxiety, for her husband's safety, was soon set at 
rest. Mr. Madison, with his Secretary of State, Mr. Monroe,* arrived at 
the White House soon after his wife's departure, and after snatching a 
hasty meal set out to follow her. He met her near the lower bridge, on 
her way back, she having insisted to the friends who were endeavoring to 
take her from the city that she would not go until her husband joined 
her. They journeyed together to Georgetown, then Mrs. Madison, at her 
husband's "solicitation, sought more secure asylum at the house of Mr. 
Love on the Virginia side of the Potomac, while he returned to his duties 
as the head of a demoralized city, soldiery, and government. 

The hardships of the few immediately following days were certainly 
pueh as no other executive of our nation has been called upon to meet or 


his wife to endure. To the perils of homelessnees, with it foreign enemy 
at every turn, was added the ingratitude and injustice of those whom they 

had loaded with favors. The fiercest denunciation.- wen- heaped upon 
the president tor having inaugurated the war and for having carried it on 
unsuccessfully, and so bitter was the feeling that Mrs. Madison was her- 
self refused' admittance to a tavern where she had journeyed hoping to 
meet her husband, and which she found occupied by other fugitives from 
"Washington, ladies and gentlemen to whom she had beforetimes tendered 
the hospitalities of her home with unstinting heart, but who now refused 
her a shelter when she stood without in the storm. 

After occupving Washington twenty-nine hours, the British withdrew 
durimr the same tierce storm which saw Mrs. Madison shelterless. A few 
davs later President and Mrs. Madison resumed their residence in the 
capital, occupving first a house called the Octagon, at the corner of New 
York avenue and Eighteenth street, later a house on the corner of Penn- 
svlvauia avenue and Nineteenth street, until the White House was 
built. Affain we see this lady of varied experiences receiving at a levee ' 
in February, 1816, surrounded by justices in their gowns, by diplomats 
in their decorations, by generals and their aides in uniform, and by society 
ladies in elegant costumes. She is charming, witty, courteous, and the 
ambassador from the late hostile country, England, Sir Charles Bagot, de- 
clared kk lo iked every, inch a queen!" Did she remember in what plight she 
had so lately tied before the brutal soldiery of his government ? Did she think 
when her ladv guests pressed around her with smiles and eager attentions of 
the dark hour when she stood outside the doors they had barred against 
her. Surelv, she might have forgiven, but she was a -women, and she had 
not forgotten. 

In 1817, on the expiration of President Madison's term of office, the 
home life at Moutpelier was resumed, nor was interrupted except for brief 
periods until Mr. Madison's death in 1836. Hi> mother's home was 
with them, and as she lived to nearly the a;_ r e of one hundred years, the 
attendance upon her wants was no light task, but it was one in which the 
daughter-in-law never wearied, and in this relation the beauties of Mrs. 
Madison's character were perhaps more brightly shown than in any other. 
• On his death Mr. Madison left in manuscript, a record of the debates of 
Congress, 17X2-17*". It was his intention to publish this in book form, 
but after his death Mrs. Madison could secure no offer for the ropyright 
which. she deemed adequate, and in a letter she laid the matter before 
President Jackson. He addressed a special message to Congress on the 
subject, and the manuscript was purcha.-ed as a national work. Mis. 
Madison receiving 830,000 for it. By asubsequent act she received the 
honorary right to the copyright on the book in foreign countries. As at 
upoti the rlooj- of the Senate was also voted her. In 1837 Mrs. Madison 
returned to Washington, and until her death resided in the house her 
husband had built in 1*15), on the corner of II street North and Madison 



place. Her popularity increased every year, to visit her was esteemed 
equally an honor and a pleasure, and the public receptions she held on 
New Year's Day au<l Fourth of July were thronged. .She died on July 
12, 1M4H, aired eighty-two years, and her funeral tour days later, at .St. 
John's Episcopal church, was attended by a great concourse of people. 
Her remains were laid to rest near her husband's at Montpelier. 


Lawrence Kortright, a captain in the British army, settled, alter the 
peace of 178o, in New York city, where he raised his family of one gon 
and four daughters. One of these daughters married Nicholas Gouver- 
neur of New York; a second married into the Knox family; a third 
married a Mr. Heyliger, who was at one time grand chamberlain to the 
King of Denmark. The fourth daughter, Miss Elizabeth, was one of 
the reigning belles of New York when the sessions of the first Congress 
were held in that city. Among those who came to the city to represent 
Virginia was James Monroe, then twenty-four years old and already dis- 
tinguished among the distinguished sons of the commonwealth which gave 
so many statesmen to the earlier years of the Republic. In 17< s b Eliza- 
beth Kortright became the wife of James Monroe, and soon after their 
marriage they made their home in Philadelphia, where he remained in 
Congress until 17U4, when he was appointed minister to France. 

Mrs. Monroe accompanied her husband abroad, and it is recorded that 
her dignified manners and striking beauty made her one of the most ob- 
served of the ladies appearing at the court of St. Cloud. The stay of 
Mr. Monroe in France was short, however, he being recalled by Wash- 
ington on account of the disfavor into which he had fallen with the im- 
perial government because of his outspoken sympathy with the revolu- 
tionary party in that country. The Marquis de Lafayette, who had done 
so much to aid Americans iu their struggle for independence, was in 17!'"_' 
a prisoner in an Austrian dungeon, his estate confiscated, his wife a pris- 
oner in La Force. To this prison of horrors Mrs. Monroe went in the 
carriage of state used by the American minister, demanded and obtained 
an audience with the marchioness, and in the presence of her jailers as- 
sured her of the profound interest and sympathy Americans felt in her 
sad case. The time had already been set for Madam Lafayette's execu- 
tion, and she was to have been beheaded on the afternoon of that day. 
The visit of Mrs. Monroe, made at her husband's request, caused a stay 
in tin; execution. The unhappy lady was finally released, and left Park 
in disguise, only to make her way to her noble husband, ami voluntarily 
share his cruel imprisonment Both were finally released, after the Mar- 
quis had been five wars a prisoner and his wife twenty-two mouths. Well- 
ington and Napoleon Bonapart effected their release, but Mr. Monroes 
recall was decided upon by Washington from the feeling that one whom 
the imperialists less opposed would be more useful a minister for America 
iu France. 


Soon after their return Mr. Monroe was elected governor of Virginia, 
and during bis service in this office their home was in Williamsburg, then 
the capital of the State. In 1803 he was sent by President Jefferson 
again to France as envoy extraordinary to negotiate with Robert K. Liv- 
ingstone the purchase of Louisiana. When that was accomplished he 
went from Paris to London, having been appointed minister to the court 
of St. James. His wife accompanied him to Paris and to Loudon, and 
was also with him in a journey he made to Spain, whither he was sent on a 
special mission. They had been abroad nearly ten years when the threat- 
ened hostilities between America and England led him to return to this 
country. For a time Mr. and Mrs. Monroe, and their children, two 
daughters, remained at his country seat, Oak Hill, in Loudon county, 
but Mr. Monroe was again drawn into public life, as a member of Congress, 
again governor, then as Secretary of State. When the second war with 
Englaud was declared, Mrs. Monroe was in Washington, but soon after 
returned to Oak Hili, with her daughters, remaining there in seclusion 
until peace was declared. 

In 1817 she entered the White House, as the wife of the fifth Presi- 
dent. During the eight years this was her home she followed the usual 
routine for the first lady of the land, receiving visits but returning none, 
holding drawing rooms on state occasions, and receiving with the presi- 
dent 011 the days when he gave public receptions. Among the guests en- 
tertained by President and Mrs. Monroe was the Marquis de Lafayette 
during his visit to this country; In March, 1820, occurred the first wed- 
ding at the White House, Maria, the youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Monroe, being married in the East Room to her cousin, Samuel L. Gouv- 
erneur of New York. 

Mrs. Monroe's health failed so perceptibly during the last years of his 
second term as president, that she withdrew from all social duties except 
those which her position absolutely forced upon her, and after their return 
to Oak Hill she lived as quietly as it was possible to do among the guests 
her husband's fame brought about them. Their home life ended in her 
sudden death in 1830, after which Oak Hill was closed. Mr. Monroe go- 
ing to New York and remaining with his daughter until his death the 
following year. 


To Washington and Madison no children were born ; the children of 

Jefferson and Monroe were daughters. These were four of the first five 
presidents. The fifth, and the second in order of service, was John 
Adams, father of many sons and daughters, one of whom, John Quincy 
Adams, became the sixth president. The lady he married was of foreign 
birth, but of American parentage. Louisa Catharine Johnson was horn 
in London on February 1"_\ 177.~>, her father having, for business reasons. 
gone from Maryland to England. During the years of the Revolutionary 


war he lived with his family at Nantes, Franoe, but returned to London 
in 178o. There in 1794, Louisa Catharine Johnson first met John Quincy 

Adams, whose wife she became on the 26th of July, 1797, their marriage 
solemnized in AU-HaLows church, London. 

For tour years they resided in Berlin, where Mr. Adams was officially 
engaged, and in the summer of 18<>1 came to America bringing with them 
their first-born child, George Washington Adams, born in Berlin, April 
12, 1801. For eight years their home alternated between Washington 
in winter (where Mr. Adams was in attendance on Congress) and Boston 
in summer, during which time Mrs. Adams bore two more children, John, 
born in Boston July 4, 1803, and Charles Francis, born iu Boston Au- 
gust 18, 1807. Wheu Mr. Adams was sent a.s minister to Russia by 
President Madison, his wife accompanied him, taking their youngest child, 
not then two years old. She found herself at the end of a long and tedi- 
ous voyage extending over three months, a stranger in a strange laud in- 
deed. The bleak and cheerless climate, the ways of living, the want of 
common interests with those among whom she had come, the two little 
ones left behind, the associations she had formed in America only to have 
them broken, all tended to make the stay in St. Petersburg a forlorn one. 
Public affairs were such as to render her anxiety concerning herhu>band's 
position unceasing. Napoleon was threatening even Russia; England 
and America were at war; Mr. Adams was wanting entirely in that tact 
that makes a public man popular. And on all the rest of her troubles 
came a greater, wheu the little daughter so longed for, born in St. Peters- 
burg, died there in 1812. Such was her life for six years. 

During the last year of her stay in St. Petersburg she was alone, her 
husband having been sent on a diplomatic mission to France. It was 
thought impossible for her to accompany him, on account of the unset- 
tled condition of a country that had just been through the throes of war, 
but after a dreary winter speut alone with her boy, she determined to 
brave all dangers and join her husband. Provided with passports from the 
Russian government, and relying on her husband's position as an Ameri- 
can minister no less, she left St. Petersburg with her little boy, and be- 
gan her journey. It was a perilous one. Progress was hindered bv 
snow-drifts; stories of robbery and murder greeted her at every stopping 
place; some of her servants deserted her: at one place the sight of a 
Polish cap on the head of an attendant brought amob about her carriage. 
As she neare.l Paris the country was all inarms, for Napoleon had landed 
from Elba, and was marching on the capital. But she reached Paris 
safe and well at last, on the evening of March 21. 1815, and found her 
husband there. In May following she was again in London, where Mr. 
Adams soon after received his appointment as minister to the English 
court, and where, greater joy, she had with her all her sous, from two of 
whom she had been separated since 180!). The reunited family passed 
two happy years there, returning to the United States on the packet-ship 



"Washington," when Mr. Adams was appointed Secretary of State in 
Madison's cabinet. 

They landed in New York on August 6, 1*17, and immediately paid a 
visit to Mr. Adams' parents, then "made their home in Washington. 
Among the distinguished entertainers of the next four years Mrs. Adams 
was second to none. The inborn ability which she possessed in marked 
degree had been cultivated iu the first instance by a good education, and 
still further by the associations which had attended her residence abroad. 
and men of distinguished merit found iu her house most congenial com- 
panionship, and the diplomatic corps which her husband's position brought 
about him rendered homage to her. Her son, Charles Frauci- Adams, 
in 1839 wrote of the eight years iu which she presided in the house of 
the Secretary of State : " No exclusions were made in her invitations 
merelv on account of any real or imagined political hostility. Nor. though 
keenlv alive to the reputation of her husband, was auy disposition mani- 
fested* to do more than to amuse and enliven society. In this her success 
was admitted to be complete, as all will remember who were in the habit 
of frequenting her dwelling." 

During her husband's contest for the presidency, the bitter partisan 
feeling displayed caused Mrs. Adams to seek greater seclusion. So far as 
it was" possible to lead a retired life she remained iu this seclusion during 
the four years she was in the White House, her health not being good 
during that time. She, also, had the pleasure of entertaining Lafayette, 
on his final visit to this country, he spending the last weeks of his stay in 
the laud he loved so well at the Executive Mansion, receiving a farewell 
bancpiet there on September 7, 1*25. In 1829 the old home in Quincy 
received the retiring president and his wife, but again they repaired to 
Washington wheu. in 1831, Mr. Adams took his seat in the House of 
Representatives. For fifteen years following they lived in a house on I 
street which Mr Adams owned, Mrs. Adams occasionally entertain in g 
very quietlv, but going into society scarcely at all, She was ill and in 
great pain when, on the afternoon of Monday, February 21, 1848, a 
the messenger came hurriedly to the door to tell her that her husband, 
stricken with paralysis, was lying at the capitol. She was bending oyer 
him when consciousness returned, nor could she be drawn from his side 
in the Speaker's room until he died on the evening of the 23d. >he ac- 
companied the remains to Quincy, and thenceforth made her home there, 
surrounded by children and relatives, until her death. She died on May 
14, 1852, ami was laid to rest in the family burial ground at Quincy, be- 
side the husband to whom she had been iu every way so true a companion 
half a century. 


Rachel, wife of Andrew Jackson, was the daughter of Col. John 

Douelson, born in Pittsvlvauia county, Virginia, where her father owned 



and his wife from the retirement of private lift*. The wife is spoken of 
as having beeu a woman of modest, even timid manners, of gentle dispo- 
sition, and a devoted wife and mother. An incident connected with her 
death, preserved and made public by her niece, Miss Cantine, gives a 
glimpse of Mrs. Van Buren's character from which we may judge her to 
have been worthy of all esteem. "It was customary in that day," writes 
Miss Cantine, "at least it was the custom in the city of Albany, for the 
bearers to wear scarfs which were provided by the family of the deceased. 
Aunt requested that this might be omitted at her burial, and that the 
amount of such cost should be given to the poor." Mr. Van Bureo did 
not marry again, his son's wife presiding at the White Hou=ein 1839-40. 


Wife of the ninth president of the United States, was born near Morris- 
town, New Jersey, on July 2~>, 1775, a daughter of Hon. John Cleves 
Svmmes. Her mother died soon after her birth, and when Mr. Symtues 
entered the Continental Army with rank of colonel he was greatly con- 
cerned as to the care of his iufaut motherless daughter. The mother's 
parents, Mr. and Mrs. Tuthill, were living on Long Island, at that time 
in the possession of the British. Risking more than life in the under- 
taking Colonel Svmmes donned the uniform of a British officer and jour- 
neyed through the enemy's camps to place the little one in her grand- 
mother's arms. Returning to his troops without mishap, he led them un- 
til the close of the war, not seeing his daughter again until 17**}. She 
remained with her grandparents even longer, and attended a seminary in 
East Hampton, then a private school in New York city. At the close 
of 1784, her father having married Susan, daughter of Governor Living- 
stone of New York, she accompanied him ami her stepmother to the home 
he had founded, amid a colony of Xew* Jersey settlers, on the Ohio river, 
at North Bend, fifteen miles below Cincinnati. 

In this home, on November 22, 1795, she married Capt. AVm. Henry 
Harrison, then commandant at Fort Washington, the present site of Cin- 
cinnati. When, having resigned his commission, Captain Harrison was; 
elected first delegate to Congress from the Northwest Territory, his wife 
accompanied him to Philadelphia, spendiug most of the session, however, 
visiting his family in Charles City county, Virginia. Her home was next 
in Yincenues, Indiana Territory, her husband having been appointed first 
governor of that territory, and serving through the administrations of 
Adams, Jefferson and Madison. Here she made the governor's mansion 
for many years a most hospitable and delightful [dace for those gathered 
about him in official and social relation.-, drawing to herself many friends 
•and admirers. She was in Cincinnati when he again took the field in the 
war of 1812, and she remained there with her large family of children 
until in 1814 General Harrison resigned from the army, and made his 
home at North Bend. 


For nearly thirtv years Mrs. Harrison presided over her husband's home 
here, duriug which time one of her children died in infancy, and three 
daughters and four sons cied after reaching mature years, leaving one son 
and one daughter. She was a domestic woman, and enjoyed the quiet 
life of a farmer's wife much more than she had enjoyed the life at Vin- 
cennes, and it is said heartily rejoiced in her husband's defeat in 1836, 
believing he had done enough for his country in previous years, and 
should be left in his peaceful home in his old age. When he was elected 
president four years later, her health was such that her physicians for- 
bade her making the journey to Washington preceding his inauguration, 
nor had she joined hiin there when his sudden illness terminated in his 
death. In July, 1841, Mrs. Harrison received back her husband's re- 
mains, and laid" them beside children and grandchildren at North Bend. 
She continued to live at the old homestead until 1855, then until her 
death lived with her only surviving son, Hon. J. Scott Harrison, five 
miles below the old home. She was deeply interested in the events of the 
civil war, and notwithstanding her age and infirmities, followed with pride 
the course of her many grandsons in service. She died on the evening 
of February 25, 1864," and was buried beside her husband. 


Letitia, daughter of Robert and Mary (Brown) Christian, was born 
November VI, 1790, at Cedar Grove, her lather's homestead, in New 
Kent county, Virginia. She was one of a large family of eons and 
dautditers, and strikingly lovely, so much so as to be singled out from 
many beautiful women to be toasted as "the belle of Eastern Virginia." 
On March 2S), 1813, she became the wife of John Tyler, then a rising 
youug lawyer, the son of Governor John Tyler of Virginia. They made 
their home on a part of Governor John Tyler's " Greenway " estate, in 
Charles City county, and this, the home where her children were horn, 
and where two of them died in nfaucy, was Mrs. Tyler's favorite resi- 
dence through life. When her husband was governor of Virginia, she 
disueused charmingly the hospitalities of the executive mansion at Rich- 
mond, but rarely could be persuaded to visit the city when he was there 
as a member of "the legislature, and although he was elected three times 
to the House of Representatives and twice to the Senate, she only passed 
one winter in Washington during his long service there. 

In April, 1841, she took up her residence at the White House as the 
' wife of the tenth president, parting, with sighs and tears, from the home 
endeared to her by so many tender associations, warned by her failing 
health that she might nversce that home again. At the White House 
she was surrounded by the most tender care, her children, si.-ters and 
brothers, forming her chief society, for she was able to receive tew visits 
and returned none. Her appearance on a public occasion at the W hite 
House, that of the marriage of her third daughter, is thus described by 


her son's wife, Mrs. Robert Tyler: "Our dear mother was down stairs on 
this occasion for the first time, in so large a circle, nine she ha.-? been in 
\Vashingtou. She gained by comparison with all the tine ladies around 
her. I felt proud of her in her perfectly faultless yet unostentatious 
dress, her face shaded by the soft tine lace of her cap, receiving in h-r 
sweet, gentle, self-possessed manner all the important people who were 
led up and presented to her. Her charm, after all, proceeds from her 
entire forgetfulness of self, and her wish to make those around her 

The death of Mrs. Tyler was not anticipated by her family, although 
her continued ill health was a never-ceasing cause of anxiety. On the 
9th of September, 1#42, there was, however, a sudden and alarming 
change in her condition. Her attending physician seeim' indications of 
paralysis, from which she had already suffered, called in others of the 
faculty. Their skill was of no avail, and she died on the evening of 
September 10th. After lying in state in the East Room of the White 
Souse several days, her remains were conveyed to New Kent c uinty for 


President Tyler married secondly Julia, daughter of Hon. David 
Gardiner of Gardiners Island. New York. Mr. Gardiner was a descend- 
ant in the ninth generation from Lion Gardiner, an Englishman of note 
in his day, who served under the Prince of Orange, emigrated to Ameri- 
ca in L635, ami later purchased from the Indian chief Wyandanch the 
island that still bears his name. The mother of Mrs. Tyler was Juliana, 
daughter of Michael McLachlen, of the Highland clan of McLachlen. 
Miss Gardiner received the highest education the private schools of }sew 
York afforded, and became one of the belles of New York city upon her 
entrance into society there. Accompanying her father to Washington 
the was with him among the invited guests upon the '' Princeton," on 
February 28, 1*44. President Tyler had invited a number of distin- 
guished persons to visit the boat with him to witness the trial of her 
powers and armament. A lunch was served in the cabin, and the gen- 
tlemen of the party were called from the table to see one of the largest 
guns fired. The President remained with the ladies, but most of the 
gentlemen were on deck about the gun when it exploded, killing several, 
and mortally or severely wounding others. Among the killed was Mr. 
Gardiner. The solicitous attentions of Mr. Tyler to the daughter in her 
sudden and terrible bereavement touched her heart, while with him pity 
soon grew into love. 

On June 26, 1*44, they were married at the Church of the Ascension. 
New Y rk city, then repaired directly to Washington, where they held a 
grand reception at the White House. For the mouths that remained of 
Mr. Tyler's tenure of office, his young wife made a verv graceful and 


gracious hostess as first lady of the land. In March, 184o, they repaired 
to Sherwood Forest, his residence in Charles City county, which was their 
home until his death in 1862. The cares of a large family engaged Mrs. 
Tyler's time through these years. The children of Mr. Tyler's first mar- 
riage were tour daughters and three sons and of the second marriage five 
sons and two daughters, fourteen children in all. fie lost a great part of 
his means before the war, and what was left was swept away in that 
bloody struggle in which Virginia and Virginians lost so much. In the 
winter of 1878-9 Congress granted Mrs. Tyler a pension, upon which she 
lived in comfort until her death at the age of sixty-nine years, on July 
10, 18*9. For many years she made her home in Washington and in 
Georgetown, District of Columbia, but she died in Richmond, while vis- 
iting a son in that city. Several of her children achieved honorable 
eminence. One son, Lyon Gardiner Tyler, has been for a number of 
years president of William and Mary College, at Williamsburg, Virginia. 


Sarah, daughter of Capt. Joel and Elizabeth Childress, was born near 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on September 4, 1803. She was educated in 
the Moravian Institute at Salem, North Carolina, then returned to her 
father's home where she met and was betrothed to James Knox Polk. 
They were married in Murfreesboro when she was nineteen years old. 
Mr. Polk, was then a member of the legislature of Tennessee but in the 
following year was elected to Congress, where he served for fourteen con- 
secutive sessions, and was Speaker of the House in 1836. During this 
time Mrs. Polk spent every winter but one in Wa>hin<_ r ton, and the couple 
made their home between the sessions of Congress at Columbia, Tennessee, 
where Mr. Polk had many relatives. In 1839 when Mr. Polk was elected 
governor of Tennessee they made their home at Nashville. On March 4, 
l84o they took up their residence in the White House. 

"Handsome, intelligent ami sensible "was the summing up of Mrs. 
Polk's characteristics. The war with Mexico and other public matters 
made many outspoken antagonists to President Polk's administration, but 
concerning the gentle yet dignified lady who held sway in the White 
House there was but one opinion expressed, that she merited the praise of 
all. A distinguished gentleman from South Carolina said to Mrs. Polk 
on one of her reception nights that a woe was pronounced against her in 
the Bible, and when she asked with some embarrassment what it was, he 
quoted: "Woe unto you when all men shall speak well of you." Mrs. 
Polk was dangerously ill in the fall of 1847 and the expressions of anxiety 
and sympathy that came pouring into the White House were from men 
of all politieal shades of belief. 

On retiring from the office of chief executive Mr. Polk purchased a 
very fine mansion in Nashville, and there the few remaining years of his - 
life were passed. There when he had left her, the childless, widow lived 


alone, held in esteem ami remembrance by the people of the entire coun- 
ty fbr nearly a half century. 


Margaret Smith, boru in Maryland of a family whose settlement there 
antedated the Revolution, became in 1M0 the wife of Capt. Zachary 
Taylor, U. 8. A. In the life of President Taylor in another part of this 
work is given a svuopsis of his military service as an officer in our fron- 
tier army, in the Bhu-k Hawk war, in the Seminole war, and finally in 
the war with Mexico. When we have further said that Mrs. Taylor was- 
his companion on almost all of his campaigns, their life can be readily 
pictured. Not for her the society of the learned or the fashionable, but 
the frontier experiences of loneliness or uncongenial associations. ''For 
more than a quarter of a century/' said General Taylor when elected pres- 
ident, " my house has been the tent and my home the battle-Held." If 
Mrs. Taylor's "home " had not been the battle-field she was many times 
not far distant when he was there, and she had shared his tent for many 
years. The four children born to them she parted with as soon as they 
were old enough to leave her, in order that they might have the benefit 
of a home among schools and churches, but her own place was hesideher 

For sixteeu years following the second war with Great Britain he was 
establishing forts and looking after the government's Indian affairs od 
the western frontier, and where his headquarters were there was Mrs. 
Taylor's home. During those years her children were boru and parted 
from. When he was pursuing the Seminoles through the swamps and 
everglades of Florida, she was at Tampa Bay, and after the battle of 
Okee-Chobee she ministered to the wouuded. After the cessation of hos- 
tilities Colonel Taylor, as his title then was, and his wife remained at 
Tampa, he beiug in command of the military posts in Florida. In 1840 
he was relieved at his own request, and soon after he settled at Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana, and gathered all his family about him. A little aban- 
doned cottage within the barracks at Baton Rouge became their home, 
situated directly on the bank of the Mississippi, and which had been 
erected many years before by the commandant of the post while it was 
still in the possession of Spain. 

Fondly hoping that their days of wandering were over Mrs. Taylor ami 
her daughters set to work to make a home of the abandoned dwelling. It 
had only four rooms, but seemed to her a haven most desirable after her 
tent life, and at her request General Taylor bought the little place. All 
her stored-up house-wifely impulses were now lavished on its reconstruc- 
tion ami adornment. A garden was laid out and planted abort i*, and 
she watched over the first signs of growing vegetation with man trial so- 
licitude. The purchase of a eow or two completed her felicity, and when 
she had fresh milk and butter from her own dairy she declared that all 


her ambitious dreams were fully satisfied. On this dream of an unbroken 
family circle and a peaceful retirement came the war with Mexico, in 
which her husband played so prominent a part, followed by his election 
to the chief magistracy. Another event connected with the last yean of 
the life in the Spanish cottage was the elopement of .Sarah, the second 
daughter of General and Mrs. Taylor, with Lieut. Jefferson Davis. It 
occurred while the general, who opposed the marriage, was away from 
home, and he had not yet forgiven it when, a few months after her ro- 
mantic marriage, Mrs. Davis died. To her young and bereaved husband 
he became reconciled on the battle field of Buenos Ay res, but the daugh- 
ter whom he had condemned as " regardless of her filial obligations" was 
" beyond t he reach of his words of forgiveness. 

Thus Mrs. Taylor's life became shadowed in the few years she was mis- 
tress of the home she had looked forward to possessing for so many years. 
She remained in her cottage while General Taylor was in Mexico, the 
cheerful companionship of her third and youngest daughter Betty her 
chief consolation. It was Miss Betty who enjoyed the life in the White 
House, not her mother. Mrs. Taylor seems to have met the demands of 
etiquette, the bustle and ceremony and publicity of her position in Wash- 
ington, very much as she met her privations and dangers in the tent, as 
something to be submitted to and courageously borne, but not as some- 
thing desirable or to be voluntarily choseu. The Spanish cottage on the 
Mississippi, with her husband released from public service, with her son 
and daughters sharing their home, was and remained her ideal of a hap- 

5>y life. General Taylor's opposition to lus daughter Sarah's marriage to 
Lieutenant Davis was on the grounds of his being in the service, while he 
desired his daughters to marry civilians. But the same blood that in him 
led to the choice of arms as a profession appears to have in his daughters 
decided their choice of husbands in favor of military men. Perhaps 
warned by the unhappy consequences of his opposition to the marriage of 
one daughter, when Miss Betty elected to become the wife of his adju- 
tant general, Major Bliss, he did not oppose her. 

It was as the bride of Major Bliss Miss Betty first appeared at the 
White House where she was virtually to preside during her father's brief 
incumbency of the office of president, for Mrs. Taylor never appeared in 
the reception rooms on public occasions, and relegated to her daughter all 
the public duties she could conscientiously thus avoid. She selected for 
herself a suite of rooms in which she lived as much as possible the lite 
she would have chosen to live elsewhere, and when, on the sudden death 
of her husband, she left the White House she appeared to put all remem- 
brance of her life there away from her. I util her death the only refer- 
ence she ever made to her more than a year's stay in Washington was 
when she spoke of incidents connected with her husband's death. Mrs. 
Taylor did not long survive her husband, dying in August, 1852, at the 
residence of Colonel Tavlor, her onlv son, near Pascagoula, Louisiana. 




Abigail, youngest child of Rev. Lemuel Powers, Baptist clergyman, 
was born at Stillwater, Saratoga county, Xew York, in March, 1798. In 
February, 182b, she became the wife of Millard Fillmore, then a poor 
but ambitious lawyer of Erie county. They had been three years en- 
gaged, she giving him her promise while he was still a clothiers appren- 
tice, eking out his means to obtain a higher education by teaching a vil- 
lage school in the winter months. Poverty kept them apart, and when 
they were finally married it was to enter on a long and stern struggle 
with the same grim antagonist. Mrs. Fillmore had been well educated 
and her family connections were such that her marriage appeared to her 
friends to have been beneath her, but she more truly apprehended the 
worth of the man to whom she had given her heart, while no doubt her 
own high character helped to develop his future and increase his worth 
as only the true wife can. 

Established in the little house Mr. Fillmore built with his own hands, 
this youug wife became not only housekeeper and her own maid of all 
work, but she also resumed teaching, in which she had been engaged before 
her marriage, thus leaving her husband free from anxieties as to the needs 
of their daily life. 

She was rewarded by seeing him two years later a member of the State 
legislature. On their removal to Buffalo, she entered upon a more pub- 
lic life with a grace and ease that not only won her personal commend- 
ation from all who met her. but, what she valued more, was of material 
assistance to her husband in his career. A son and a daughter were born, 
and over their growth and training:' she watched with wise solicitude, but 
the husband was always first. Whatever advance he made in life 
she was beside him, an assistance he repaid with unremitting, tender 
watchfulness for her happiness. When by the death of President Taylor 
Mr. Fillmore became president, his wife, who had just lost a sister by 
death, did not enter on the gaieties of Washington society. But within 
the White House she became one of the must charming hostesses it had 
ever known, her daughter, Miss Mary Abigail, a charming young lady 
with great musical proficiency, ably seconding her. She was presented by 
friends of the president in New York with a fine carriage ami span of 
horses, which she found very serviceable for state occa>ions in Washing- 
ton, but the great need of the White House, to one of her attainments 
and character, was books. Up to that time the Executive Mansion hail 
been entirely destitute of books, and it was upon her suggestion of the 
desirability of this sort of furnishings that Mr. Fillmore asked of Con- 
gress and obtained an appropriation for titling out a well-selected library. 
A pleasant room in the second story of the house was chosen for the li- 
brnry, and this thereafter was Mrs. Fillmore's favorite room, where she 
received and entertained without formality the intimate friends of the 


The official routine of the White House at this time is thus described by 
a Buffalo lady who was frequently Mrs. Fillmore's guest : "The President 
and Mrs. Fillmore receive on Tuesday mornings from 12 to 2 o'clock. 
The levees are on Friday evenings, from 8 to 10, and at these there are 
generally hands of music but no dancing. Every Thursday evening there 
is a large dinner party, and frequently another on Saturday. * * * 
The routine of life at the White House does not vary materially from 
week to week. The social habits of Mr. and Mrs. Fillmore are simple 
and in accordance with those of well-bred people everywhere. Without 
ostentation or arrogance, they maintain the honor of the high position 
they have been called to occupy, with quiet dignity and ease." 

Mrs. Fillmore died in Washington, at Willard's hotel, on March 30, 
1853, twenty-six days after her husband's successor had been inaugurated. 
Her remains were taken to Buffalo, and interred in Wbodlawn cemetery 
' there on April 2d. Her daughter did not long survive her, dying on 
March 27, 1854, hut her memory was held in tender reverence by the son 
and husband to whom she had been so devoted. No better epitaph could 
be desired by woman than the tribute Mr. Fillmore paid his wife after 
her death when he said, " For twenty-seven years, my entire married lite, 
I was always greeted by a happy smile." Again he said, "I have pre- 
served every line she ever wrote" me ; I could not bear to destrov even 
the little notes she sent me on business to my office." 


The fourteenth president of the United States was born in New Hamp- 
shire, and Hampton, that State, was the place of birth of her who was to 
become his wife. Jane Means Appleton was horn in Hampton on March, 
12, 1806, the daughter of Rev. Jesse Appleton, D. D. In the year fol- 
lowing her birth Dr. Appleton became the president of Bowdoin College, 
and she was there reared amid associations and privileges which gave her 
a solidly cultivated mind such as few women of her day attained. Of a 
retiring nature and little inclined to achieve or enjoy social distinction, 
her life was uneventful until her marriage to Honorable Franklin Fierce 
in 1834. She was thus twenty-eight years of age when she took her place 
among the people of Hillsborough as the wife of its favorite son. Mr. 
Pierce was at that time a member of the National legislature, and^ was 
spoken of as "the most popular man in the District of Columbia." It 
was inevitable that the wife should be drawn into societv when the hus- 
band's presence was so much sought for, but from every visit to >\ Isling- 
ton she returned with increasing pleasure to her New England home. 

In 1838 they moved from Hillsborough to Concord, and in the latter 
citv Mrs. Pierce remained until her husband was culled to the White 
House. Three sons were the offspring of their marriage. The tir.-t died 
in infancy, the second in childhood in 1840. While Mr. Pierce was 
serviu"- in the Mexican war the remaining sou and the mother were closest 


companions in the Concord home. Her home was her world, ami in her 
husband's absence her hoy was its only light. One who knew her inti- 
mately said of her: "How well she rilled her station as wife, mother, 
daughter, sister and friend, those only can tell who knew her in these re- 
lations. In this quiet sphere she found her joy, and here her gentle hut 
powerful influence was deeply and constantly felt, through wise counsels 
and delicate suggestions, the purest, finest tastes and a devoted life." 

After Mr. Pierce's election to the presidency and in January preceding 
his inauguration, he with his wife and this only surviving son were trav- 
eling on the Boston and Maine railroad from Boston to Concord when an 
accident occurred in which the train was wrecked. The president-elect 
and his wife were but slightly injured, but the boy was killed. Judge, 
then, if ever a sadder woman presided at the White House than was Mrs. 

Her health had bj^n for years very delicate, and from the shock of 
this bereavement she never recovered. With womanly courage, the cour- 
age that conceals pain, and with wifely devotion, she performed the duties 
of her high station nobly. She was seldom absent from the president's 
public receptions ami levees, presided at the State dinners, and received 
herself on every Friday. " Mrs. Pierce was always delicate and was re- 
duced to a mere shadow after the loss of her sou," says one of her his- 
torians. And another says, "It was with the utmost difficulty she could 
endure the fatigue of standing during a reception, or sitting through the 
tedious hours of a dinner party." From March 4, 1853, to March 4, 
1857, these were her duties, well performed, but very thankfully she re- 
turned to the private home where the privilege of weeping in solitude 
was hers again. 

As soon as Mr. Pierce could arrange his affairs he took his wife abroad, in 
the vain hope of restoring her shattered constitution. Sailing in the autumn 
of 1857, six months were passed on the island of Madeira, then eighteen 
months in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France and 
England. The. fe.w remaining years of her life were passed in her native 
land, patiently ting for the summons of release. She died ou Decem- 
ber 2, 1863, at iver, Massachusetts, and three days later her remains 
were laid beside luose of her children in the cemetery at Concord. 


Mary, daughter of Hon. Robert S. Todd, of Lexington. Kentucky, 
was born in that state in 1821. A very charming child she grew into 
young ladyhood to be celebrated for her beauty, wit and lively disposition. 
Learning she never aspired to, ami many of the characteristics of earlier 
ladies in the ^ liite House she would have unquestionably pronounced 
dull and undesirable, yet she is said to have had from girlhood an am- 
bition to reign there, and to have repeatedly prophesied she would live to 
be a president's wife. It is also chronicled that among the many aspirants 

///? ( ' J( 


but the wife e<>ul<l not even learn where he was, nor could he, though in 
Nashville, communicate with her. As the summer passed her position 

became more and more painful, and her distress was augmented by the 
frequent rumors of her husband's assassination, now that he had been 
killed in Kentucky, now that he was shot in Nashville, again that he was 
a prisouer in the hands of victorious and merciless Confederates. In 
September, accompanied by her sous, her daughter, her son-in-law. Colonel 
Stover, and their children, she succeeded in joining her husband. A 
gentleman who was in Nashville at the time, thus described her journey 
and arrival: " Quite a sensation has been produced in Nashville by the 
arrival of Governor Johnson's family after incurring and escaping numer- 
ous perils while making then exodus from East Tennessee. The male 
members of the family were in danger of being hung more than once. 
They left Bristol, in the extreme northeastern part of the State, on the 
Virginia line, by permission Of the war department, accompanied by a 
small escort. Whenever it became known along the route that Andrew 
Johnson's family were on the train, the impertinent curiosity of some 
rebels was only equalled by the clamor of some others for some physical 
demonstration on Johnson's sous. Arrived at Murfreesboro, they were 
met by General Forrest, who refused to allow them to proceed, and they 
turned back to Tullahoma, but were ordered there to return to Murfrees- 
boro. At Murfreesboro again they could obtain neither lodgings nor 
transportation, and passed one night in the station without beds or food. 
Forrest then gave way to peremtory orders by telegraph from Richmond, 
and allowed them to proceed. The great joy of the reunion of this long 
and sorrowfully separated family may be imagined. I will not attempt 
to describe it. Even the governor's Roman firmness was overcome, and 
he wept tears of thankfulness at this merciful deliverance of his beloved 
ones from the hands of their unpitying persecutors.'' 

For mouths after reaching Nashville Mrs. Johnson was confined to her 
room, the result of the hardships she had undergone, the anxieties she 
had borne. During this time their eldest son, just graduated in medicine 
and appointed surgeon in the First Tennessee (Federal) Infantry, was 
killed by a fall from his horse. After the assassination of Lincoln placed 
Mr. Johnson in the White House his wife and family joined him there, 
until then remaining in Nashville. Mrs. Johnson was now a confirmed 
invalid, and shared as little as possible in the public life at the White 
House, her two daughters, Martha, wife of Senator Patterson, and Mary, 
wife of Colonel Stover, taking her place on public occasions. The cor- 
respondent of a western paper writing of her at this lime said : " Mrs. John- 
son has never appeared in society in Washington. Her very existence is 
a myth to almost every one. She was last seen at a party given to her 
grandchildren. She did not rise when the children or older guests were 
presented to her, but simply said. ' My dears, [ am an invalid,' and her 
sad, pale face and sunken eyes fully proved the truth of this. 


Soon {iftor the return of the family to their home in Greenville, the • 
mother's heart was called to mourn the sudden death of another son, Col. 
Robert Johnson, who, well and in the street at five o'clock iu the after- 
noon, was found unconscious on his bed at dark, and died about midnight 
following. The remaining years of Mrs. Johnson's life were passed in 
the monotony of the sick room. It was an event when she was able to 
join the family circle, and she never left her home. When in July. 1875, 
Mr. Johnson, then again a member of the United .States S :oate, died at 
the residence of his daughter in Carter county, Tennessee, his wife was 
not able to journey to his deathbed. His remains were brought to- Green- 
ville for interment, and six months later she was laid beside him. Mr. 
Johnson died on the 31st of July, 1675, and his widow on the loth of 
January, 187b. 


Julia, daughter of Judge Dent of Missouri, became the wife of Capt. 
Ulysses S. Grant, U. S. A., at her father's city residence in St. Louis, on 
the 22d of August, 1*4*. She had first met him at West Point, where 
her brother and he were cadets together, and they had been, by her pa- 
rents, subjected to a five years' engagement to test their constancy, in the 
hope that their feelings might undergo some change, as the marriage was 
not as brilliant ;. one as Judge Dent hoped his daughter would make. 
And, indeed, the life of a subordinate officer in the regular army is not one 
any parent- can cheerfully see a daughter elect to share. Saeketts Har- 
bor, on Lake Ontario, was the first place where Captain Chant was sta- 
tioued after their marriage, and Mrs. Grant was with him there six months, 
then for two years their home was a cottage in the barracks at Detroit. 
During this time their first son, Fred I)., was born, while his mother was. 
visiting her parents at St. Louis. The second s<>n, Ulysses, was born at 
the home of his father's parents, iu Bethel, Ohio, where Mrs. Grant was 
staying while her husband was on the Pacific coast. Nellie, the only 
daughter and Jesse, the third son, were born at Whitehaven, Judge 
Dent's country place near St. Louis, where Mrs. Grant herself was h<irn. 

During the years of Mr. Grant's hard and unsuccessful struggle to make 
a business man of himself, following his resignation from the regular 
army in 1831, and preceding his success in the war of the rebellion, his 
wife was his firm friend. Always hopeful for the future, full of faith iu 
his resources no matter how utter his failure, her cheerine.-s, her affection, 
her economies, were well appreciated by him. Their tenderness and fidel- 
ity to one another marked, indeed, every step of their varying fortunes. 

When cireumstanees had placed him iu the Held where he won the im- 
perishable renown that associates his name with the triumph of the Na- 
tion, Mrs. Grant's faith in her husband was the saint — it could he no 
stronger. Two of her recorded savings amply illustrate this. W luu he 
was made major-general a relative remarked: " Ulys>es might have got 



along as a brigadier-general, but he better be satisfied with that an<l not 
try to get higher," to which Mrs. Grant indignantly replied: "He is 
equal to a much higher one than this, ami will get it if li" lives.'' Again, 
when he had taken command of the heretofore unsuccessfully led Army 
of the Potomac, some lady friends were offering ber very doubtful con- 
gratulations, and one of them said : " Do you really think he will capture 
Richmond?" " Yes, before he gets through," promptly replied the wife. 
" Mr. Grant always was a very obstinate man. A fitting mate 
for the man who was going to fight it out if it took all summer. 
Mrs. Grant was with her husband in the field several times during the 
ivar, when he had permanent headquarters; at Fort Donelson after its 
capture, at Yicksburg after its surrender, and at Nashville, where she 
brought their children and remained until he was appointed to the chief 

They settled permanently in Washington city at the close of the war, 
and from the home they e>tabli.-hed there removed to the White House 
when General Grant became President Grant. This was Mis. Grant's 
home for eight years though, more than any other president's wife has 
done, she absented herself from the capital for long periods. Her sum- 
mers were always spent at some watering place, and she frequently went 
to St. -Louis. But for the monthsof her absenceMrs. Graut atoned when 
in Washiujftou by the brilliancy and frequency of her entertainments. 
The Whit.- House, particularly before Miss Nellie's marriage, was the 
center of the social life of Washington, and its entertainments were both 
dignified and delightful. Among the state entertainments was that ten- 
dered the duke of Edinburg, second son of Queen Victoria, and those 
in honor of Grand Duke Alexis of Russia and of King Kalakaua. 

The next event of Mrs. Grant's life after leaving the White House was 
her foreign tour, General Grant, his wife and son Jesse, sailing from 
N"ew York harbor on May 17, 1S77, and visiting England, the countries 
of the European continent, Egypt and Palestine, India, China and Japan, 
and returning by the Pacific to San Francisco in September, l*7i>. Every- 
where they were received with marked distinction, the crowned heads of 
Kingdoms and empires treating them on all occasions with courtesy shown 
only to those of stations as exalted as their own. Did Mrs. Grant not some- 
times in those days thiuk of the five years she waited for the husband 
her parents thought not a sufficiently "brilliant" match For her? To no 
other American ever was, or probably ever will be, extended such and 
so many honors. 

Again, after her husband established himself in New York, Mrs. Grant 
was called to pass through strange vicissitudes of fortune. First came 
the financial disasters in which her husband was involved through others, 
and which both met with a calm heroism and desire to sacrifice all. their 
good name standbier with both far above the most precious possessions 
years of honor had brought them. Then torturing disease that could 



have but one end laid bold upon the husband she loved so devotedly, and 
for months the wife ministered to him while, with an "obstinacy" none 
other could have shown, he held disease in check and death at hay until 
he could complete the "Memoirs" of his life. Not that his fame might 
be conserved thereby, but that — oh, loving thought and tender deed! — 
that he might thereby provide for the faithful companion he left behind. 
This faithful companion was beside him to the end, brave for his sake to 
the end, but sorrowing as one for whom there is nothing left when all 
that could be done for him had been done, it is pleasant to know that 
the Memoirs did bring to Mis. Grant the returns her husband had hoped 
for, which, with the pension voted by Congress, provided well for her re- 
maining years. 


A sweet and gracious lady presided at the White House during 'he four 
years it was the official residence of the nineteenth president Lucy, 
daughter of Dr. James Webb, was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1833. 
Her father died the same year of cholera, in Lexington, Kentucky, his 
home in earlier years, and to which he had returned to complete arrange- 
ments for sending to Liberia slaves who had been set free by him and his 
father. The orphaned infant was fortunate in possessing a mother of 
great force of character, of Puritan ancestry, the daughter of Dr. Isaac 
Cook, a pioneer settler in Chillicothe. Mrs. Webb removed from Chilli- 
cothe to Delaware, Ohio, in order that her .»ous might be educated in the 
Weslevan university in the last named place. The advantages thus given 
to the sous were in a great measure shared by the (laughter. She .-bared 
her brothers' studies, and recited to the college professors, and by this 
training fitted herself to enter the first college chartered for young women 
when that institution opened in Cincinnati, where she remained until she 
completed its course of study. 

On December 30, 1852, she became the wife of Rutherford B. Hayes, 
their marriage solemnized by Prof. L. D. McCabeof the Wesleyan uni- 
versity. Mr. Haves was then practicing law in Cincinnati, and their 
home Was in that city for a number of years. It was a happy union, and 
the home life of this" well-mated, educated, intellectual. Christian couple 
was a model of the id?al American home. When the lawyer became the 
soldier, the wife also found a fitting sphere of labor. She was for two 
summers and one winter in the field, caring like a mother for the men of 
the Twenty-Third Ohio infantry, the regiment in which her husband was 
first major, then colonel, before his promotion to command of a brigade. 
When Colonel Haves was severely wounded at South Mountain, his wife 
joined him at Middletown, Maryland, where he was lying in care of one 
of her brothers, who was surgeon of the Twenty-Thi'il. On his conval- 
escence she gave much of her time to the Union and Confederate wounded 
in the hospitals, reading to them, writing their letters, carrying them del- 
icacies, ami ministering to their varied wants. 


During the years Mr. Hayes was a member of Congress, Mrs. Hayes 
usually passed her winters in Washington, and her summers in Spiegel 
Grove, their home in Fremont, and they resided in Columbus while he 
was governor of Ohio. Then came the four years during which .-he was 
the lady of die White House while her husband was the chief executive 
of the Nation. Iu all these places Mrs. Hayes eo worthily fulfilled the 
duties which devolved upon her as to cause the hearts of all true women 
of the country to swell with pride that one so noble, so charming, bo dig- 
nifierl, so able, was their representative in these high places. Her de- 
cision that wine should never be offered guests at the White House, even 
at state dinners, was a stand never before or since taken, but was the only 
consistent stand for one who had occupied toward the temperance move- 
ment the position Mrs. Hayes had occupied, and she was never inconsist- 
ent. She was unaffectedly delighted with the honor conferred upon he: 
husband in his election to the presidency, and her own consequent posi- 
tion, and one who attended her first Saturday afternoon reception, four 
weeks after the inauguration said : "She made no effort to conceal her 
delight. Her face was positively radiant." 

In all places Mrs. Haves delighted to receive and entertain guests, and 
no lady of the White House ever had more visitors than she. None cer- 
tainly ever entertained so great a variety of guests, ranging from the 
country friends and poor relations whom she loved to bring to Washing- 
ton and give a glimpse of its social splendors, to all grades of home and 
foreign dignitaries, the Grand Dukes Alexis and Constantine of Russia 
included in the last named class. Another innovation of Mrs. Hayes 
upon the established etiquette of the White House was iu the matter of 
dress. A decolette dress was iu her opinion not necessarily a part of the 
regime of her station, and her sweet and gracious presence was never 
lessened by a toilet that would have been uncharacteristic. In nothing 
was her unassuming but firm individualism more marked than in her 
manner of dressing according to her own custom, and not according to 
her predecessors' custom, in these four years. Her dresses were always of 
the richest materials, but simply made, high at the neck, with sleeves 
reaching to the wri-ts; Hue laces with flowers were her ornaments, never 
jewelry; her hair plainly eoitfured, never puffed or artificially curled or 
frizzed. On the occasion of the inauguration oue of the most brilliant 
correspondents that ever port raved Washington life, Mary Clemmer, 
wrote: "Meantime, on this man of whom, every one in the nation is at 
this moment thinking, a fair woman between two little children locks 
down. She has a singularly gentle and winning face. It looks out from 
the bands of smooth dark hair with that tender light in the eves which we 
have come to associate- always with the Madonna. I have never seen 
such a face reign in the White House. 1 wonder what the world of 
Vanity Fair will do with it? Will it friz that hair? powder that face? 
draw those sweet, full lines awry with pride? bare those shoulders? shorten 


those sleeves? hide John Wesley's discipline out of sight as it poses and 

minces before the first lady of the land? What will she do with it, this 
woman of the hearth and home *? Strong as she is fair, will she have the 
grace to use it as not abusing it, to be in it yet not of it? Priestess of a 
religion pure and undefiled, will she hold the white lamp of her woman- 
hood, unshaken and unsullied, high above the heated crowd that fawns, 
and flatters, and spoils?" Without doubt these questions were in the 
minds of many concerning Mrs. Hayes at the beginning of her husband's 
administration. But hers was a character founded upon a rock, and not 
upon the sand. The noble woman she was at the beginning of her life 
as the wife of a public official, she remained. 

One of the prettiest incidents connected with her life at the White 
House was the celebration there, on December 30, 1877, of the silver 
wedding of President and Mrs. Hayes. Rev. Dr. McCabe, who had 
married them, was present to give them his benediction in the presence of 
their five children. On the following evening they entertained one hun- 
dred guests, so far as possible including those who had attended their 
wedding reception in Ohio twenty-five years before. It had been posi- 
tively announced by the president that they would receive no presents, 
yet one was sent that could not be refused. It came from members of 
the old Twenty-Third Ohio, a silver plate on a mat of black velvet, 
framed in ebony. On the plate appeared sketches of the battered battle- 
flags of the regiment and of the hut in the Kanawha valley which was 
General Haves' headquarters, winter of l8b3-4, and below the sketches 
the inscription : 

To Thee, "Mother of Ours," from the 23d 0. V. T. To Thee, our Mother, 
on thy silver troth, we bring this token of our love. Thy boys give greeting 
to thee with burning hearts. Take the hoarded treasures" of thy speech, kind 
words — gentle when a gentle word was worth thesurjrery of a hundred schools 
to heal siek thought and make our bruises whole. Take it, our mother: 'tis 
but some small part of thy rare beauty we give hack to thee, and while love 
speaks in silver, from our hearts well bribe old Father Time to spare his gift. 

The brilliancy of the social life at the White House was unvaried 
through the time Mrs. Haves resided there. Its entertainments were all 
on a scale of magnificent elegance ; its hospitality unstinted ; its courtesies 
extended alike to all who came within its circle. No untoward event marred 
the picture that is set for all coining generations to study of what the 
highest home in the land can be when a woman who is the highest tvpe of 
womanhood is its presiding genius. From the White House Mr. and 
Mrs. Haves returned directly to their home in Fremont. Those who knew 
Mrs. Haves in the years that followed know that they were the happiest 
years of her lite. An ambition she had felt for the high position to which 
she had been called, but that ambition had been amply satisfied, and left 
no desire for anything but the quiet life that followed it. To one who 
asked her, while she was the president's wife, if she did not sometimes 
tire of the necessary accompanying round of duties toward the public. 



Mrs. Hayes had answered: "Oh, no, I am never tired of having a good 
time." But in resuming the private home life she found ju^t as many 
opportunities for a "good time." Her benefactions to the poor were un- 
ceasing; her care for the sick of their village was like tier care for the 
soldiers in the; held; her children, her husband, her housewifely duties, 
her duties to her church and to her neighbors, tilled her hours with some- 
thing to do and to enjoy, an enjoyment as keen as had accompanied all 
her other stations. 

Suddenly this beautiful life was ended. Mrs. Hayes was stricken with 
paralysis, and after only a few days' illness, during which husband and child- 
ren watched with agonized longing for one more word of love from the 
lips that had never uttered any But lovely and loving words, she passed 
out into the great unknown her life had so well fitted her to enter upon, 
dying on June 25, 1889, at the age of fifty-six years. 


The wife of James Garfield was born in Ohio, her father Zubulon Ru- 
dolph, a farmer near Garretsville, and one of the founders of Hiram col- 
lege. Her mother was a daughter of Elijah Mason of Lebanon, Con- 
necticut, and on the maternal side descended from Gen. Nathaniel Greene. 
For several years Lucretia Rudolph and James Garfield attended the 
same school, Geauga seminary, where they were even then looked upon 
as boy and girl lovers. When he became a teacher in Hiram college she 
was his pupil, studying Latin under his guidance for two years, and so 
thoroughly that twenty years later she was competent to teach their boys 
that language, in their course Of study fitting themselves for college. Mr. 
Garfield was made principal id' Hiram college, and on November 11, 
1858, Miss Rudolph became his wife. In 1860 they removed to Colum- 
bus, Mr. Garfield having been elected State senator. The next vear he 
entered the army, and his family returned to Hiram, where, later, with 
8800 saved from her husband's army pay, she boughtthe modest house 
and lot which was their home until 1870. In the last named vear Mr. 
Garfield purchased a residence in Washington, where he had then been 
several years a member of Congress. " Lawnthld," at Mentor, the last 
home of tin? family was purchased in 1880, and the house erected on plans 
' drawn by Mrs. Garfield. This was designed by Mr. and Mrs Garfield to 
be their real home, their resting-place from public life, where they could 
live surrounded by their children, in the retirement both desired. It was 
never their privilege, alter the very first years following their marriage, 
to live this life which was their preference. From 1803, when General 
Garfield was called from the field to a seat in Congress, until that awful 
tragedy in which his life ended, he was constantly in high official position, 
and hiswife called upon to sustain her part in the social life consequent 
upon such position. Two tributes, one from a stranger, and one from him 
who was nearest and dearest, fittingly and sufficiently delineate Mrs. Gar- 


field's character. A Washington correspondent, writing of her, said: ''.She 
was in Washington city during the years of extravagance, when almost 
every Congressman's wife had a carriage, and every house competed for 
brilliant visitors. She lived through that time as it" belonging to a differ- 
ent social scale. She would not refuse to see anybody, but was seldom 
dressed as if ready for company. She never apologized for her appear- 
ance, and she made visits about twice or three times a year, generally call- 
ing on foot but never failing to please with the sweetness of her counte- 
nance, the beauty of her eyes, and a self-restraint and reserve perfectly 
natural." And the following meed of praise was rendered by Mr. Garfield 
to his wife, at the time he reached the highest position in the land : " I 
have been singularly fortunate in marrying a woman who has never given 
me any perplexity about anything she has said. I have never had to 
explain away any words of hers. She has been so prudent that I have 
never been diverted from my work for one moment to take up any mis- 
takes of hers. She is perfectly unstampedable. When things get worst 
and there is the most public clamor, and the most danger to me, and to 
us, she is the coolest. Sometimes it looks a little blue to me, but I get 
courage from her perfect bravery." 

On the inauguration of President Garfield, March 4, 1881, the most 
touching incident of the occasion was when, the oath of office having 
been administered by Chief Justice Waite, the newly made president 
turned to the center of the platform behind him where sat his wife and 
mother, and reverently kissed the two noble women to whom he owed sc 
much of what he was. The mother was eighty years of age when she 
thus saw her youngest son made the head of the Nation, and, singularly 
enough, she is the only mother who has ever witnessed the inauguration 
of a son as president of the United States. 

" She is such a homebody," the ladies of Washington said of Mrs. 
Garfield when she became the mistress of the White House, and there 
was much speculation as to what would be the social life while she pre- 
sided there. This life began auspiciously, and none foresaw its sombre 
ending. On the Saturday evening following the inauguration Mrs. Gar- 
field gave her first public reception as the president's wife. Her costume 
was beautiful and appropriate. A ruby velvet dress, en princess, with 
sultan red satin ribbon trimmings, open neck and elbow sleeves filled with 
delicate lace. During the summer following several afternoon receptions 
were given, in which the wives of the members of Mr. Garfield'.- cabinet, 
themselves ladies of distinguished "position in Washington, assisted, and 
all things appeared to promise a most brilliant winter for Washington 
society. At times the five children of the family were also at the 
White House, Harry, James, Mollie, Irwin and Abram, although all 
were too young to appear in society. 

In June Mrs. Garfield became seriously ill, and on her partial recovery 
she was taken to Long Branch. There, on Saturday, July 2d, while 


awaiting the arrival of her husband, she received the tidings winch wen 
at the same hour thrilling all hearts in the Nation with borror: "Presi 
dent Garfield was shot this morning, as he was about to take the limited 
express to join his wile." All hearts thrilled with horror, but none could 
know or share the anguish of wife and mother and children. We have 
in previous pages given the details of that tragedy and of the wifely de- 
votion which sustained Mrs. Garfield until the end. On the day succeed- 
ing the funeral services in Cleveland Mrs. Garfield left that city for 
Mentor in the mourning car in which she had journeyed from Long 
Branch. With her were her children, the president's mother, and other 
members of their household. She had been, newly-risen from a sick bed, 
for eighty-one days battling with death to keep a life dearer than her own, 
and she had lost die battle. She had passed from the unknown school 
girl and school teacher through all phases of honorable fame for a woman 
to be the first lady of the land. Her social triumphs, like her fight with 
death, had been for another. For herself there was no life left when he 
was gone, except through her children. Returning to Mentor Mrs. Gar- 
field lived henceforth in retirement, her home alternating between Mentor 
and Cleveland. Congress voted to her a pension of $5,000 a year. 


When Chester Alan Arthur was made by the death of Garfield the 
chief executive of the Nation, he had already loved, won, wedded and 
buried a most lovely companion. Ellen Lewis Herndon, who in 1859 be- 
came hiswife, was the daughter of Lieu tenant-Commander Herndon. U. Si 
N., who wentdownin the wreck of his ship, the " Central America, "ofFCape 
Hatteras. Captain Herndon was a Virginian, as was his wife, who was a 
sister of Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury, and their daughter was 
born in that State. She entered society in New York city in the winter of 
1858-9, and there met Mr. Arthur, whose wife she became the following 
autumn. They had three children, a sou named Alan, a daughter named 
Nelly, and one sou who died in infancy. Mr. Arthur's home was in New 
York, and there Mrs. Arthur died in January, 1880, of pneumonia, after 
only three days' illness. She was a woman beautiful in person and char- 
acter, of whom a friend at her death said : " To win such a love as she won 
in life, to leave behind so dear a memory as she has left is the lot of but 
few mortals." Mrs. Arthur hail a most beautiful voice which hail been 
carefully trained, and frequently sang in public for the benefit of various 
charities. Her husband mourned his loss in her death with a faithfulness 
that knew no shadow of turning. He associated her with him in his 
Washington life by placing a memorial window in the church where he 
worshipped, and in the White House hi' daily placed a fresh bouquet, of the 
flowers she had loved, beneath her picture. His sister, Mrs. McElroy, 
presided at the White House during his incumbency. 


iSouth. Such was the man whom President Buchanan in March, 1857, 
placed at the head of the department of the interior, and allowed to re- 
main there until he voluntarily resigned January 7, L861, on the ground 
that the attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter was in violation of an under- 
standing entered into in the cabinet. Mr. Thompson was at that time 
acting as an official commissioner from Mississippi to urge secession on 
other Southern States, and after his resignation became one of the most 
zealous supporters of that movement: lie was governor of Mississippi 
1862-4, and in military service as aide on Beauregard's staff and. as. Liv- 
spector-general of the department of Mississippi- 
Buchanan's first postmaster-general was Aaron V. Brown, who died 
in office at Washington, on March M, 1859, Joseph Holt succeeding him. 
Mr. Brown was born in Brunswick county, Virginia, August 15, 1795. 
and removed in early manhood to Tennessee, where he was for a term of 
years a law-partner of James K. Polk. He was a member of the Tenn- 
essee legislature, 1821-32; of Congress, 1839-45; then governor of 

When Jeremiah II. Black became secretary of state in December, 1860, 
President Buchanan appointed as his successor in the office of attorney- 
general, Edwin M. Stanton. The parents of Edwin MeMasters Stanton: 
were of Quaker origin, and removed from Culpeper county, Virginia, to- 
Steubenville,'Ohio, where he was born December 19, 1814. After study- 
ing at Kenyon college, he went to Columbus, and was employed there as 
a bookseller's elerk while studying law. He was admitted to practice at 
Columbus in 1836, and lived first at Cadiz, then in Steubenville. He was 
prosecuting attorney of Harrison county in 1837, reporter of decisions of 
the supreme court of Ohio, 1839-42. In 1848 he removed to Pittsburg ; 
in 1857 to Washington. In the few months he was attorney-general he 
was of great service to the government by his able and constant super- 
vision of the affairs of his department. He went out of office with Pres- 
ident Buchanan, but on January 13, 1862, was called to Lincoln's cabinet, 
succeeding Secretary Seward in the war department. It was in the dis- 
charge of the duties of this office his lasting fame was achieved and his life- 
was worn out. Never before had such a responsibility devolved upon the 
head of the war department as in the years 1861-5, ami Secretary Stan- 
ton shirked neither duties nor responsibilities. He was indefatigable in* 
his labors; exacting so much of his subordinates that his assistants one 
after another broke down ; so imperative in his orders and so arbitrary in 
his rulings that almost every man who attempted to withstand them went 
down before him. Even President Lincoln had difficulty in carrying a 
decision through a cabinet meeting, if Secretary Stanton opposed it. The 
orders of the highest generals in the field were interfered with too much, 
and too often countermanded, by the secretary of war. Ami yet he was 
the right man in the right place, and the only general who successfully 
withstood him, and had his own way in spite of him, generously recog- 


nizes this. Grant, in his "Memoirs," says he had now ami then " a little 
spat" with Stanton, and, although Grant does not say so, in every "spat" 
Grant came out best. This is Grant's tribute to .Stanton, well worthy of 
record as the fair measure of the man by one who was not afraid to dis- 
agree with him: " He [Stanton] wasamau who never questioned his own 
authority, and who always did in war time what he wanted to do. He 
was an able constitutional lawyer and jurist ; but the constitution was not 
an impediment to him while the war lasted. In this latter particular I 
entirely agree with the view he evidently held. The Constitution was not 
framed with a view to any such rebellion us that of 1*1)1-5. While it 
did not authorize rebellion it made no provision against it. Yet the right 
to resist or suppress rebellion is as inherent as the right of self-defence, 
and as natural as the right of an individual to preserve his life when in 
jeopardy. The Constitution was therefore in abeyance for the time being, 
60 far as it in any way affected the progress and termination of the war." 
This should be sufficient answer to the only charge that' can be brought 
against Secretary Stanton, that he in his office exceeded the authority it 
vested in him. And if he was hard on others, he spared not himself. For 
months during the darkest days of the war, he slept and ate in his office, 
continuing his work until two and three o'clock in the morning, and re- 
suming it with the break of day. He remained in charge of the depart- 
ment under President Johnson, to whom he made himself so obnoxious 
that Johnson suspended him on August 12, 1867. The Senate reinstated 
him January 14, 1868, but he resigned in May following on the failure 
of the impeachment trial. On December 20, 1869, he was appointed judge 
of the United States Supreme Court, but he died before the papers were 
made out, at Washington, December 24th. He gave his life for his coun- 
try as literally as did any man who fell on the battle-field. 

Lincoln's Administration (One Term and a Part), March 4, 1*61, to 
April 15, 1865. Secretary of State, William H. Seward. Secretary 
of Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, William P. Fessenden, Hugh Me- 
Culloch. Secretaries of War, Simon Cameron, Fdwin M. Stanton. 
Secretary of Navy, Gideon Welles. Secretaries of Interior, Caleb B. 
Smith, John P. Usher. Postmasters-General, Montgomery Blair, 
William Dennison. Attorneys-General, Edward Bates, James Speed. 
William II. Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state, was born in Flori- 
da, New York, ou May 16, 1801, a sou of Dr. Samuel S. and Mary 
(Jennings) Seward. He was graduated from the Union college in 1820, 
taught school while studying law, began practice at Auburn, New York, 
in 1*23, and soon acquired reputation as an able criminal lawyer. In 
1824 he married Frances Adeline, daughter of Judge Elijah Miller. In 
1828 he was president of a State convention of young nun favoring the 
re-election of John Quiuey Adams, and iu the following year he published 
his first work, a life of Adams. His complete works, including eorres- 



pondence and speeches, were published in four volumes, 1853-62, In 
1830-4 he was State senator ; elected governor of New York in 1838, and 
again in 1840; United States senator, 1849—61; secretary of state through 
the administrations of Lincoln and Johnson. Mr. Seward's national fame 
in politics began in 1832, with his speech in favor of the United States 
bank, and as a leader of the Whig party he exercised a marked influence 
on national events. Pie supported Clay in 1844, and Taylor in 1848 ; 
opposed the annexation of Texas, and firmly resisted the extension of 
slavery. ' For his speeches against the compromise of 1850, the Missouri 
compromise and slavery in Kausas, he became a man marked out for the 
hatred of the pro-slavery party and he richly earned their execrations. 
One of the first to recognize the "irrepressible conflict," a phrase of hid 
own, between slavery and freedom, he was active in founding the Repub- 
lican party, and one of the ablest of its supporters. In 1856 he labored 
for Fremont's nomination on the Republican ticket; in 1860 was himself 
a presidential candidate, but from the hour of Lincoln's nomination gave 
him his heartiest support. In the state department he ably solved the 
much perplexed questions of foreign policy through the years when so 
many foreign nations openly hoped and secretly plotted for the overthrow 
of the Republic. After the war he approved of President Johnson's re- 
construction policy, which he had the courage to support against the 
practically unanimous sentiment of the Republican party, Mr. Seward 
barely escaped assassination at the time President Lincoln's life was sacri- 
ficed. He had been thrown from his carriage and seriously injured, and 
was .lying in his house in Washington, with broken arm and jaw, on the 
night of April 14, 1865. An accomplice of Booth, Lewis Payne, alias 
Powell, succeeded in entering the house, and after breaking the skull of 
the secretary's son, Frederic, reached the secretary's bedside and stabbed 
him in the face and neck several times. The assassin was seized by an 
invalid soldier named Robinson, who was nursing Mr. Seward, and a 
struggle ensued during which the servants of the house were aroused, and 
the cries of the secretary's daughter brought help from the street. Payne 
escaped for the time, was subsequently arrested, tried ami hanged. In 
1869 Mr. Seward made a western tour to California, Oregon and Alaska ; 
in 1870 went abroad; but his shattered health was not restored. In Oc- 
tober, 1871, he returned to his home in Auburn, New York, and he died 
there on October V\ 1*72. 

Lincoln's first secretary of the treasury, and one of the ablest that ever 
held that office, was Salmon* P. Chase. Salmon Portland Chase was 
born at Cornish, Xew Hampshire, on January 13, 1808. Losing his 
father in boyhood he went to Ohio, to the home of his uncle, Bishop 
Philander Chase, of the Protestant Episcopal church, founder oii Ken- 
yon college and the Gfanibier Theological seminary. By this good man 
he was cared for until he collegiate studies at Cincinnati college and Dart- 
mouth eollege were ended. He then taught school and studied law in 


Washington, and was admitted to the Bar there in 1829. In 1830 he be- 
gan practice in Cincinnati. His eminence in the profession wa< mani- 
fested in his compilation of the statutes of Ohio, which superseded all 
others. He was also soon recognized as the great legal champion of the 
anti-slavery party. He was the organizer in Ohio of the Liberty party, 
the object of which was the abolition of slavery, and the existence of 
which was terminated after one presidential campaign, in which Jamed 
(jr. Birney was its presidential candidate. In 1*46 he was elected United 
States senator by the Democrats of the Ohio legislature, but his views on 
the slavery question soon caused his separation from that party, from 
which he separated on the nomination of Pierce. He opposed the con.- 
promise of 1850 ; iu 1854 exposed the fallacies of the Kansas-Nebraska 
bill, and on every occasion arrayed himself against the interests of the 
slave-holders and the extension of slavery. The only concession ever 
offered by him to that interest was in the peace convention of 1861, when 
he proposed the compensation of slave-owners for the loss of fugitive 
slaves. From 1855 to 1859 he was governor of Ohio; in 1856 supported 
Fremont for president. Before the Republican convention at Chicago in 
1860 he was a candidate for president; receiving forty-nine votes on the 
first ballot. He supported Lincoln's candidacy and was appointed secre- 
tary of the treasury by him. In this office, at that time second in im- 
portance only to the war department, he proved an able financier. The 
policy by which he carried the country through its greatest financial strait 
was the issue of United States nou-iiiterest bearing, legal-tender notes, 
known as greenbacks ; borrowing money upon bonds maturing at dirlerent 
dates with interest payable only in gold, and the national banking system. 
On June 30, 1864, Mr. Chase resigned. He had become too greatly swayed 
by his own presidential aspirations to be in thorough sympathy with Mr. Lin- 
coln, but the bitterness with which he complained of being driven from the 
cabinet injured only himself, and he failed to receive the presidential 
nomination from the Republican party in 1864. On the death of Chief- 
Justice Taney the president appointed Mr. Chase his successor. As chief- 
justice Mr. Chase presided over the court of impeachment before which 
President Johnson was tried. The opinion prevailed that he favored the 
president's acquittal, and from that time Mr. Chase l